Photo of Luisa Escudero-Franco, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Luisa Escudero-Franco
Psychotherapist, DCounsPsych, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Hi I am Luisa!, therapist with more than 20 years of experience. Thanks to all the years of training in various therapies in Peru, the United States and the United Kingdom, I offer my knowledge in English and Spanish. During the sessions it is very important for me to understand the different difficulties that my patients are going through, offering them a space of listening that allows the best understanding and solution to their difficulties.
Hi I am Luisa!, therapist with more than 20 years of experience. Thanks to all the years of training in various therapies in Peru, the United States and the United Kingdom, I offer my knowledge in English and Spanish. During the sessions it is very important for me to understand the different difficulties that my patients are going through, offering them a space of listening that allows the best understanding and solution to their difficulties.
01480 772030 View 01480 772030
Photo of Gina Phillips, Counsellor in W1B, England
Gina Phillips
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
I am an experienced BACP accredited counsellor with an Advanced Diploma in Integrative Counselling and a Post Graduate Certificate in CBT. I believe that the most important aspect of counselling is a strong therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client. I aim to provide a warm, safe, supportive, non-judgemental space, which allows you to challenge established ways of thinking and being. Working collaboratively I aim to help you evaluate your needs to gain a deeper understanding and practical tools to enable you to make empowered choices.
I am an experienced BACP accredited counsellor with an Advanced Diploma in Integrative Counselling and a Post Graduate Certificate in CBT. I believe that the most important aspect of counselling is a strong therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client. I aim to provide a warm, safe, supportive, non-judgemental space, which allows you to challenge established ways of thinking and being. Working collaboratively I aim to help you evaluate your needs to gain a deeper understanding and practical tools to enable you to make empowered choices.
020 4538 1064 View 020 4538 1064
Photo of Sandra Marinou , Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Sandra Marinou
Psychotherapist, MSc, BPC
Verified Verified
I am Psychotherapist in private practice in London, having over 15 years of experience in mental health as a Clinician, Supervisor and Service Manager across different services at the NHS where I continue to practice. I offer psychotherapy to individuals who are experiencing a possible range of difficulties in their everyday life and require a safe space to develop their awareness on the roots of their issues, enhancing their resilience across the different areas of life.
I am Psychotherapist in private practice in London, having over 15 years of experience in mental health as a Clinician, Supervisor and Service Manager across different services at the NHS where I continue to practice. I offer psychotherapy to individuals who are experiencing a possible range of difficulties in their everyday life and require a safe space to develop their awareness on the roots of their issues, enhancing their resilience across the different areas of life.
020 3892 9526 View 020 3892 9526
Photo of Dr Paula Bermudez, Psychologist in W1B, England
Dr Paula Bermudez
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1B  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with issues related to trauma, grief, relationships, anxiety, or major life changes? There comes a time when we need some help from a certified professional to help cope with many of life’s challenges. I’m a qualified Counselling Psychologist, and I'd love to help you on your journey toward healing and self-discovery. My goal is to offer you an opportunity to explore and make sense of your past and present experiences, to empower you to know and understand yourself more deeply, so you can make conscious choices about how you want to live your life in a way that is meaningful to you.
Are you struggling with issues related to trauma, grief, relationships, anxiety, or major life changes? There comes a time when we need some help from a certified professional to help cope with many of life’s challenges. I’m a qualified Counselling Psychologist, and I'd love to help you on your journey toward healing and self-discovery. My goal is to offer you an opportunity to explore and make sense of your past and present experiences, to empower you to know and understand yourself more deeply, so you can make conscious choices about how you want to live your life in a way that is meaningful to you.
020 3962 0241 View 020 3962 0241
Photo of Chryssa Chalkia, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Chryssa Chalkia
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Are you currently facing the challenges of overwhelming stress, dissatisfaction, or a sense of being stuck in your personal or professional life? Are emotions or behaviours becoming harder to manage? Is the demands of work overshadowing your life? I specialize in helping individuals like you overcome obstacles, regain control, and achieve their goals. By using evidence based strategies and tailored support, we can unlock your full potential and foster a life of balance and success. Invest in your well-being and professional growth. Take the first step toward positive change; reach out, and let's explore a brighter future together.
