Counselling in SE15

Photo of Dr Steve Young, Psychologist in SE15, England
Dr Steve Young
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
London SE15
I work very relationally, often helping my clients make sense of themselves and their difficulties through understanding early experiences, current relationships and their therapeutic relationship with me, and how patterns in one area can often offer understandings about another. I draw on a range of therapeutic models and modalities, including psychodynamic, person-centred, existential, cognitive and behavioural, transactional analysis, and attachment theory. My starting point is always the client, and I believe strongly that the therapy should fit the client, not the other way around.
I work very relationally, often helping my clients make sense of themselves and their difficulties through understanding early experiences, current relationships and their therapeutic relationship with me, and how patterns in one area can often offer understandings about another. I draw on a range of therapeutic models and modalities, including psychodynamic, person-centred, existential, cognitive and behavioural, transactional analysis, and attachment theory. My starting point is always the client, and I believe strongly that the therapy should fit the client, not the other way around.
020 3835 2466 View 020 3835 2466
Photo of Cydney Dunbavin-Hands, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Cydney Dunbavin-Hands
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Drama Therap.
Verified
London SE15
Cydney is a certified and registered psychotherapist. Her practice encourages an embodied experience: using psycho-education, mindfulness and a creative psychodynamic approach. Cydney nurtures social and emotional well-being so individuals can fulfill their potential, broaden their capacity and be more at ease within themselves. Her therapeutic practice is underpinned by a passion for creativity and her experience in performing arts. Cydney is also a certified Sex Therapy Informed Professional. Cydney is also a Yoga and Mindfulness Meditation teacher, this reinforces an overall holistic approach that is her practice's bedrock.
Cydney is a certified and registered psychotherapist. Her practice encourages an embodied experience: using psycho-education, mindfulness and a creative psychodynamic approach. Cydney nurtures social and emotional well-being so individuals can fulfill their potential, broaden their capacity and be more at ease within themselves. Her therapeutic practice is underpinned by a passion for creativity and her experience in performing arts. Cydney is also a certified Sex Therapy Informed Professional. Cydney is also a Yoga and Mindfulness Meditation teacher, this reinforces an overall holistic approach that is her practice's bedrock.
020 8138 9257 View 020 8138 9257
Photo of Jessica Dalrymple, Counsellor in SE15, England
Jessica Dalrymple
Counsellor, BACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
London SE15
Sometimes we begin to recognise patterns in our lives that we're not particularly happy with or are curious about. Be it the relationships we choose, the situations we find ourselves in or our response to challenges, therapy can help you to shed light on why this might be. At other times, we need a space to feel heard without all of the noise, bias and judgement that may come with speaking to friends and family. A space that is just for you. We are all deserving of this.
Sometimes we begin to recognise patterns in our lives that we're not particularly happy with or are curious about. Be it the relationships we choose, the situations we find ourselves in or our response to challenges, therapy can help you to shed light on why this might be. At other times, we need a space to feel heard without all of the noise, bias and judgement that may come with speaking to friends and family. A space that is just for you. We are all deserving of this.
020 3835 3356 View 020 3835 3356
Photo of Manuel Navarro, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Manuel Navarro
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
London SE15
I am a systemic and family psychotherapist with 18 years of experience working in mental health services in the NHS and the Maudsley Trust. I have experience working with children and adults who suffer from mental health or emotional difficulties such as depression, anxiety and panic, and eating disorders. I also work with couples who are looking to improve their relationship, and I am registered with the Emotionally Focused Therapy Institute (ICEEFT). My approach to therapy recognises that the individual, as well as their family members all have strengths and strategies which can be used to overcome symptoms and difficulties.
I am a systemic and family psychotherapist with 18 years of experience working in mental health services in the NHS and the Maudsley Trust. I have experience working with children and adults who suffer from mental health or emotional difficulties such as depression, anxiety and panic, and eating disorders. I also work with couples who are looking to improve their relationship, and I am registered with the Emotionally Focused Therapy Institute (ICEEFT). My approach to therapy recognises that the individual, as well as their family members all have strengths and strategies which can be used to overcome symptoms and difficulties.
