Counselling in Inverness

Photo of Amber Path Counselling, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Amber Path Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Inverness IV3
Hi, my name is Susan. Are you struggling with anxiety, stress, intrusive thoughts, reliving the past, or feel anxious about the future? Maybe you would like to increase your self-esteem or confidence? Are you in a relationship that is unhealthy or abusive? I can support you to find a path to a new way of life. I provide confidential counselling on a face to face, video/online, telephone or email basis, tailored to your personal needs. Give me a call to arrange a free 30 minute telephone consultation to get a feel of whether we would work well together and ask me any questions you may have. I am based in Clachnaharry, Inverness.
Hi, my name is Susan. Are you struggling with anxiety, stress, intrusive thoughts, reliving the past, or feel anxious about the future? Maybe you would like to increase your self-esteem or confidence? Are you in a relationship that is unhealthy or abusive? I can support you to find a path to a new way of life. I provide confidential counselling on a face to face, video/online, telephone or email basis, tailored to your personal needs. Give me a call to arrange a free 30 minute telephone consultation to get a feel of whether we would work well together and ask me any questions you may have. I am based in Clachnaharry, Inverness.
01386 574255 View 01386 574255
Photo of Laura Johnston-Scott, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Laura Johnston-Scott
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Inverness IV3
Not accepting new clients
Hello and thank you for visiting my profile. I am person-centred counsellor and my aim is to offer you a space where you will find a warm, non-judgmental haven for exploring your thoughts, emotions, and life's challenges. Life can sometimes become overwhelming, and seeking help is a courageous step towards achieving better mental health.
Hello and thank you for visiting my profile. I am person-centred counsellor and my aim is to offer you a space where you will find a warm, non-judgmental haven for exploring your thoughts, emotions, and life's challenges. Life can sometimes become overwhelming, and seeking help is a courageous step towards achieving better mental health.
01463 217790 View 01463 217790
Photo of Jen Keppie, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Jen Keppie
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Inverness IV2
Do you feel as if you have lost a sense of who you are, what it means to be you? Maybe life’s responsibilities have meant your needs have always come second or you have always had a particular role that limits you in freely expressing your own needs. Maybe relationships or circumstances in your life have dominated your choices, and external judgement and expectations tend to shape and influence your life more than you’d like. Or perhaps a life event has led you to re-evaluate and reassess what feels important. It can be confusing and disempowering to feel so disconnected from the things in life that make you feel like you.
Do you feel as if you have lost a sense of who you are, what it means to be you? Maybe life’s responsibilities have meant your needs have always come second or you have always had a particular role that limits you in freely expressing your own needs. Maybe relationships or circumstances in your life have dominated your choices, and external judgement and expectations tend to shape and influence your life more than you’d like. Or perhaps a life event has led you to re-evaluate and reassess what feels important. It can be confusing and disempowering to feel so disconnected from the things in life that make you feel like you.
01555 700628 View 01555 700628
Photo of Highland Trauma Services, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Highland Trauma Services
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Inverness IV4
Waitlist for new clients
Deciding on the right therapist needs careful consideration. Welcome to evidence based approaches which get to the heart of the matter. I offer assessment and treatment which is based on up to date neuroscience to help reclaim your life. We now know that common signs of unprocessed past traumatic life events can present as depression, anxiety, panic, phobia, social anxiety and / or addiction . Please look up Highland Trauma Services to learn a little more about my clinical experience and qualifications in mental health.
Deciding on the right therapist needs careful consideration. Welcome to evidence based approaches which get to the heart of the matter. I offer assessment and treatment which is based on up to date neuroscience to help reclaim your life. We now know that common signs of unprocessed past traumatic life events can present as depression, anxiety, panic, phobia, social anxiety and / or addiction . Please look up Highland Trauma Services to learn a little more about my clinical experience and qualifications in mental health.
01456 494629 View 01456 494629
Photo of Tracy Sedgeworth, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Tracy Sedgeworth
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified
Inverness IV1
Not accepting new clients
Making the decision to see a therapist is a big step forward in dealing with what is troubling you and it can be difficult to know where to start. Finding the right therapist for you is an important first step. I aim to provide a comfortable and supportive environment, where we will work through whatever is troubling you at your own pace. You will be listened to, accepted and respected regardless of what you tell me. I will not tell you what to do, but will do my best to support you in working through any difficulties you may be experiencing and to give you the space to make the decisions that are right for you.