Are you currently facing the challenges of overwhelming stress, dissatisfaction, or a sense of being stuck in your personal or professional life? Are emotions or behaviours becoming harder to manage? Is the demands of work overshadowing your life? I specialize in helping individuals like you overcome obstacles, regain control, and achieve their goals. By using evidence based strategies and tailored support, we can unlock your full potential and foster a life of balance and success. Invest in your well-being and professional growth. Take the first step toward positive change; reach out, and let's explore a brighter future together.
020 3962 0643 View 020 3962 0643
Photo of Dr Gertrude Reiss, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Dr Gertrude Reiss
Psychotherapist, PhD, BPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
As a Psychotherapist, I provide support to individuals who are seeking professional guidance in navigating processes of change in their lives. It is common for people to experience periods of anxiety or depression. You may find yourself feeling stagnant, lacking motivation, or grappling with a traumatic experience or loss that impacts your life. Work-related stress and relationship difficulties are also commonplace, as is the pursuit of self-development. Therapy provides an opportunity to explore and understand these challenges, fostering self-understanding and enhancing interpersonal relationships.
As a Psychotherapist, I provide support to individuals who are seeking professional guidance in navigating processes of change in their lives. It is common for people to experience periods of anxiety or depression. You may find yourself feeling stagnant, lacking motivation, or grappling with a traumatic experience or loss that impacts your life. Work-related stress and relationship difficulties are also commonplace, as is the pursuit of self-development. Therapy provides an opportunity to explore and understand these challenges, fostering self-understanding and enhancing interpersonal relationships.
020 3915 5910 View 020 3915 5910
Photo of Janice Chan Therapy & Consulting, Counsellor in W1B, England
Janice Chan Therapy & Consulting
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London W1B  (Online Only)
Looking a therapist can feel daunting, and my hope is to offer a space for you to feel totally seen, heard and understood. We all find ourselves feeling stuck in thinking and behaviour patterns that we wish were different at times. Talking to friends and family isn't always useful, or an option. That's where therapy may be more effective. I am a BACP registered psychological therapist with over a decade of experience of working multi-culturally using CBT, CPT, IFS and solution-focused approaches. I provide a warm, confidential, non-judgmental space to support you to work through life's issues.
Looking a therapist can feel daunting, and my hope is to offer a space for you to feel totally seen, heard and understood. We all find ourselves feeling stuck in thinking and behaviour patterns that we wish were different at times. Talking to friends and family isn't always useful, or an option. That's where therapy may be more effective. I am a BACP registered psychological therapist with over a decade of experience of working multi-culturally using CBT, CPT, IFS and solution-focused approaches. I provide a warm, confidential, non-judgmental space to support you to work through life's issues.
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Photo of Mark Bailey, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Mark Bailey
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
I am a UKCP Registered Psychotherapist and have been in Clinical Practice since 2002. I am down to earth, friendly and believe therapy is a collaborative process - my job is to enable clients to find their own individual, specific answers to their problems. I also recognise life can be tough and sometimes overwhelming. No one type of therapy suits everyone so I deliberately integrate a number of approaches into my work to suit each individual's needs. I offer in person and online therapy (using Zoom or Teams).
I am a UKCP Registered Psychotherapist and have been in Clinical Practice since 2002. I am down to earth, friendly and believe therapy is a collaborative process - my job is to enable clients to find their own individual, specific answers to their problems. I also recognise life can be tough and sometimes overwhelming. No one type of therapy suits everyone so I deliberately integrate a number of approaches into my work to suit each individual's needs. I offer in person and online therapy (using Zoom or Teams).