020 3962 0348 View 020 3962 0348
Photo of Will Hardy, Counsellor in SE15, England
Will Hardy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
Hello! I am based online and in South and East London - I provide LGBTQ+ therapy and counselling for those who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, non-binary, queer, questioning, polyamorous, kink, ace etc. I offer short or long term individual therapy for adults and my work is queer positive, sex affirming, collaborative and fluid. I work primarily with individuals within the LGBTQ+ community, however, this is not exclusively. My approach to therapeutic work is within an open and non judgemental mindset.
Hello! I am based online and in South and East London - I provide LGBTQ+ therapy and counselling for those who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, non-binary, queer, questioning, polyamorous, kink, ace etc. I offer short or long term individual therapy for adults and my work is queer positive, sex affirming, collaborative and fluid. I work primarily with individuals within the LGBTQ+ community, however, this is not exclusively. My approach to therapeutic work is within an open and non judgemental mindset.
View
Photo of Bristena Mantu, Counsellor in SE15, England
Bristena Mantu
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
Relationship struggles can leave lasting imprints, but they also open doors to self-renewal. As a psychosynthesis therapist, I specialize in helping individuals rebuild self-esteem, heal emotional wounds, and gently navigate the path to fulfilling relationships and lives. Over many years I've witnessed the profound truth that humans are inherently wired for meaningful and supportive connections. Yet, when faced with relational crises, the resulting experiences can be both dramatic and unexpectedly painful to navigate alone. The instinct to seek a safe space for healing and recovery becomes a natural and essential step forward.
Relationship struggles can leave lasting imprints, but they also open doors to self-renewal. As a psychosynthesis therapist, I specialize in helping individuals rebuild self-esteem, heal emotional wounds, and gently navigate the path to fulfilling relationships and lives. Over many years I've witnessed the profound truth that humans are inherently wired for meaningful and supportive connections. Yet, when faced with relational crises, the resulting experiences can be both dramatic and unexpectedly painful to navigate alone. The instinct to seek a safe space for healing and recovery becomes a natural and essential step forward.
020 3856 3475 View 020 3856 3475
Photo of Caroline Brown, Counsellor in SE15, England
Caroline Brown
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
Hello, I'm Caroline, I'm here to support you through your anxiety, depression, stress, relationship problems, trauma, goals and challenges. Beginning therapy means different for each of us, but it is often an act of courage, hope, and self-care. I'm here to help. My approach to therapy is to meet you where you are in your journey and support you through the process so that you can reach a place in your life that feels safe, secure and balanced.
Hello, I'm Caroline, I'm here to support you through your anxiety, depression, stress, relationship problems, trauma, goals and challenges. Beginning therapy means different for each of us, but it is often an act of courage, hope, and self-care. I'm here to help. My approach to therapy is to meet you where you are in your journey and support you through the process so that you can reach a place in your life that feels safe, secure and balanced.
020 3835 5658 View 020 3835 5658
Photo of Sarah Hutton, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Sarah Hutton
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified
London SE15
The relationship we have with ourselves and others is at the core of our every day. I hold a safe & empathetic space enabling us to explore and navigate those relationships together, where we can get to the root of challenges you may be facing & difficult feelings can be accepted. This is a journey we will walk together at your own pace, where change, although often uncomfortable, can be embraced. I am experienced in working with clients with a range of needs, including those navigating anxiety, depression & grief; self-esteem & attachment issues; neurodiversity; identity & relationship difficulties; as well as trauma & addiction.
The relationship we have with ourselves and others is at the core of our every day. I hold a safe & empathetic space enabling us to explore and navigate those relationships together, where we can get to the root of challenges you may be facing & difficult feelings can be accepted. This is a journey we will walk together at your own pace, where change, although often uncomfortable, can be embraced. I am experienced in working with clients with a range of needs, including those navigating anxiety, depression & grief; self-esteem & attachment issues; neurodiversity; identity & relationship difficulties; as well as trauma & addiction.
