Counselling in W1H

Photo of Meadhbh Raftery, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Meadhbh Raftery
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
The world can be a tough place to be at times. Employing a professional to help you work through and make sense of your experiences is one of the best investments you can make for health, happiness and success. From bespoke therapy with me, you can expect a safe and non-judgmental space in which I will bring neuro and psychoeducation, contemporary psychodynamic theory, and a repertoire of evidence-based skills and techniques such as those from the person-centred approach and cognitive behavioural therapies. My style is warm and empowering and my work is driven by compassionate care and a passion for improving quality of life.
The world can be a tough place to be at times. Employing a professional to help you work through and make sense of your experiences is one of the best investments you can make for health, happiness and success. From bespoke therapy with me, you can expect a safe and non-judgmental space in which I will bring neuro and psychoeducation, contemporary psychodynamic theory, and a repertoire of evidence-based skills and techniques such as those from the person-centred approach and cognitive behavioural therapies. My style is warm and empowering and my work is driven by compassionate care and a passion for improving quality of life.
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Photo of Dr Keren Smith, Psychologist in W1H, England
Dr Keren Smith
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
London W1H  (Online Only)
Dr Keren Smith worked for the NHS at South London and Maudsley Foundation Trust from 2009 until 2022 where she and her colleagues set up the pioneering National and Specialist Dialectical Behaviour Therapy service for adolescents. Keren has seen clients independently since 2012 and works with both adults and adolescents with a wide range of difficulties. She has a particular interest in working with people with a history of trauma and symptoms associated with PTSD and CPTSD; she has completed further training in specialist trauma focused models including EMDR and DBT-PE.
Dr Keren Smith worked for the NHS at South London and Maudsley Foundation Trust from 2009 until 2022 where she and her colleagues set up the pioneering National and Specialist Dialectical Behaviour Therapy service for adolescents. Keren has seen clients independently since 2012 and works with both adults and adolescents with a wide range of difficulties. She has a particular interest in working with people with a history of trauma and symptoms associated with PTSD and CPTSD; she has completed further training in specialist trauma focused models including EMDR and DBT-PE.
020 8106 4754 View 020 8106 4754
Photo of Erin Oberholtzer, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Erin Oberholtzer
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
London W1H  (Online Only)
I use a wide variety of approaches tailored to each client and their goals. I believe people are experts of their life and experience, but can become stuck in old patterns. These pattens may lead us to unhelpful and distressing behaviours, emotions and thoughts, without realising how we have ended up there. Therapy can be a highly effective space for examining how these patterns came to be, why they came to be, and work towards changing them. I feel my role as a therapist is to act as a collaborator, observer and interlocutor to explore these patterns and create a new pathway forward. I do this with my clients by exploring the int
I use a wide variety of approaches tailored to each client and their goals. I believe people are experts of their life and experience, but can become stuck in old patterns. These pattens may lead us to unhelpful and distressing behaviours, emotions and thoughts, without realising how we have ended up there. Therapy can be a highly effective space for examining how these patterns came to be, why they came to be, and work towards changing them. I feel my role as a therapist is to act as a collaborator, observer and interlocutor to explore these patterns and create a new pathway forward. I do this with my clients by exploring the int
020 3910 8427 View 020 3910 8427
Photo of Farah Chowdhury, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Farah Chowdhury
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
6 Endorsed
Not accepting new clients
I provide a space for you to be seen and heard. One where you can explore, be curious, learn more about yourself and importantly, a space for you to just be. Sometimes we all need a warm and safe space to connect with what’s going on, who we are and our hopes and dreams for the future. I hope we can do this together, in a way that feels right to you.
I provide a space for you to be seen and heard. One where you can explore, be curious, learn more about yourself and importantly, a space for you to just be. Sometimes we all need a warm and safe space to connect with what’s going on, who we are and our hopes and dreams for the future. I hope we can do this together, in a way that feels right to you.
020 3909 9743 View 020 3909 9743
