Photo of Cristina Zorat, Counsellor in SE16, England
Cristina Zorat
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London SE16
Whatever the difficulty you are going through right now, you are not alone. All feelings and thoughts you may be experiencing are valid. We can explore together what may feel very confusing and overwhelming, make sense of it and find the best way to go forward.
Whatever the difficulty you are going through right now, you are not alone. All feelings and thoughts you may be experiencing are valid. We can explore together what may feel very confusing and overwhelming, make sense of it and find the best way to go forward.
020 8103 9002 View 020 8103 9002
Photo of Ali Nicholson, Counsellor in SE16, England
Ali Nicholson
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, BACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
I aim to offer a non judgemental relationship where you can explore issues and problems that might be holding you back or causing you distress. This can cover a range of things such as; relationship breakdown, burn out, addiction, stress, anxiety, faith, abuse, trauma or bereavement. I will support you in weekly sessions working together on a focus you have chosen. If you feel stuck or like you keep on making the same mistakes in life I can help you to discover why this is happening and help you find freedom from things that might be hindering your own growth.
I aim to offer a non judgemental relationship where you can explore issues and problems that might be holding you back or causing you distress. This can cover a range of things such as; relationship breakdown, burn out, addiction, stress, anxiety, faith, abuse, trauma or bereavement. I will support you in weekly sessions working together on a focus you have chosen. If you feel stuck or like you keep on making the same mistakes in life I can help you to discover why this is happening and help you find freedom from things that might be hindering your own growth.
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Photo of Nouran Tzampaz, Psychologist in SE16, England
Nouran Tzampaz
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
Are you seeking clarity, battling inner struggles, longing for change? Your need for understanding is profound, your goal clear: to find peace, purpose, and fulfillment. You aspire to break free from limiting beliefs, embrace change, and cultivate a life aligned with your values and aspirations. In our sessions, you'll find a non-judgmental and safe environment where you can openly explore your thoughts and emotions. Together, we'll work collaboratively to uncover insights, develop coping strategies, and empower you to make positive changes that lead to a more fulfilling and authentic life.
Are you seeking clarity, battling inner struggles, longing for change? Your need for understanding is profound, your goal clear: to find peace, purpose, and fulfillment. You aspire to break free from limiting beliefs, embrace change, and cultivate a life aligned with your values and aspirations. In our sessions, you'll find a non-judgmental and safe environment where you can openly explore your thoughts and emotions. Together, we'll work collaboratively to uncover insights, develop coping strategies, and empower you to make positive changes that lead to a more fulfilling and authentic life.
020 3962 1078 View 020 3962 1078
Photo of Dr Danielle Bream-Jackson, Psychologist in SE16, England
Dr Danielle Bream-Jackson
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
Life can be hard sometimes, it's inevitable. I take pride in providing clients with a safe, confidential and secure space, where they eventually not only survive life's hardships, but thrive. My most recent experience has been in supporting individuals (and their families) who are diagnosed with cancer. Nevertheless, I have experience with working across the lifespan and with a variety of different presentations and diagnoses, including depression, anxiety, trauma (including complex trauma) and relationship/sexual difficulties.
Life can be hard sometimes, it's inevitable. I take pride in providing clients with a safe, confidential and secure space, where they eventually not only survive life's hardships, but thrive. My most recent experience has been in supporting individuals (and their families) who are diagnosed with cancer. Nevertheless, I have experience with working across the lifespan and with a variety of different presentations and diagnoses, including depression, anxiety, trauma (including complex trauma) and relationship/sexual difficulties.
01538 710667 View 01538 710667
Photo of Nichola Williams, Counsellor in SE16, England
Nichola Williams
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
​Are your past difficulties or traumatic experiences holding you back from fully embracing the present? If you’re an adult looking for a safe and accepting place to work through childhood/adolescent trauma, domestic/sexual abuse or other challenges, do get in touch. I offer weekly face to face and online therapy sessions. The practice is located in Bermondsey, South London.