020 3974 2400 View 020 3974 2400
Photo of Peckham Therapies, Counsellor in SE15, England
Peckham Therapies
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
London SE15  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Austin and I work as an integrative therapist worldwide via internet platforms including Skype and Zoom. I’ve received lots of therapy over the years when I have been struggling to cope with difficult situations and also when seeking to understand myself a bit better, it really helped. If you are going through a similar stage in life and are looking for someone to talk to in complete confidence, without judgment and at a pace that suits you then I can help.
Hello, my name is Austin and I work as an integrative therapist worldwide via internet platforms including Skype and Zoom. I’ve received lots of therapy over the years when I have been struggling to cope with difficult situations and also when seeking to understand myself a bit better, it really helped. If you are going through a similar stage in life and are looking for someone to talk to in complete confidence, without judgment and at a pace that suits you then I can help.
020 3828 7293 View 020 3828 7293
Photo of Charlotte Scholey, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Charlotte Scholey
Psychotherapist, MA, UKCP Trainee
Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE15
Therapy is a very unique journey, not one person's experience is the same as another's. I offer a gentle and friendly space which allows the co-creation of an environment that can support individual goals. I believe the therapeutic journey is something that we create together. There is not a "one size that fits all" or one method that works for every person. It is important that the therapy is tailored and beneficial to you as an individual. It can be really challenging to even reach out or look for support, I offer a free consultation call with all enquiries, please feel free to drop me an email to organise yours.
Therapy is a very unique journey, not one person's experience is the same as another's. I offer a gentle and friendly space which allows the co-creation of an environment that can support individual goals. I believe the therapeutic journey is something that we create together. There is not a "one size that fits all" or one method that works for every person. It is important that the therapy is tailored and beneficial to you as an individual. It can be really challenging to even reach out or look for support, I offer a free consultation call with all enquiries, please feel free to drop me an email to organise yours.
020 3818 1053 View 020 3818 1053
Photo of Dominique Frater, Counsellor in SE15, England
Dominique Frater
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
My approach to counselling has been formed from my own experiences, I believe everyone has the capability to reach a place of peace and live a fulfilling life but to do so you must learn about yourself. This can be an uncomfortable process but one that I believe is worth it. My purpose is to support my clients on their journeys to gain a deeper understanding of themselves and to empower them to make the changes they want to align with the life and the person they want to be. I am passionate about enhancing others experience of life as I am of my own but with the awareness that these changes can only come from within.
My approach to counselling has been formed from my own experiences, I believe everyone has the capability to reach a place of peace and live a fulfilling life but to do so you must learn about yourself. This can be an uncomfortable process but one that I believe is worth it. My purpose is to support my clients on their journeys to gain a deeper understanding of themselves and to empower them to make the changes they want to align with the life and the person they want to be. I am passionate about enhancing others experience of life as I am of my own but with the awareness that these changes can only come from within.
020 4538 1659 View 020 4538 1659
Photo of Stephanie Bushell, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Stephanie Bushell
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified
London SE15
I am a BACP Senior Accredited integrative counsellor and psychotherapist who combines a robust theoretical training with warmth, kindness and insight. I work with both individuals and couples/relationships of all sexualities. I value the importance of being clear, honest and human as a therapist. I don't believe that therapy should feel intimidating or mysterious. I'm always happy to explain things if you feel confused and I encourage clients to be open about what they need from me. I see therapy as a collaborative process - you invite me to help you (as an individual or couple) to make sense of things.
I am a BACP Senior Accredited integrative counsellor and psychotherapist who combines a robust theoretical training with warmth, kindness and insight. I work with both individuals and couples/relationships of all sexualities. I value the importance of being clear, honest and human as a therapist. I don't believe that therapy should feel intimidating or mysterious. I'm always happy to explain things if you feel confused and I encourage clients to be open about what they need from me. I see therapy as a collaborative process - you invite me to help you (as an individual or couple) to make sense of things.
