Counselling in Stirling

Photo of Susannah Ramsay, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Susannah Ramsay
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
Are you experiencing anxiety or depression? Or maybe you’ve experienced bereavement, trauma or abuse (including adverse childhood experiences). I am registered psychodynamic counsellor, covering Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk. I provide a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to help you explore your emotions, past experiences and relationships and how they can impact your present life.
Are you experiencing anxiety or depression? Or maybe you’ve experienced bereavement, trauma or abuse (including adverse childhood experiences). I am registered psychodynamic counsellor, covering Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk. I provide a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to help you explore your emotions, past experiences and relationships and how they can impact your present life.
01786 239862 View 01786 239862
Photo of Dr Derek Robertson, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Dr Derek Robertson
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
I have over 8 years experience in providing psychological therapy and can provide Person Centred Therapy, CBT, ACT, Non-Violent Communication, Systemic Therapy, Hypnosis, EMDR and use various other psychological tools and aspects of different therapies as required. This is all provided within a humanistic framework valuing your uniqueness and strengths, within a therapeutic relationship emphasising respect, warmth and compassion. Within therapy this means empowering you and working as a team with equal power where you are always in control of the work and your are kept fully informed.
I have over 8 years experience in providing psychological therapy and can provide Person Centred Therapy, CBT, ACT, Non-Violent Communication, Systemic Therapy, Hypnosis, EMDR and use various other psychological tools and aspects of different therapies as required. This is all provided within a humanistic framework valuing your uniqueness and strengths, within a therapeutic relationship emphasising respect, warmth and compassion. Within therapy this means empowering you and working as a team with equal power where you are always in control of the work and your are kept fully informed.
01786 649317 View 01786 649317
Photo of Dr Hazel Connery, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Dr Hazel Connery
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
Not accepting new clients
I am a Clinical Psychologist with almost two decades of experience working with adults to treat a wide range of emotional difficulties. I can provide one to one therapy as well as remote sessions for example, via Skype. I can help with mild to moderate mental health difficulties, including, anxiety, work/exam stress, OCD, abuse, depression, low self-esteem and trauma including PTSD. I also have specialist experience in helping people from a psychological perspective to manage chronic pain conditions, neurological conditions, memory difficulties and other issues associated with ageing.
I am a Clinical Psychologist with almost two decades of experience working with adults to treat a wide range of emotional difficulties. I can provide one to one therapy as well as remote sessions for example, via Skype. I can help with mild to moderate mental health difficulties, including, anxiety, work/exam stress, OCD, abuse, depression, low self-esteem and trauma including PTSD. I also have specialist experience in helping people from a psychological perspective to manage chronic pain conditions, neurological conditions, memory difficulties and other issues associated with ageing.
01786 236560 View 01786 236560
Photo of Saboohi Gill, Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
Saboohi Gill
Psychotherapist, MA
Not Verified Not Verified
Stirling FK7  (Online Only)
I believe we win and lose battles in our minds. Understanding this, I offer to help you raise your confidence, self-worth and self-awareness by working with you on unhelpful thoughts and perceptions which might be based on your past experiences. Equipping you with tools and techniques to cope and manage, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Trauma, PTSD, focusing on improving relationship problems (personal or professional) Addictions, Bereavement. I can help you live your life to its full potential! Replacing your unhelpful thoughts and behaviours to helpful ones so you can learn to perceive life in a balanced and realistic manner.
I believe we win and lose battles in our minds. Understanding this, I offer to help you raise your confidence, self-worth and self-awareness by working with you on unhelpful thoughts and perceptions which might be based on your past experiences. Equipping you with tools and techniques to cope and manage, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Trauma, PTSD, focusing on improving relationship problems (personal or professional) Addictions, Bereavement. I can help you live your life to its full potential! Replacing your unhelpful thoughts and behaviours to helpful ones so you can learn to perceive life in a balanced and realistic manner.
01786 232297 View 01786 232297
Photo of Vicky McLeod, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Vicky McLeod
Psychologist, HCPC - Occup. Psych.
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
I am a seasoned therapist committed to providing a safe and supportive space for you to seeking personal growth and healing. With a foundation built on empathy, understanding, strong interpersonal skills, trustworthiness, flexibility, and sensitivity, I take a person-centred approach which puts clients at the centre. Prioritising your unique perspective, I create an environment free from judgment, fostering open and honest exploration. Through attentive and reflective listening, I aim to deeply understand your experiences, providing a space for your narrative to unfold, cultivating a trusting collaborative therapeutic relationship.
I am a seasoned therapist committed to providing a safe and supportive space for you to seeking personal growth and healing. With a foundation built on empathy, understanding, strong interpersonal skills, trustworthiness, flexibility, and sensitivity, I take a person-centred approach which puts clients at the centre. Prioritising your unique perspective, I create an environment free from judgment, fostering open and honest exploration. Through attentive and reflective listening, I aim to deeply understand your experiences, providing a space for your narrative to unfold, cultivating a trusting collaborative therapeutic relationship.