Making the decision to see a therapist is a big step forward in dealing with what is troubling you and it can be difficult to know where to start. Finding the right therapist for you is an important first step. I aim to provide a comfortable and supportive environment, where we will work through whatever is troubling you at your own pace. You will be listened to, accepted and respected regardless of what you tell me. I will not tell you what to do, but will do my best to support you in working through any difficulties you may be experiencing and to give you the space to make the decisions that are right for you.
01456 498698 View 01456 498698
Photo of Shona Mackay, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Shona Mackay
Counsellor
Verified
Inverness IV2
I am a qualified Person-Centred Counsellor and Psychotherapist, based in the Highlands. Opening up to someone can be difficult and feel uncomfortable, so I aim to offer a safe, confidential, genuine and accepting environment where you can explore your thoughts, emotions and the challenges you are facing. A person-centred approach allows you to have control over the content and pace of your sessions, with no expectations or judgement. As we build our relationship, I want you to feel free and supported to disclose whatever is troubling you.
I am a qualified Person-Centred Counsellor and Psychotherapist, based in the Highlands. Opening up to someone can be difficult and feel uncomfortable, so I aim to offer a safe, confidential, genuine and accepting environment where you can explore your thoughts, emotions and the challenges you are facing. A person-centred approach allows you to have control over the content and pace of your sessions, with no expectations or judgement. As we build our relationship, I want you to feel free and supported to disclose whatever is troubling you.
01456 498699 View 01456 498699
Photo of James McComas, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
James McComas
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MCOSCA
Verified
Inverness IV2
I am an experienced practitioner who offers counselling / psychotherapy from a person-centred perspective. I aim to support clients as they explore their unique situation and beliefs, enabling them to trust and understand themselves better. I help clients to Identify things that aren’t working in their lives and look at how these can be improved, so that life becomes more worth while and relationships with self and others more enriching.  I provide a safe space where a person can be listened to without judgement. This creates a powerful experience which can lead to lasting positive change.
I am an experienced practitioner who offers counselling / psychotherapy from a person-centred perspective. I aim to support clients as they explore their unique situation and beliefs, enabling them to trust and understand themselves better. I help clients to Identify things that aren’t working in their lives and look at how these can be improved, so that life becomes more worth while and relationships with self and others more enriching.  I provide a safe space where a person can be listened to without judgement. This creates a powerful experience which can lead to lasting positive change.
01456 498688 View 01456 498688
Photo of Dr David Herd, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Dr David Herd
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified
Inverness IV2
If you're struggling with emotional distress, psychotherapy can help. Understanding your symptoms is often the first step towards recovery. If you can see a rational explanation for your problems, you are likely to engage in a hopeful way with therapy to restore your mental health. I would listen carefully to your account of what you face on a daily basis and to what it was like to be a child, an adolescent and an adult in your particular family setting. I would also be interested in what helps you cope. Reclaiming your normal life will involve building on your own strengths and on relationships with those you trust.
If you're struggling with emotional distress, psychotherapy can help. Understanding your symptoms is often the first step towards recovery. If you can see a rational explanation for your problems, you are likely to engage in a hopeful way with therapy to restore your mental health. I would listen carefully to your account of what you face on a daily basis and to what it was like to be a child, an adolescent and an adult in your particular family setting. I would also be interested in what helps you cope. Reclaiming your normal life will involve building on your own strengths and on relationships with those you trust.
01456 494637 View 01456 494637
Photo of Shaun Simon, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Shaun Simon
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified
3 Endorsed
Inverness IV2
I’m a person-centred counsellor based in the North of Scotland. I offer one-to-one sessions with adults, face-to-face in Inverness, or online and by phone from anywhere in the UK. I offer a compassionate and personalised approach to counselling, with the aim to bring about the change you desire and to nurture your well-being. As a person-centred psychotherapist, my main goal is to assist you in understanding and dealing with your thoughts, emotions, and personal challenges.
I’m a person-centred counsellor based in the North of Scotland. I offer one-to-one sessions with adults, face-to-face in Inverness, or online and by phone from anywhere in the UK. I offer a compassionate and personalised approach to counselling, with the aim to bring about the change you desire and to nurture your well-being. As a person-centred psychotherapist, my main goal is to assist you in understanding and dealing with your thoughts, emotions, and personal challenges.