​Are your past difficulties or traumatic experiences holding you back from fully embracing the present? If you’re an adult looking for a safe and accepting place to work through childhood/adolescent trauma, domestic/sexual abuse or other challenges, do get in touch. I offer weekly face to face and online therapy sessions. The practice is located in Bermondsey, South London.
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Photo of Afeezat Toyosi Akiwumi, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Afeezat Toyosi Akiwumi
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
My psychodynamic training takes into account the connections between the past and the present and in the frame of how we engage, things can become apparent that you may have not been aware of. The nuances of how this promotes change has been expressed by my clients. I also work as a trauma informed counsellor which has enriched my experience as a therapist. I have experience working with self esteem, anxiety, abuse and much more. There may be things from your past that you feel are stopping you from moving forward. In our sessions we can explore what you bring, what your goals are and what it would look like to achieve them.
My psychodynamic training takes into account the connections between the past and the present and in the frame of how we engage, things can become apparent that you may have not been aware of. The nuances of how this promotes change has been expressed by my clients. I also work as a trauma informed counsellor which has enriched my experience as a therapist. I have experience working with self esteem, anxiety, abuse and much more. There may be things from your past that you feel are stopping you from moving forward. In our sessions we can explore what you bring, what your goals are and what it would look like to achieve them.
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Photo of Marina Mantziou, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Marina Mantziou
Psychotherapist, MA, BACP
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
Whether you're grappling with common mental health challenges like anxiety, depression, stress, low self-esteem, or facing specific issues such as relationship difficulties or managing work-related stress, I am here to assist you in breaking free from negative thoughts, overcoming obstacles, and experiencing greater fulfilment and happiness in your life. As an accredited member of the NCSP and a member of both the BPS and BACP, I am deeply committed to providing exemplary care and support to help you overcome challenges, manage stress, and achieve meaningful personal growth.
Whether you're grappling with common mental health challenges like anxiety, depression, stress, low self-esteem, or facing specific issues such as relationship difficulties or managing work-related stress, I am here to assist you in breaking free from negative thoughts, overcoming obstacles, and experiencing greater fulfilment and happiness in your life. As an accredited member of the NCSP and a member of both the BPS and BACP, I am deeply committed to providing exemplary care and support to help you overcome challenges, manage stress, and achieve meaningful personal growth.
020 3540 7296 View 020 3540 7296
Photo of Florian-Jack Stewart, Counsellor in SE16, England
Florian-Jack Stewart
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
I am a qualified person-centred therapist. I work with individuals who are straight, gay, queer, bi, asexual, questioning and all genders including cis, trans, intersex, non-binary, genderqueer and gender questioning people. There are no issues I cannot support you with. I have experience of a wide variety of different problems such as; anxiety, low mood, end of life, chronic illness, disability, parenting, break up, trauma, sexual abuse, addictions, low self esteem and relationship issues. The people I have helped have had feelings that range from mild upset or worry, through intense levels of distress and despair. 
I am a qualified person-centred therapist. I work with individuals who are straight, gay, queer, bi, asexual, questioning and all genders including cis, trans, intersex, non-binary, genderqueer and gender questioning people. There are no issues I cannot support you with. I have experience of a wide variety of different problems such as; anxiety, low mood, end of life, chronic illness, disability, parenting, break up, trauma, sexual abuse, addictions, low self esteem and relationship issues. The people I have helped have had feelings that range from mild upset or worry, through intense levels of distress and despair. 
020 8059 2257 View 020 8059 2257
Photo of Kate Knight, Counsellor in SE16, England
Kate Knight
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE16  (Online Only)
Congratulations on taking the initiative to explore how you might nurture your mental health and well-being, whether you wish to improve personal or professional relationships, reach your full potential, achieve a better work-life balance, manage the challenges of working in stressful environments, cope with loss, stress, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, prejudice and unconscious bias, or to gain a deeper understanding of your feelings, thoughts and behaviours. I offer a safe and confidential space to work collaboratively with you to help you understand how unconscious, internal processes may be holding you hostage.