020 8138 0862 View 020 8138 0862
Photo of Emma Hinkson Therapy, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Emma Hinkson Therapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE15
Do you feel like the emotional baggage of life is weighing you down? Would you like someone you can explore your thoughts with? Who can help you navigate the messiness of life with, and start to unpick and make sense of your experiences? My name is Emma, and I am a compassionate, friendly and professional psychotherapist who can help you navigate who you are and start to build the life you want.
Do you feel like the emotional baggage of life is weighing you down? Would you like someone you can explore your thoughts with? Who can help you navigate the messiness of life with, and start to unpick and make sense of your experiences? My name is Emma, and I am a compassionate, friendly and professional psychotherapist who can help you navigate who you are and start to build the life you want.
020 3835 2751 View 020 3835 2751
Photo of Diego Raya, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Diego Raya
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified
London SE15  (Online Only)
I am a bilingual (English and Spanish speaking) Psychotherapist, qualified in Cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy, accredited by BABCP and IPTUK. I have more than fifteen years of experience in the field of mental health. I am committed to working collaboratively in a safe space. My stance is supportive, empathic and non-judgmental. I feel comfortable discussing topics around racism, LGBTQ+ phobia and any form of oppression/stigma towards minorities and people that do not conform with gender and sexual norms. I empower my clients to embrace their true selves, helping them build resilience. LGBTQ+ friendly.
I am a bilingual (English and Spanish speaking) Psychotherapist, qualified in Cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy, accredited by BABCP and IPTUK. I have more than fifteen years of experience in the field of mental health. I am committed to working collaboratively in a safe space. My stance is supportive, empathic and non-judgmental. I feel comfortable discussing topics around racism, LGBTQ+ phobia and any form of oppression/stigma towards minorities and people that do not conform with gender and sexual norms. I empower my clients to embrace their true selves, helping them build resilience. LGBTQ+ friendly.
020 3667 6067 View 020 3667 6067
Photo of Ty Lloyd-Smith, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Ty Lloyd-Smith
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
Is this a time in your life that feels difficult? Life can be somewhat challenging and overwhelming at times. Counselling is a process that gives you space and time, in a confidential environment that allow you to express yourself freely enabling you, to make better sense of your feelings, emotions and fears. It is important that during this process you remain an individual and we find a way for you to express your thoughts and feelings, making it's essential to work with a flexible approach tailoring our work to your needs.
Is this a time in your life that feels difficult? Life can be somewhat challenging and overwhelming at times. Counselling is a process that gives you space and time, in a confidential environment that allow you to express yourself freely enabling you, to make better sense of your feelings, emotions and fears. It is important that during this process you remain an individual and we find a way for you to express your thoughts and feelings, making it's essential to work with a flexible approach tailoring our work to your needs.
020 8103 5675 View 020 8103 5675
Photo of Paddy Kershaw, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Paddy Kershaw
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
I understand that sometimes things can feel very challenging or even hopeless, especially if you’ve already tried lots of different ways to make the changes you want. That you're considering working with a therapist means you've already made a significant positive step towards an improved experience of your life & relationships. Being an Integrative Psychotherapist means I can listen with a trained ear, draw from a variety of psychological viewpoints & tailor my approach to suit you & your individual goals. I was voted Therapist of The Year by patients & my clinical colleagues at a psychiatric hospital in 2022.
I understand that sometimes things can feel very challenging or even hopeless, especially if you’ve already tried lots of different ways to make the changes you want. That you're considering working with a therapist means you've already made a significant positive step towards an improved experience of your life & relationships. Being an Integrative Psychotherapist means I can listen with a trained ear, draw from a variety of psychological viewpoints & tailor my approach to suit you & your individual goals. I was voted Therapist of The Year by patients & my clinical colleagues at a psychiatric hospital in 2022.