Photo of Poonam Mehta, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Poonam Mehta
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1H  (Online Only)
As an integrative psychotherapist, I use different combinations of therapeutic tools and approaches to suit individual needs. ‘Integrative psychotherapy’ is a more progressive form of therapy than traditional singular forms of psychotherapy, drawing elements from different schools of thought to make it a more flexible and inclusive form of treatment that’s suitable for a wide range of emotional health issues.
As an integrative psychotherapist, I use different combinations of therapeutic tools and approaches to suit individual needs. ‘Integrative psychotherapy’ is a more progressive form of therapy than traditional singular forms of psychotherapy, drawing elements from different schools of thought to make it a more flexible and inclusive form of treatment that’s suitable for a wide range of emotional health issues.
020 3322 7924 View 020 3322 7924
Photo of Thomais Pelekanou, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Thomais Pelekanou
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified
Welcome! I am Thomais, an Accredited Psychotherapist with over 20 years of successful practice helping people to resolve their problems and reach their full potential. I have a proven record of clients regaining their power and fulfilling their goals. I have developed a sensitive, however fast, way of reaching results. Clients ' individuality is respected in a safe and confidential space, and I use a tailor-made, all-embracing approach to help people reach awareness and resolution. Contact me to arrange a consultation and see your best self surface, creating the life you always dreamed and deserve.
Welcome! I am Thomais, an Accredited Psychotherapist with over 20 years of successful practice helping people to resolve their problems and reach their full potential. I have a proven record of clients regaining their power and fulfilling their goals. I have developed a sensitive, however fast, way of reaching results. Clients ' individuality is respected in a safe and confidential space, and I use a tailor-made, all-embracing approach to help people reach awareness and resolution. Contact me to arrange a consultation and see your best self surface, creating the life you always dreamed and deserve.
020 4524 2937 View 020 4524 2937
Photo of Tony Georgiadis, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Tony Georgiadis
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Embarking on a therapeutic journey can be a daunting and uncomfortable experience. However, reading this page shows your determination to take that first pivotal step towards gaining a deeper understanding of yourself and addressing what may not be serving you. As your therapist, I will embrace a non-judgmental, reflective approach driven by careful listening, curiosity and empathy. This approach will enable us to engage in a deep exploration of your experiences and feelings, ways of relating to others as well as the underlying cause of recurring choices and patterns that may be getting in the way of living a more fulfilling life.
Embarking on a therapeutic journey can be a daunting and uncomfortable experience. However, reading this page shows your determination to take that first pivotal step towards gaining a deeper understanding of yourself and addressing what may not be serving you. As your therapist, I will embrace a non-judgmental, reflective approach driven by careful listening, curiosity and empathy. This approach will enable us to engage in a deep exploration of your experiences and feelings, ways of relating to others as well as the underlying cause of recurring choices and patterns that may be getting in the way of living a more fulfilling life.
020 3912 8152 View 020 3912 8152
Photo of Proscovia Oneka, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Proscovia Oneka
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
My mission is to empower individuals in their pursuit of an enhanced quality of life. I aim to guide you in cultivating deeper self-awareness and rediscovering inner resilience, all while inspiring the recognition of your limitless potential. I'm dedicated to establishing a strong therapeutic alliance. My commitment is to assist you in overcoming life's challenges, and my values as a therapist emphasise inclusivity and respect for diversity.
My mission is to empower individuals in their pursuit of an enhanced quality of life. I aim to guide you in cultivating deeper self-awareness and rediscovering inner resilience, all while inspiring the recognition of your limitless potential. I'm dedicated to establishing a strong therapeutic alliance. My commitment is to assist you in overcoming life's challenges, and my values as a therapist emphasise inclusivity and respect for diversity.
020 3984 7830 View 020 3984 7830
Photo of Dr Charlotte Priestley, Psychologist in W1H, England
Dr Charlotte Priestley
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, with extensive experience supporting clients with a broad range of mental health difficulties both within the NHS and in the private sector. I specialise in the treatment of eating disorders, appearance-related concerns and body image problems (including Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD).