01786 236991 View 01786 236991
Photo of Caitlin Imray, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Caitlin Imray
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Stirling FK8
Hello, welcome. I'm Caitlin, a therapist providing an inclusive and personalised therapy space where you can begin to feel better. For many of us, the world can feel like it is made for certain types of people. We may feel like we are expected to conform or tick certain boxes. Most of us know that one size does not fit all. Unfortunately, the world, including the therapy world, can often feel like this is the case. This can feel restrictive and overwhelming for those of us who do not fit into these boxes.
Hello, welcome. I'm Caitlin, a therapist providing an inclusive and personalised therapy space where you can begin to feel better. For many of us, the world can feel like it is made for certain types of people. We may feel like we are expected to conform or tick certain boxes. Most of us know that one size does not fit all. Unfortunately, the world, including the therapy world, can often feel like this is the case. This can feel restrictive and overwhelming for those of us who do not fit into these boxes.
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Photo of Stella Cloquet, Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
Stella Cloquet
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
We all have periods in our life where we struggle to understand or find meaning in what is happening to us. I know from my own experience, and that of the clients I have worked with, that acknowledging we need help is challenging and asking for help can sometimes feel scary and overwhelming. Hopefully by reading my profile, you will find information that will help you to decide if you would like to find out more about us working together.In my approach to therapy, the relationship we will form will be central to providing a safe space for you to explore with confidence, the current challenges you are experiencing.
We all have periods in our life where we struggle to understand or find meaning in what is happening to us. I know from my own experience, and that of the clients I have worked with, that acknowledging we need help is challenging and asking for help can sometimes feel scary and overwhelming. Hopefully by reading my profile, you will find information that will help you to decide if you would like to find out more about us working together.In my approach to therapy, the relationship we will form will be central to providing a safe space for you to explore with confidence, the current challenges you are experiencing.
01786 239839 View 01786 239839
Photo of Cheryl Young, Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
Cheryl Young
Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
As a CBT Therapist, I have experience in supporting clients with generalised anxiety, social anxiety, health anxiety, low self esteem, depression and grief. My clients often come to me ready to make a change, have a goal they want to achieve or just want to explore why they behave in certain ways. CBT gives you the tools to do this, working together to achieve your goal, make the necessary changes and how to maintain them. My specialities lie in treating low self esteem, men's mental health and work related stress and anxiety. I am also trained in suicide prevention, having completed my ASIST training in 2023.
As a CBT Therapist, I have experience in supporting clients with generalised anxiety, social anxiety, health anxiety, low self esteem, depression and grief. My clients often come to me ready to make a change, have a goal they want to achieve or just want to explore why they behave in certain ways. CBT gives you the tools to do this, working together to achieve your goal, make the necessary changes and how to maintain them. My specialities lie in treating low self esteem, men's mental health and work related stress and anxiety. I am also trained in suicide prevention, having completed my ASIST training in 2023.
01786 649914 View 01786 649914
Photo of Kimberley Cunningham, Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
Kimberley Cunningham
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
I am a BACP registered psychotherapist with a Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Psychology and a Master of Science in Psychotherapy. I have particular experience supporting clients with Depression, low self-esteem and Anxiety - including Generalised Anxiety Disorder, Social Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). I offer long-term & short-term in-person and online therapy for adults and young people (age 13+), with a specific focus on the Person-Centred Approach to counselling.
I am a BACP registered psychotherapist with a Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Psychology and a Master of Science in Psychotherapy. I have particular experience supporting clients with Depression, low self-esteem and Anxiety - including Generalised Anxiety Disorder, Social Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). I offer long-term & short-term in-person and online therapy for adults and young people (age 13+), with a specific focus on the Person-Centred Approach to counselling.
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Photo of Andrew Perry, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Andrew Perry
Psychologist, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
Hello, my name is Andrew Perry. I believe we can help each other. I specialise in helping by example. I offer free resources on my website, clinical supervision, outdoor therapy, an online therapeutic group and free initial online sixty minute consultations. It's ordinary to have times when we feel less healthy than others. Maybe you have experienced receiving help to feel healthier. People helped to rediscover the bravery to change their experience. People like us. I think everyone deserves help to feel healthier.
Hello, my name is Andrew Perry. I believe we can help each other. I specialise in helping by example. I offer free resources on my website, clinical supervision, outdoor therapy, an online therapeutic group and free initial online sixty minute consultations. It's ordinary to have times when we feel less healthy than others. Maybe you have experienced receiving help to feel healthier. People helped to rediscover the bravery to change their experience. People like us. I think everyone deserves help to feel healthier.