020 3675 0481 View 020 3675 0481
Photo of Cesar Azevedo - LGBTQ Counselling , Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Cesar Azevedo - LGBTQ Counselling
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
London W1B  (Online Only)
I’m a qualified therapist experienced in supporting individuals who identify as LGBT+ in addressing issues connected with self-esteem, self-worth and acceptance. I can help you address issues that are causing you emotional pain, giving you cause for concern, or making you feel uncomfortable. Whether you may be confronting difficult situations, facing challenging decisions, or healing from old wounds. My style is to encourage clients to speak in openness and confidence about difficult topics and emotions.
I’m a qualified therapist experienced in supporting individuals who identify as LGBT+ in addressing issues connected with self-esteem, self-worth and acceptance. I can help you address issues that are causing you emotional pain, giving you cause for concern, or making you feel uncomfortable. Whether you may be confronting difficult situations, facing challenging decisions, or healing from old wounds. My style is to encourage clients to speak in openness and confidence about difficult topics and emotions.
020 3974 2381 View 020 3974 2381
Photo of Dr Diwakar Sukul, Psychologist in W1B, England
Dr Diwakar Sukul
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
As a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, I believe in evidence-based psychological therapy. My approach to the treatment is holistic, integrating eastern and western approaches of mind. My sessions involve an in-depth assessment of the causative factors of your emotional problems to offer you a solution-oriented approach. I believe in empowering you and will share several healing techniques to heal yourself. I will discuss the line of treatment after your in-depth assessment. I address a wide range of mental health challenges, including anxiety, depression, stress, addiction, Borderline Personality Disorder and relationship challenges
As a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, I believe in evidence-based psychological therapy. My approach to the treatment is holistic, integrating eastern and western approaches of mind. My sessions involve an in-depth assessment of the causative factors of your emotional problems to offer you a solution-oriented approach. I believe in empowering you and will share several healing techniques to heal yourself. I will discuss the line of treatment after your in-depth assessment. I address a wide range of mental health challenges, including anxiety, depression, stress, addiction, Borderline Personality Disorder and relationship challenges
020 3917 4612 View 020 3917 4612
Photo of Dr Kelly Dickson, Counsellor in W1B, England
Dr Kelly Dickson
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified Verified
The evidence suggests that finding a therapist you feel able to talk to and understood by is key to a successful therapeutic experience. I am a down-to-earth, intelligent and non-judgmental integrative psychotherapist working with a range of issues. Ideally, therapy is a collaborative partnership and my style is active and empowering. I see you as the 'expert' in your life and myself as the 'expert' on therapeutic interventions. Together we focus on utilising your strengths and fostering insight and awareness in a safe and confidential environment. I love my work and look forward to helping you improve your mental health and wellbeing
The evidence suggests that finding a therapist you feel able to talk to and understood by is key to a successful therapeutic experience. I am a down-to-earth, intelligent and non-judgmental integrative psychotherapist working with a range of issues. Ideally, therapy is a collaborative partnership and my style is active and empowering. I see you as the 'expert' in your life and myself as the 'expert' on therapeutic interventions. Together we focus on utilising your strengths and fostering insight and awareness in a safe and confidential environment. I love my work and look forward to helping you improve your mental health and wellbeing
020 3962 0347 View 020 3962 0347
Photo of Semeyra Sarwar, Counsellor in W1B, England
Semeyra Sarwar
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Hello, I'm Semeyra. I'm a BACP accredited counsellor & psychotherapist with 13 years experience of helping people cope with the full spectrum of life challenges and mental health problems. As an experienced therapist, I will help you to understand your difficulties, including your motivations, behaviour and what led you to where you are. We will explore what has caused your current problems (including any past/ childhood trauma that may continue to affect you now). Our work together will help you to move forward, make changes where they may be needed and, ultimately, feel less troubled by your difficulties.