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, with extensive experience supporting clients with a broad range of mental health difficulties both within the NHS and in the private sector. I specialise in the treatment of eating disorders, appearance-related concerns and body image problems (including Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD).
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Photo of Andrew Rutherford, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Andrew Rutherford
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
Hello, I'm Andrew and I'm an integrative psychotherapist. What do I mean by integrative? Well, it has been reliably shown that there is no overall 'best therapy'. What works for one person does not necessarily work for another, even if their issues are similar. You might have heard about psychoanalysis, person-centred counselling, or CBT. These are just a few of a number of therapeutic approaches. Each type of therapy offers different potentials for change. For over forty years now there has been a movement towards integrating these approaches to better meet a person's individual needs.
Hello, I'm Andrew and I'm an integrative psychotherapist. What do I mean by integrative? Well, it has been reliably shown that there is no overall 'best therapy'. What works for one person does not necessarily work for another, even if their issues are similar. You might have heard about psychoanalysis, person-centred counselling, or CBT. These are just a few of a number of therapeutic approaches. Each type of therapy offers different potentials for change. For over forty years now there has been a movement towards integrating these approaches to better meet a person's individual needs.
020 3962 0926 View 020 3962 0926
Photo of Elliot Nelson, Counsellor in W1H, England
Elliot Nelson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
We all have a story that needs to be told, and I want to give you the gift of therapy that will equip you and move you towards being your most authentic self, whatever that looks like for you. As an Integrative Counsellor, my work considers your whole story in context, the historical value of experiences and the present-day application. The individuals I work with come from various backgrounds, so I work with a culturally sensitive and accommodating trauma-informed approach. They want to work on relational difficulties, sexual addictions, shame, unprocessed loss, transitioning to adulthood, and midlife crisis.
We all have a story that needs to be told, and I want to give you the gift of therapy that will equip you and move you towards being your most authentic self, whatever that looks like for you. As an Integrative Counsellor, my work considers your whole story in context, the historical value of experiences and the present-day application. The individuals I work with come from various backgrounds, so I work with a culturally sensitive and accommodating trauma-informed approach. They want to work on relational difficulties, sexual addictions, shame, unprocessed loss, transitioning to adulthood, and midlife crisis.
020 3376 8282 View 020 3376 8282
Photo of Aya Hallab, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Aya Hallab
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Drama Therap.
Verified
I feel passionate about working with individuals that struggle to find what we call home and want to explore who they are and what they want. I understand that destructive and painful patterns in behaviours and thoughts serve an adaptive function. Together, we will explore what lies behind these protective mechanisms and build curiosity towards oneself. I also have a particular interest in working non-verbally, with infants and individuals with profound autism, developmental disorders and genetic syndromes.
I feel passionate about working with individuals that struggle to find what we call home and want to explore who they are and what they want. I understand that destructive and painful patterns in behaviours and thoughts serve an adaptive function. Together, we will explore what lies behind these protective mechanisms and build curiosity towards oneself. I also have a particular interest in working non-verbally, with infants and individuals with profound autism, developmental disorders and genetic syndromes.
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Photo of Indu Dua, Counsellor in W1H, England
Indu Dua
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
When life is full of challenges, navigating through complex feelings and making sense of them alone is stressful. I am here to hold your hand in your journey to explore your thoughts and feelings. I am experienced in helping clients with Depression, Anxiety, Low self-esteem, Relationship issues and Trauma. I specialise in supporting parents experiencing Perinatal and Postnatal Difficulties and individuals coping with Grief, Loss, and Bereavement. I believe in the innate strengths and healing capabilities of every individual. In our sessions, we will work together to re-establish a connection with your inner reservoir of strength.