Congratulations on taking the initiative to explore how you might nurture your mental health and well-being, whether you wish to improve personal or professional relationships, reach your full potential, achieve a better work-life balance, manage the challenges of working in stressful environments, cope with loss, stress, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, prejudice and unconscious bias, or to gain a deeper understanding of your feelings, thoughts and behaviours. I offer a safe and confidential space to work collaboratively with you to help you understand how unconscious, internal processes may be holding you hostage.
020 4538 3978 View 020 4538 3978
Photo of Julie Gaudion, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Julie Gaudion
Psychotherapist, MA, BPC
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
I work as a psychodynamic psychotherapist in private practice. I have a long career in adult mental health within two NHS psychotherapy departments and in senior management within the voluntary sector. I have experience of working with anxiety, bereavement and loss, childhood trauma, depression, low self-esteem, relationship difficulties, work-related issues, personal development, sexuality, abuse, traumatic experiences and lack of direction in life. ​ I practice psychoanalytic psychotherapy, which means that I work in a way which explores what lies beneath our actions and repetitive patterns of behaviour, how the past affects the
I work as a psychodynamic psychotherapist in private practice. I have a long career in adult mental health within two NHS psychotherapy departments and in senior management within the voluntary sector. I have experience of working with anxiety, bereavement and loss, childhood trauma, depression, low self-esteem, relationship difficulties, work-related issues, personal development, sexuality, abuse, traumatic experiences and lack of direction in life. ​ I practice psychoanalytic psychotherapy, which means that I work in a way which explores what lies beneath our actions and repetitive patterns of behaviour, how the past affects the
020 7101 5174 View 020 7101 5174
Photo of Jodun Du Puy, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Jodun Du Puy
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified Verified
London SE16
Are you, or someone you love, struggling with low self esteem, low mood or anxiety possibly caused by a painful life event, relationship breakdown or issues you feel might be related back to your childhood? Do you feel upsetting thoughts, feelings and behaviours are holding you back from living your life to the full? Do you want to experience someone really being there for you, hearing you, understanding your experience and giving you space to breathe, grieve and process? And then being able to discover new ways to think, feel and be?
Are you, or someone you love, struggling with low self esteem, low mood or anxiety possibly caused by a painful life event, relationship breakdown or issues you feel might be related back to your childhood? Do you feel upsetting thoughts, feelings and behaviours are holding you back from living your life to the full? Do you want to experience someone really being there for you, hearing you, understanding your experience and giving you space to breathe, grieve and process? And then being able to discover new ways to think, feel and be?
020 3947 4018 View 020 3947 4018
Photo of Maria Troupkou, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Maria Troupkou
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified Verified
London SE16
I am a registered Dance Movement Psychotherapist (RDMP UK) and a private practitioner, offering individual and group therapy sessions online. I am very creative and I work on the idea that body and movement is our first type of communication. I believe in the power of movement and how our body can support us to express our feelings and emotions and make sense of our experiences.
I am a registered Dance Movement Psychotherapist (RDMP UK) and a private practitioner, offering individual and group therapy sessions online. I am very creative and I work on the idea that body and movement is our first type of communication. I believe in the power of movement and how our body can support us to express our feelings and emotions and make sense of our experiences.
020 4538 1825 x0044 View 020 4538 1825 x0044
Photo of Natasha Vorontsova, Psychologist in SE16, England
Natasha Vorontsova
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE16
I believe that talking therapy can enrich our lives by helping us to identify what is really important to us and to focus our energies effectively. I work alongside my clients to help them to grow in the ways that they value, as well as overcoming difficulties or stuck points. My areas of expertise include helping people to overcome depression, increase motivation, manage worries, resolve conflicts and improve communication in relationships. My clients describe me as being friendly, professional and a good listener.