Hello, I'm Semeyra. I'm a BACP accredited counsellor & psychotherapist with 13 years experience of helping people cope with the full spectrum of life challenges and mental health problems. As an experienced therapist, I will help you to understand your difficulties, including your motivations, behaviour and what led you to where you are. We will explore what has caused your current problems (including any past/ childhood trauma that may continue to affect you now). Our work together will help you to move forward, make changes where they may be needed and, ultimately, feel less troubled by your difficulties.
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Photo of Marcus Cook, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Marcus Cook
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
How are you feeling? Are you having a difficult time at the moment? ​I work with a diverse range of people dealing with issues such as anxiety, depression and low mood, stress and burnout, trauma, relationship issues, grief and loss, and low self-worth. As a mixed-race therapist who has lived in several countries, I have a particular interest in identity, belonging, feeling 'different', disconnection, cultural differences and migration issues.
How are you feeling? Are you having a difficult time at the moment? ​I work with a diverse range of people dealing with issues such as anxiety, depression and low mood, stress and burnout, trauma, relationship issues, grief and loss, and low self-worth. As a mixed-race therapist who has lived in several countries, I have a particular interest in identity, belonging, feeling 'different', disconnection, cultural differences and migration issues.
020 3376 7880 View 020 3376 7880
Photo of David Polak, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
David Polak
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
For the past eighteen years I’ve worked as a psychotherapist in both the public and private sector. This means not only am I experienced in working with colleagues and clients from a wide variety of social and cultural backgrounds, I have also helped clients through a range of issues including anxiety, depression, relationship/family issues, trauma, abuse, bereavement, stress and low self-esteem.
For the past eighteen years I’ve worked as a psychotherapist in both the public and private sector. This means not only am I experienced in working with colleagues and clients from a wide variety of social and cultural backgrounds, I have also helped clients through a range of issues including anxiety, depression, relationship/family issues, trauma, abuse, bereavement, stress and low self-esteem.
020 3872 2843 View 020 3872 2843
Photo of Angela Ruotolo, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Angela Ruotolo
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Therapy can be a life changing experience, a time for growth, exploration and personal development. You may be coming in the hope to resolve some past or current experiences or you may feel overwhelmed, confused, lost, stuck. You might be experiencing difficult symptoms and unhelpful behaviours that inhibit you from living your life to the full. Perhaps you struggle in your environment to fully thrive. I welcome people of any gender identity, sexuality or with any relationship style. I deeply respect difference and actively practice anti-racism. Together we can work on whatever might be the right approach for you.
Therapy can be a life changing experience, a time for growth, exploration and personal development. You may be coming in the hope to resolve some past or current experiences or you may feel overwhelmed, confused, lost, stuck. You might be experiencing difficult symptoms and unhelpful behaviours that inhibit you from living your life to the full. Perhaps you struggle in your environment to fully thrive. I welcome people of any gender identity, sexuality or with any relationship style. I deeply respect difference and actively practice anti-racism. Together we can work on whatever might be the right approach for you.
020 3856 3173 View 020 3856 3173
Photo of Neriman Adiyaman, Counsellor in W1B, England
Neriman Adiyaman
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
I have extensive experience working with adults, and young people in a wide range of multi cultural settings for over 15 years, supporting traumatised adults in charity organisations. This includes, but is not limited to working the impact of trauma, depression, anxiety, emotional and psychological issues, childhood abuse, PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder). Sometimes, we need safe, confidential space to explore to understand our difficult issues in order to fulfilled our lives goals and hapiness. Whatever those life difficulties may feel, I can support you to achieve your ambitions.
I have extensive experience working with adults, and young people in a wide range of multi cultural settings for over 15 years, supporting traumatised adults in charity organisations. This includes, but is not limited to working the impact of trauma, depression, anxiety, emotional and psychological issues, childhood abuse, PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder). Sometimes, we need safe, confidential space to explore to understand our difficult issues in order to fulfilled our lives goals and hapiness. Whatever those life difficulties may feel, I can support you to achieve your ambitions.