When life is full of challenges, navigating through complex feelings and making sense of them alone is stressful. I am here to hold your hand in your journey to explore your thoughts and feelings. I am experienced in helping clients with Depression, Anxiety, Low self-esteem, Relationship issues and Trauma. I specialise in supporting parents experiencing Perinatal and Postnatal Difficulties and individuals coping with Grief, Loss, and Bereavement. I believe in the innate strengths and healing capabilities of every individual. In our sessions, we will work together to re-establish a connection with your inner reservoir of strength.
01708 988785 View 01708 988785
Photo of Where Is Your Mind? Life Coaching & Counselling , Psychologist in W1H, England
Where Is Your Mind? Life Coaching & Counselling
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified
I am a highly trained Counsellor, Life coach and Hypnotherapist and have worked both in the Charity sector and in Private Practice. I help clients who are experiencing mental health difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, stress, relationship issues and I also use Psychometric Analysis to develop and improve Executive/business positions and work/life balance. My clients are often looking for a non-judgmental and safe listening space to express their concerns. I help clients pinpoint the root of their issue, use tools and coping mechanisms to improve and implement long term solutions.
I am a highly trained Counsellor, Life coach and Hypnotherapist and have worked both in the Charity sector and in Private Practice. I help clients who are experiencing mental health difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, stress, relationship issues and I also use Psychometric Analysis to develop and improve Executive/business positions and work/life balance. My clients are often looking for a non-judgmental and safe listening space to express their concerns. I help clients pinpoint the root of their issue, use tools and coping mechanisms to improve and implement long term solutions.
020 4538 3651 View 020 4538 3651
Photo of Catherine Keenan, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Catherine Keenan
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Welcome. My name is Catherine and I am a registered psychotherapist drawing from a range of modalities to work with you on the life problems you might be experiencing. My approach to therapy is holistic, tailored to you and grounded in a safe and open therapeutic relationship. I aim to offer a space of empathy, warmth, authenticity and confidentiality within which we can make sense of yourself and your relationships together and you are able to heal and grow. I work with people facing various life challenges including anxiety, loss, depression, relationship problems, trauma and struggles with life transitions and identity.
Welcome. My name is Catherine and I am a registered psychotherapist drawing from a range of modalities to work with you on the life problems you might be experiencing. My approach to therapy is holistic, tailored to you and grounded in a safe and open therapeutic relationship. I aim to offer a space of empathy, warmth, authenticity and confidentiality within which we can make sense of yourself and your relationships together and you are able to heal and grow. I work with people facing various life challenges including anxiety, loss, depression, relationship problems, trauma and struggles with life transitions and identity.
020 3816 3583 View 020 3816 3583
Photo of Jennifer Hooper, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Jennifer Hooper
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1H  (Online Only)
Clinical Telehealth web chat and phone calls. A safe and compassionate practice offering Counselling, Psychotherapy, Executive Coaching, Mediation, Expert Witness Psychotherapy, and Associate Consultant Treatment Services for Organisations. Encrypted consultations for individuals, couples and families, at short notice. Mild, moderate and complex trauma issues, mediation and divorce consultancy in one click. MBACP, BACPC, MNCS Accred., CILEX (Legal Executive Practice Certificate). Additional Service: Clinical Supervision for trainees/qualified practitioners, Fast Track! Allow Yourself to Grow, now! Pre-NHS profile and systems.
Clinical Telehealth web chat and phone calls. A safe and compassionate practice offering Counselling, Psychotherapy, Executive Coaching, Mediation, Expert Witness Psychotherapy, and Associate Consultant Treatment Services for Organisations. Encrypted consultations for individuals, couples and families, at short notice. Mild, moderate and complex trauma issues, mediation and divorce consultancy in one click. MBACP, BACPC, MNCS Accred., CILEX (Legal Executive Practice Certificate). Additional Service: Clinical Supervision for trainees/qualified practitioners, Fast Track! Allow Yourself to Grow, now! Pre-NHS profile and systems.
020 8868 7287 View 020 8868 7287
Photo of Louise Tunbridge, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Louise Tunbridge
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