01456 494628 View 01456 494628
Photo of Julia Donald - Cognitive Vitality Ltd, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Julia Donald - Cognitive Vitality Ltd
Psychotherapist, MA, MBABCP
Verified
Inverness IV2  (Online Only)
Life is full of ups and downs. There are times it can feel like an endless uphill battle with little reprieve. Maybe you are noticing an increase in feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or overwhelmed. Perhaps you are having issues at work, your relationships, low self esteem or the loss of a loved one. If you have experienced childhood or adult trauma(s) there may be painful memories, flashbacks or nightmares disrupting your life, even many years after the event. I work with most mental health concerns but specialise in trauma, anxiety, dissociation, fertility issues, baby loss and low self esteem. I work exclusively online.
Life is full of ups and downs. There are times it can feel like an endless uphill battle with little reprieve. Maybe you are noticing an increase in feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or overwhelmed. Perhaps you are having issues at work, your relationships, low self esteem or the loss of a loved one. If you have experienced childhood or adult trauma(s) there may be painful memories, flashbacks or nightmares disrupting your life, even many years after the event. I work with most mental health concerns but specialise in trauma, anxiety, dissociation, fertility issues, baby loss and low self esteem. I work exclusively online.
01463 630027 View 01463 630027
Photo of Katie McInnes, Psychologist in Inverness, Scotland
Katie McInnes
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Inverness IV2
Not accepting new clients
I know how difficult it can be to choose the right practitioner, so please take your time to read through my profile and feel free to contact me if you have any questions. I use person-centred therapy, CBT and EMDR. If life is getting you down and you struggle with things like worry, fear, trauma, low-mood, sleep problems or relationship issues, I can help. I also offer professional supervision to counsellors, trainee and qualified psychologists.
I know how difficult it can be to choose the right practitioner, so please take your time to read through my profile and feel free to contact me if you have any questions. I use person-centred therapy, CBT and EMDR. If life is getting you down and you struggle with things like worry, fear, trauma, low-mood, sleep problems or relationship issues, I can help. I also offer professional supervision to counsellors, trainee and qualified psychologists.
View
Photo of Rae Moss, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Rae Moss
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Inverness IV1  (Online Only)
Whatever you’re going through, you’ve arrived here because you want something in your life to be different. This could be the way you feel / think about yourself, your relationships with others, and / or your world. It can be difficult to know where to turn and sometimes you can feel very alone, struggling to open up to those around you for fear of being burdensome, not understood or accepted. Therapy is an empowering process, supporting you to become more aware of and connect with yourself. Through it you'll heal past wounds, identify and prioritise your needs, enhancing the feeling of security within yourself and relationships.
Whatever you’re going through, you’ve arrived here because you want something in your life to be different. This could be the way you feel / think about yourself, your relationships with others, and / or your world. It can be difficult to know where to turn and sometimes you can feel very alone, struggling to open up to those around you for fear of being burdensome, not understood or accepted. Therapy is an empowering process, supporting you to become more aware of and connect with yourself. Through it you'll heal past wounds, identify and prioritise your needs, enhancing the feeling of security within yourself and relationships.
View
Photo of Christine Anne Lauritsen, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Christine Anne Lauritsen
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified
Inverness IV2
Difficult and challenging life situations affect us all. Sometimes however, we can get overwhelmed or find it a struggle to cope with these things, whether they are in our surroundings, our relationships or in our own thinking and general emotional health. If you feel that you would benefit from support, then it would be my sincere hope that by working with me you would quickly recover a sense of equilibrium and get back on track.
Difficult and challenging life situations affect us all. Sometimes however, we can get overwhelmed or find it a struggle to cope with these things, whether they are in our surroundings, our relationships or in our own thinking and general emotional health. If you feel that you would benefit from support, then it would be my sincere hope that by working with me you would quickly recover a sense of equilibrium and get back on track.