020 3701 7995 View 020 3701 7995
Photo of Astrid Montuire, Counsellor in W1B, England
Astrid Montuire
Counsellor, MSc, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you struggling emotionally in your day-to-day life? Are you in a period where you need to find a sense of well-being, meaning in your life? Are you feeling low? anxious? isolated? and you would like to understand more yourself and/ or explore what is affecting you. There are many different moments and reasons in life which require to take some time and reflect in order to feel better.
Are you struggling emotionally in your day-to-day life? Are you in a period where you need to find a sense of well-being, meaning in your life? Are you feeling low? anxious? isolated? and you would like to understand more yourself and/ or explore what is affecting you. There are many different moments and reasons in life which require to take some time and reflect in order to feel better.
020 3917 4063 View 020 3917 4063
Photo of Philip Walker, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Philip Walker
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
I am an accredited psychotherapist and counsellor who works is based in the Kensington, Nottinghill area of central / west London. I meet and talk with people who, maybe like you, want to change how they feel. There may be something specific that you are aware of (depression, anxiety, bereavement), but often the specifics of the difficulty might not be apparent, but the unhappiness is. My work with my clients is about surfacing what's going and helping clients process their feelings to reach a happier, more settled place. I am Certified by the European Association of Psychotherapy and have been DBS checked and cleared.
I am an accredited psychotherapist and counsellor who works is based in the Kensington, Nottinghill area of central / west London. I meet and talk with people who, maybe like you, want to change how they feel. There may be something specific that you are aware of (depression, anxiety, bereavement), but often the specifics of the difficulty might not be apparent, but the unhappiness is. My work with my clients is about surfacing what's going and helping clients process their feelings to reach a happier, more settled place. I am Certified by the European Association of Psychotherapy and have been DBS checked and cleared.
01375 807150 View 01375 807150
Photo of Fernanda Wagland, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Fernanda Wagland
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified Verified
More often than not, the roots of emotional problems go deeper than normal awareness can reach, and my role is to enable you to identify, and focus on, some of the destructive ways of relating to yourself and others that might leave you feeling depressed, anxious or alone. ​ Together, we will create a safe and creative environment, which will help you to explore the different aspects of yourself – some which harmoniously coexist, and others that are at odds with each other.
More often than not, the roots of emotional problems go deeper than normal awareness can reach, and my role is to enable you to identify, and focus on, some of the destructive ways of relating to yourself and others that might leave you feeling depressed, anxious or alone. ​ Together, we will create a safe and creative environment, which will help you to explore the different aspects of yourself – some which harmoniously coexist, and others that are at odds with each other.
020 3095 0465 View 020 3095 0465
Photo of Laura Colquhoun, Psychotherapist in W1B, England
Laura Colquhoun
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Life can be difficult at times. We can feel depressed, anxious, stressed, worried or unable to cope. This can impact on all aspects of our lives; personal and professional. Sometimes all a client needs is someone to really listen to them and to accept what they are saying in a non-judgemental way. Therapy comes in all different shapes and sizes and I believe the mode of therapy should fit the client, we are all individuals after all. I put you, the client at the centre of the work and believe that together we can work collaboratively to help you mange your life more happily and successfully.
Life can be difficult at times. We can feel depressed, anxious, stressed, worried or unable to cope. This can impact on all aspects of our lives; personal and professional. Sometimes all a client needs is someone to really listen to them and to accept what they are saying in a non-judgemental way. Therapy comes in all different shapes and sizes and I believe the mode of therapy should fit the client, we are all individuals after all. I put you, the client at the centre of the work and believe that together we can work collaboratively to help you mange your life more happily and successfully.
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See more therapy options for W1B

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in W1B

30+

Average cost per session

£82

Counsellors in W1B who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
97% Depression
95% Relationship Issues
89% Stress
84% Self Esteem
74% Trauma and PTSD
68% Bereavement

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Aviva
63% AXA PPP
50% Vitality

How Counsellors in W1B see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

70% Female
30% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in W1B?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.