020 3856 8569 View 020 3856 8569
Photo of Olivia Rowe, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Olivia Rowe
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified
London SE15
I work collaboratively with people to move forward with their lives with what ever they are finding difficult and distressing. I have a huge amount of experience of working with people who have specific diagnosis such as (Eating Disorder, Anxiety, Depression, OCD). However, I also work with people who are generally feeling like their life lacks the meaning they want it to, they might be struggling with burnout, stress, lack of motivation and general low confidence. With everyone I work with they have the desire to make changes, move forward in a different direction in their lives and learn new skills to cope.
I work collaboratively with people to move forward with their lives with what ever they are finding difficult and distressing. I have a huge amount of experience of working with people who have specific diagnosis such as (Eating Disorder, Anxiety, Depression, OCD). However, I also work with people who are generally feeling like their life lacks the meaning they want it to, they might be struggling with burnout, stress, lack of motivation and general low confidence. With everyone I work with they have the desire to make changes, move forward in a different direction in their lives and learn new skills to cope.
020 8016 2632 View 020 8016 2632
Photo of Dr Lauren Becker, Psychologist in SE15, England
Dr Lauren Becker
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
London SE15
I understand that seeking therapy can be a daunting process. By providing a safe space where you can learn to listen to yourself and be heard without judgment, I aim to help you understand how your past experiences might be shaping how you live, work, and relate to others in the present, allowing you more freedom to make positive changes in your life.
I understand that seeking therapy can be a daunting process. By providing a safe space where you can learn to listen to yourself and be heard without judgment, I aim to help you understand how your past experiences might be shaping how you live, work, and relate to others in the present, allowing you more freedom to make positive changes in your life.
020 3984 9629 View 020 3984 9629
Photo of Josephine Odufuwa, Psychotherapist in SE15, England
Josephine Odufuwa
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
My ideal client is one that recognises that they do not have to deal with life alone. Understanding the strength in seeking guidance and support from therapy is where the work begins and it allows the creation of a safe space to think about you. One way I work is to help build an individual’s sense of self that allows them to acknowledge their own needs and helps them navigate life and its difficulties. I have experience working with diverse groups whether that be in age or culture and have worked with a variety of issues.
My ideal client is one that recognises that they do not have to deal with life alone. Understanding the strength in seeking guidance and support from therapy is where the work begins and it allows the creation of a safe space to think about you. One way I work is to help build an individual’s sense of self that allows them to acknowledge their own needs and helps them navigate life and its difficulties. I have experience working with diverse groups whether that be in age or culture and have worked with a variety of issues.
020 3974 2399 View 020 3974 2399
Photo of Emma Parfett-Smith, Counsellor in SE15, England
Emma Parfett-Smith
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SE15
We live in a fast paced sometimes confusing world, we all at times need a place to slow down and make sense of it all especially when we find ourselves in moments of crisis or transition. Perhaps you’ve found yourself wanting to make changes or questioning who you are and what you want but you’ve found yourself unable to know where to start.Counselling offers that opportunity, An opportunity to focus on you and hopefully give you some clarity and sense of self.
We live in a fast paced sometimes confusing world, we all at times need a place to slow down and make sense of it all especially when we find ourselves in moments of crisis or transition. Perhaps you’ve found yourself wanting to make changes or questioning who you are and what you want but you’ve found yourself unable to know where to start.Counselling offers that opportunity, An opportunity to focus on you and hopefully give you some clarity and sense of self.
020 3893 2328 View 020 3893 2328

See more therapy options for SE15

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in SE15

90+

Average cost per session

£70

Counsellors in SE15 who prioritize treating:

87% Depression
87% Anxiety
85% Relationship Issues
81% Self Esteem
80% Stress
69% Bereavement
66% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% WPA
60% Aviva
60% Vitality

How Counsellors in SE15 see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

69% Female
29% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in SE15?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.