I believe that talking therapy can enrich our lives by helping us to identify what is really important to us and to focus our energies effectively. I work alongside my clients to help them to grow in the ways that they value, as well as overcoming difficulties or stuck points. My areas of expertise include helping people to overcome depression, increase motivation, manage worries, resolve conflicts and improve communication in relationships. My clients describe me as being friendly, professional and a good listener.
020 3879 4526 View 020 3879 4526
Photo of Sonia Barrachina, Counsellor in SE16, England
Sonia Barrachina
Counsellor, MA, HCPC-Drama Therap.
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
EMDR can offer a brief, focused treatment where you remain in control of your self-healing process and can empower you to make life changes. NICE and WHO recognize EMDR for the treatment of PTSD, but it also helps with various MH conditions. If you are a young person, adult, or elder that have experienced a traumatic event, is dealing with sleep difficulties, anxiety, emotional/self-confidence issues, intrusive memories/thoughts, or suffering from a phobia. You have wanted to act on this but have not found the time or the therapy that suits you. NOW might be the time. EMDR the approach, and I am right here to guide you through.
EMDR can offer a brief, focused treatment where you remain in control of your self-healing process and can empower you to make life changes. NICE and WHO recognize EMDR for the treatment of PTSD, but it also helps with various MH conditions. If you are a young person, adult, or elder that have experienced a traumatic event, is dealing with sleep difficulties, anxiety, emotional/self-confidence issues, intrusive memories/thoughts, or suffering from a phobia. You have wanted to act on this but have not found the time or the therapy that suits you. NOW might be the time. EMDR the approach, and I am right here to guide you through.
020 3834 8188 View 020 3834 8188
Photo of Laura Serrani, Counsellor in SE16, England
Laura Serrani
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
Are you feeling anxious or angry and don't know why? Do your worries hinder your plans preventing you from achieving your goals? Are you feeling sad with a sense of no purpose in life? Do you feel stuck and overwhelmed in any area of your life? Are you holding back from relationships?
Are you feeling anxious or angry and don't know why? Do your worries hinder your plans preventing you from achieving your goals? Are you feeling sad with a sense of no purpose in life? Do you feel stuck and overwhelmed in any area of your life? Are you holding back from relationships?
020 4537 3013 View 020 4537 3013
Photo of Juliane Thieme, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Juliane Thieme
Psychotherapist, MA, BPC
Verified Verified
London SE16
I am a qualified and experienced psychodynamic psychotherapist providing a warm, supportive and non-judgmental space for you to bring whatever it is you feel the need to talk about. I am there to listen to you with empathy and to help you think about your feelings, however difficult they may be. I am a registered member of the BPC and BACP and work under their ethical code. I hold a professional qualification in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy as well as a previous training in Psychodynamic Counselling, an MA in Psychoanalytic Studies and a degree in Psychology and Counselling. I am a member of the Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists.
I am a qualified and experienced psychodynamic psychotherapist providing a warm, supportive and non-judgmental space for you to bring whatever it is you feel the need to talk about. I am there to listen to you with empathy and to help you think about your feelings, however difficult they may be. I am a registered member of the BPC and BACP and work under their ethical code. I hold a professional qualification in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy as well as a previous training in Psychodynamic Counselling, an MA in Psychoanalytic Studies and a degree in Psychology and Counselling. I am a member of the Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists.
020 3870 4454 View 020 3870 4454
Photo of Lindsay Smith, Psychologist in SE16, England
Lindsay Smith
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE16
People consult me for many reasons. They may have problems in their relationships, feel trapped or overwhelmed by negative emotions, or by thoughts and feelings that spiral out of control. They may feel like they hide their vulnerabilities behind a mask, or struggle to find their place in the world and their purpose in life. I specialise in working with clients with complex emotional and social difficulties, including people with attachment problems and relationship issues, and people with previous traumatic experiences. My clients say I am open-minded, non-judgmental, straight-forward and good-humoured.