01324 462945 View 01324 462945
Photo of Dr Dawn Lindsay, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Dr Dawn Lindsay
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
I am a qualified HCPC-registered Clinical Psychologist and I have worked within the NHS for 9 years in specialist services for adult mental health and clinical health. It can be very difficult to make the decision to seek support for your mental health and psychological wellbeing. My priority is in creating a safe and trusting therapeutic space, with warmth and compassion to help you speak openly. I work from an integrative approach, drawing on a range of evidence-based therapies to best with your experiences and difficulties.
I am a qualified HCPC-registered Clinical Psychologist and I have worked within the NHS for 9 years in specialist services for adult mental health and clinical health. It can be very difficult to make the decision to seek support for your mental health and psychological wellbeing. My priority is in creating a safe and trusting therapeutic space, with warmth and compassion to help you speak openly. I work from an integrative approach, drawing on a range of evidence-based therapies to best with your experiences and difficulties.
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Photo of Jen Murray, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Jen Murray
Counsellor, MSc, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8  (Online Only)
Starting therapy can feel overwhelming- the process of acknowledging our need for healing can require a whole lot of courage by itself. That’s said, Hello, I am Jen, whatever has drawn you to this page today, Welcome. I see my role as a therapist as warm, compassionate sounding board, for you to create connections, explore your history, and understand your present at your pace. Alongside that, we are building a trusting therapeutic relationship where we can show up and be valued and accepted as our full, sometimes messy human self.
Starting therapy can feel overwhelming- the process of acknowledging our need for healing can require a whole lot of courage by itself. That’s said, Hello, I am Jen, whatever has drawn you to this page today, Welcome. I see my role as a therapist as warm, compassionate sounding board, for you to create connections, explore your history, and understand your present at your pace. Alongside that, we are building a trusting therapeutic relationship where we can show up and be valued and accepted as our full, sometimes messy human self.
01786 649950 View 01786 649950
Photo of Dr Lindsey Jane Burns - Women's Health Neurodivergent Specialist, Psychologist in Stirling, Scotland
Dr Lindsey Jane Burns - Women's Health Neurodivergent Specialist
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Health Psych.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Stirling FK8  (Online Only)
Are you experiencing difficulties due to e.g. ADHD, or women’s health issues? As a Health Psychologist I work with individuals to support behaviour change and well-being in both personal and work lives. This includes issues relating to women’s health (e.g. menopause), neurodiversity in the workplace, the management of chronic health conditions, weight management, stress management and sleep. My background gives me a thorough understanding of the business environment and its potential issues. I use a cognitive behavioural, solutions focused approach and can help you identify clear goals and make positive changes in your life.
Are you experiencing difficulties due to e.g. ADHD, or women’s health issues? As a Health Psychologist I work with individuals to support behaviour change and well-being in both personal and work lives. This includes issues relating to women’s health (e.g. menopause), neurodiversity in the workplace, the management of chronic health conditions, weight management, stress management and sleep. My background gives me a thorough understanding of the business environment and its potential issues. I use a cognitive behavioural, solutions focused approach and can help you identify clear goals and make positive changes in your life.
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Photo of Isabella Burns Msc, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Isabella Burns Msc
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
I am an experienced counsellor with over 10 years experience of working with adult individuals and couples. I work with clients who are experiencing difficulties in their lives, such as: anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, panic, relationship issues, gender identity, life changes. I provide a safe and confidential environment for clients online. Each person is unique and experiences life in different ways. If your particular problem isn't listed here, don't let this put you off contacting me. I can offer short or long term counselling.
I am an experienced counsellor with over 10 years experience of working with adult individuals and couples. I work with clients who are experiencing difficulties in their lives, such as: anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, panic, relationship issues, gender identity, life changes. I provide a safe and confidential environment for clients online. Each person is unique and experiences life in different ways. If your particular problem isn't listed here, don't let this put you off contacting me. I can offer short or long term counselling.
07998 073623 View 07998 073623
Photo of Antonia Higgins, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Antonia Higgins
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
Not accepting new clients
I offer face-to-face counselling from my therapy room in Falkirk and online video counselling. I work with adults of all genders individually, and with couples or small groups for relationship counselling. Counselling can have a positive impact in helping you deal with many issues including abuse, anxiety, bullying, confidence, depression, domestic abuse, relationship and family issues, grief and loss, personal boundaries, self-harming behaviours, trauma and work-related problems.
I offer face-to-face counselling from my therapy room in Falkirk and online video counselling. I work with adults of all genders individually, and with couples or small groups for relationship counselling. Counselling can have a positive impact in helping you deal with many issues including abuse, anxiety, bullying, confidence, depression, domestic abuse, relationship and family issues, grief and loss, personal boundaries, self-harming behaviours, trauma and work-related problems.