"Sometimes you don't realise the weight of something you've been carrying until you feel the weight of its release." Anon. At times, we all need to talk but may struggle to find the right person to turn to. Those closest to us may not always be able to offer what we need. This is where therapy may be helpful. Someone to listen to you without passing judgement or giving advice; someone who believes you know best what you need and who can provide you with a safe, confidential place to explore those needs.
"Sometimes you don't realise the weight of something you've been carrying until you feel the weight of its release." Anon. At times, we all need to talk but may struggle to find the right person to turn to. Those closest to us may not always be able to offer what we need. This is where therapy may be helpful. Someone to listen to you without passing judgement or giving advice; someone who believes you know best what you need and who can provide you with a safe, confidential place to explore those needs.
01494 372479 View 01494 372479
Photo of Anastasia Moraiti, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Anastasia Moraiti
Psychotherapist, MA
Making the first step into therapy could sometimes feels hard, however you have made this first step by visiting this page. My experience working with adults and children over the last 8 years allows me to be able to support you to explore your feelings and thoughts and find how they may be impacting your life. My work is focused on trauma, relationships, mental health issues, depression, addictions, anxiety, anger, career, eating disorder and family issues. I am a fully qualified and registered psychotherapist who works in a holistic way taking into consideration all the dynamics.
Making the first step into therapy could sometimes feels hard, however you have made this first step by visiting this page. My experience working with adults and children over the last 8 years allows me to be able to support you to explore your feelings and thoughts and find how they may be impacting your life. My work is focused on trauma, relationships, mental health issues, depression, addictions, anxiety, anger, career, eating disorder and family issues. I am a fully qualified and registered psychotherapist who works in a holistic way taking into consideration all the dynamics.
020 3667 9849 View 020 3667 9849
Photo of Elspeth Campbell, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Elspeth Campbell
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified
You may want to be happier because you find yourself struggling to get through the day as a result of troubling situations or overwhelming experiences and issues. Your will may be dampened by a difficult history of upbringing in your family or early social care environment. You may long to reconnect with yourself and others, personally and / or professionally and to rekindle your sense of self worth. You may wish follow your own pathway on the rocky road of life based on a deep sense of inner knowing, which will help you revive vitality for life.
You may want to be happier because you find yourself struggling to get through the day as a result of troubling situations or overwhelming experiences and issues. Your will may be dampened by a difficult history of upbringing in your family or early social care environment. You may long to reconnect with yourself and others, personally and / or professionally and to rekindle your sense of self worth. You may wish follow your own pathway on the rocky road of life based on a deep sense of inner knowing, which will help you revive vitality for life.
01223 972793 View 01223 972793
Photo of Regina Sliw, Psychotherapist in W1H, England
Regina Sliw
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
I am an accredited and registered psychotherapist and psychosexual therapist with twenty four years experience in Primary Care mental health service. I work with a variety of psychological conditions and I aim to help my clients to develop the tools they need to cope with life's challenges. My practice is informed by the latest researches highlighting the mind-body connection and the way that brain and body work together both in well being as in ill health. It is an insight-oriented psychotherapy.
I am an accredited and registered psychotherapist and psychosexual therapist with twenty four years experience in Primary Care mental health service. I work with a variety of psychological conditions and I aim to help my clients to develop the tools they need to cope with life's challenges. My practice is informed by the latest researches highlighting the mind-body connection and the way that brain and body work together both in well being as in ill health. It is an insight-oriented psychotherapy.
020 3962 1449 View 020 3962 1449

See more therapy options for W1H

Nearby Searches for W1H

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in W1H

30+

Average cost per session

£85

Counsellors in W1H who prioritize treating:

89% Anxiety
89% Stress
86% Relationship Issues
84% Depression
81% Self Esteem
70% Bereavement
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% Aviva
67% AXA PPP
58% Cigna and Evernorth

How Counsellors in W1H see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
26% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in W1H?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.