People consult me for many reasons. They may have problems in their relationships, feel trapped or overwhelmed by negative emotions, or by thoughts and feelings that spiral out of control. They may feel like they hide their vulnerabilities behind a mask, or struggle to find their place in the world and their purpose in life. I specialise in working with clients with complex emotional and social difficulties, including people with attachment problems and relationship issues, and people with previous traumatic experiences. My clients say I am open-minded, non-judgmental, straight-forward and good-humoured.
020 3871 8573 View 020 3871 8573
Photo of Repercia Therapeutic Counselling Services, Counsellor in SE16, England
Repercia Therapeutic Counselling Services
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
Repercia Therapeutic Counselling Services do not believe in ‘One size fits all’. because everyone is unique in their thoughts, feelings, behaviours, illness, attitude, appearance and the way they view the world. We have over ten years' experience helping people cope with and eventually overcome their mental health problems. Rather than struggle through difficult times on your own, don’t hesitate to reach out. We provide the place, space, and pace for you to feel safe in a therapeutic environment. Relationship will be build on respect, openness and trust with a robust adherence to confidentiality
Repercia Therapeutic Counselling Services do not believe in ‘One size fits all’. because everyone is unique in their thoughts, feelings, behaviours, illness, attitude, appearance and the way they view the world. We have over ten years' experience helping people cope with and eventually overcome their mental health problems. Rather than struggle through difficult times on your own, don’t hesitate to reach out. We provide the place, space, and pace for you to feel safe in a therapeutic environment. Relationship will be build on respect, openness and trust with a robust adherence to confidentiality
020 3870 2479 View 020 3870 2479
Photo of Rachel Hunter Counselling, Counsellor in SE16, England
Rachel Hunter Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
Professional Couples and Individual Zoom counselling from the comfort of your own home. No travel time, no parking. Establishing a good counselling relationship is vital so that feelings can be explored in a safe, confidential space. I won’t judge you and will listen to your own unique story with empathy and kindness. I will endeavour to help you process pain from the past and present and reinforce your resilience and hope for the future. The longer-term aim is to help you to move forward towards your personal goals. I work with women, men, non-binary people and couples. LGBTQIA + and all clients warmly welcomed.
Professional Couples and Individual Zoom counselling from the comfort of your own home. No travel time, no parking. Establishing a good counselling relationship is vital so that feelings can be explored in a safe, confidential space. I won’t judge you and will listen to your own unique story with empathy and kindness. I will endeavour to help you process pain from the past and present and reinforce your resilience and hope for the future. The longer-term aim is to help you to move forward towards your personal goals. I work with women, men, non-binary people and couples. LGBTQIA + and all clients warmly welcomed.
01242 395316 View 01242 395316
Photo of Gareth Willett, Psychotherapist in SE16, England
Gareth Willett
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
London SE16  (Online Only)
I'm a Self-Discovery Success Coach (Certified ICF Neuroscience-based Results Coach and Accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Therapist), and I help soul-seeking professionals to stop running away from their demons of 'failure' and 'not good enough', and to re-discover their freedom, fulfillment and potential so that they can start working, and living, with more presence, power and purpose, without the constant self-doubt and self-sabotage getting in the way.
I'm a Self-Discovery Success Coach (Certified ICF Neuroscience-based Results Coach and Accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Therapist), and I help soul-seeking professionals to stop running away from their demons of 'failure' and 'not good enough', and to re-discover their freedom, fulfillment and potential so that they can start working, and living, with more presence, power and purpose, without the constant self-doubt and self-sabotage getting in the way.
020 3962 1622 View 020 3962 1622

See more therapy options for SE16

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in SE16

70+

Average cost per session

£70

Counsellors in SE16 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
89% Relationship Issues
89% Self Esteem
85% Depression
81% Stress
80% Trauma and PTSD
76% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% Aviva
74% Vitality
68% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in SE16 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

72% Female
26% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in SE16?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.