01324 430080 View 01324 430080
Photo of Clare Williamina Foster in Stirling, Scotland
Clare Williamina Foster
MSc
Verified Verified
Stirling FK8
Hi There, Im Clare, I am a qualified psychotherapist and have been working in the counselling field since 2015, I understand all too well what life circumstances can bring people into the counselling room. It can be a very hard decision to make to come to therapy as the process can be emotional. I offer safe and confidential counselling with an integrative approach that really works well with life issues. Taking the first step to come into counselling is often the hardest part, I would love to work with you through whatever life situation you may be facing or have experienced.
Hi There, Im Clare, I am a qualified psychotherapist and have been working in the counselling field since 2015, I understand all too well what life circumstances can bring people into the counselling room. It can be a very hard decision to make to come to therapy as the process can be emotional. I offer safe and confidential counselling with an integrative approach that really works well with life issues. Taking the first step to come into counselling is often the hardest part, I would love to work with you through whatever life situation you may be facing or have experienced.
07480 487107 View 07480 487107
Photo of NP Therapy , Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
NP Therapy
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Stirling FK9  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Struggling where to turn for therapy? Seeing so many options and faces to choose from, unsure of where to go? Get in touch. I offer affordable therapy based on your individual circumstance. My background is in psychology and I work with individuals over the age of 16. We work at your pace, with empathy and collaboration. I am an Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with the BABCP. Get in touch by email to book your free consultation.
Struggling where to turn for therapy? Seeing so many options and faces to choose from, unsure of where to go? Get in touch. I offer affordable therapy based on your individual circumstance. My background is in psychology and I work with individuals over the age of 16. We work at your pace, with empathy and collaboration. I am an Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with the BABCP. Get in touch by email to book your free consultation.
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Photo of Emma M McArthur, Psychotherapist in Stirling, Scotland
Emma M McArthur
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
Creating a space for personal growth in therapy begins with the development of a safe therapeutic relationship. My approach offers a safe, confidential, and non-judgmental active listening space where you can take time to explore your experience. This allows us to work together to define areas that may require our attention first and to check in on how you are experiencing your internal and external environment. Doing this helps to form a clearer picture of environmental, emotional, physical, cognitive, and behavioural events in your experience and how you currently manage and respond to them.
Creating a space for personal growth in therapy begins with the development of a safe therapeutic relationship. My approach offers a safe, confidential, and non-judgmental active listening space where you can take time to explore your experience. This allows us to work together to define areas that may require our attention first and to check in on how you are experiencing your internal and external environment. Doing this helps to form a clearer picture of environmental, emotional, physical, cognitive, and behavioural events in your experience and how you currently manage and respond to them.
01259 235151 View 01259 235151
Photo of HMH Therapy in Stirling, Scotland
HMH Therapy
Verified Verified
Stirling FK7
Hi my name is Heather Hutchison of HMH Therapy and I am an experienced Hypnotherapist, Supervisor and Trainer. My areas of specialisms are Anxiety and/or Depression as well treating the more traditional hypnotherapy areas such as smoking cessation, habit breaks and weight management. I work with both adults and children from the age of 7 years upwards using a client centred approached. I hold an enhanced full disclosure certificate enabling me to work with children and vulnerable adults.
Hi my name is Heather Hutchison of HMH Therapy and I am an experienced Hypnotherapist, Supervisor and Trainer. My areas of specialisms are Anxiety and/or Depression as well treating the more traditional hypnotherapy areas such as smoking cessation, habit breaks and weight management. I work with both adults and children from the age of 7 years upwards using a client centred approached. I hold an enhanced full disclosure certificate enabling me to work with children and vulnerable adults.
01324 468294 View 01324 468294
Photo of Ellie Morris, Counsellor in Stirling, Scotland
Ellie Morris
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Stirling FK9
Welcome, I understand how daunting it can be to start counselling. I am an approachable, non-judgemental and compassionate person who can provide a safe space for you to talk. I will work with your individual needs, style of learning in a creative, open, and empathetic environment. I can help you develop coping mechanisms to use after counselling and beyond. I look forward to hearing from you. Ellie
Welcome, I understand how daunting it can be to start counselling. I am an approachable, non-judgemental and compassionate person who can provide a safe space for you to talk. I will work with your individual needs, style of learning in a creative, open, and empathetic environment. I can help you develop coping mechanisms to use after counselling and beyond. I look forward to hearing from you. Ellie
0141 673 2516 View 0141 673 2516

See more therapy options for Stirling

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Stirling

50+

Average cost per session

£65

Counsellors in Stirling who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
90% Self Esteem
86% Stress
81% Depression
78% Coping Skills
71% Relationship Issues
71% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Aviva
58% AXA PPP
58% WPA

How Counsellors in Stirling see their clients

73% In Person and Online
27% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Stirling?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.