01463 212096 View 01463 212096
Photo of Lara Fraser, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Lara Fraser
Counsellor, MSc
Verified
Inverness IV2
With the right therapeutic approach, it is possible to make our problems more manageable, whether new or ongoing issues. When engaging in talking therapy we all expect a non-judgmental, supportive space to explore or address, re-visit or understand current issues that are holding you back from achieving your desired happiness and well-being. I will support you on this journey with my knowledge, strength, optimism, support and commitment to you as an individual. I promise to be there for you every step of your journey to help you heal from your pain, and move forward more positively
With the right therapeutic approach, it is possible to make our problems more manageable, whether new or ongoing issues. When engaging in talking therapy we all expect a non-judgmental, supportive space to explore or address, re-visit or understand current issues that are holding you back from achieving your desired happiness and well-being. I will support you on this journey with my knowledge, strength, optimism, support and commitment to you as an individual. I promise to be there for you every step of your journey to help you heal from your pain, and move forward more positively
01456 498712 View 01456 498712
Photo of Psychosexual Therapy , Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Psychosexual Therapy
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Inverness IV2
I am an accredited therapist . And I offer sessions online . I do offer face to face sessions after a period of assessment. My work is with psychosexual and complusive sexual behaviours, Poly solo and poly couples .I work with people who need mediation; divorcing couples; who are struggling with thier complusive sexual behaviour relationship trauma from thier kink, bdsm life styl. I work with survivors of sexual assult, sexual , physical and emotional and or finicial abuse; I have 30 years of work experince and am police checked. I work within a sex postive framework I provide clinical supervision
I am an accredited therapist . And I offer sessions online . I do offer face to face sessions after a period of assessment. My work is with psychosexual and complusive sexual behaviours, Poly solo and poly couples .I work with people who need mediation; divorcing couples; who are struggling with thier complusive sexual behaviour relationship trauma from thier kink, bdsm life styl. I work with survivors of sexual assult, sexual , physical and emotional and or finicial abuse; I have 30 years of work experince and am police checked. I work within a sex postive framework I provide clinical supervision
01456 498690 View 01456 498690
Photo of Jack McDonald Counselling and Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in Inverness, Scotland
Jack McDonald Counselling and Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, DCounsPsych, MCOSCA
Verified
Inverness IV3
My name is Jack and I am a person-centred counsellor and psychotherapist working in Inverness. I provide one-to-one therapy for adults and offer in-person appointments, online (Zoom) appointments, and telephone appointments. There are many reasons why you might be considering coming to therapy. Maybe you are looking for some help with a specific personal or emotional issue, or perhaps you have a more general sense of just not feeling okay. Whatever is troubling you, I can offer you the chance to discuss your problems in a safe, compassionate, and non-judgmental environment.
My name is Jack and I am a person-centred counsellor and psychotherapist working in Inverness. I provide one-to-one therapy for adults and offer in-person appointments, online (Zoom) appointments, and telephone appointments. There are many reasons why you might be considering coming to therapy. Maybe you are looking for some help with a specific personal or emotional issue, or perhaps you have a more general sense of just not feeling okay. Whatever is troubling you, I can offer you the chance to discuss your problems in a safe, compassionate, and non-judgmental environment.
01463 217287 View 01463 217287
Photo of Sarah Manson Psychotherapy , Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Sarah Manson Psychotherapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Inverness IV2
Hello and welcome! As a counsellor I don't believe in a cold and clinical approach, which is how many people think counselling might feel! I bring my whole self and personality into the session so you feel like you are talking to a real person. Reaching out for support takes a lot of courage, and sending that first email can feel like the toughest step. As someone who has received my own personal therapy, I really believe that knowledge is power, and the more I can help you to understand what is going on for you, the more control you will feel over your own life.
Hello and welcome! As a counsellor I don't believe in a cold and clinical approach, which is how many people think counselling might feel! I bring my whole self and personality into the session so you feel like you are talking to a real person. Reaching out for support takes a lot of courage, and sending that first email can feel like the toughest step. As someone who has received my own personal therapy, I really believe that knowledge is power, and the more I can help you to understand what is going on for you, the more control you will feel over your own life.
View
Photo of Brooke Hulsizer in Inverness, Scotland
Brooke Hulsizer
MSc
Inverness IV2
I am originally from the USA, where I have experience working with adults, families, and groups in both inpatient and outpatient settings. My passions lie in working with people impacted by trauma, attachment disorders, relational distress, addiction, depression/anxiety, and general unhappiness. I often work alongside my clients to figure out why they feel the way they do and identify their needs based on what we discover. I use modalities like CBT, DBT, Emotion-Focused Therapy, and EMDR to understand and heal underlying causes of external problems.
I am originally from the USA, where I have experience working with adults, families, and groups in both inpatient and outpatient settings. My passions lie in working with people impacted by trauma, attachment disorders, relational distress, addiction, depression/anxiety, and general unhappiness. I often work alongside my clients to figure out why they feel the way they do and identify their needs based on what we discover. I use modalities like CBT, DBT, Emotion-Focused Therapy, and EMDR to understand and heal underlying causes of external problems.
01456 494627 View 01456 494627
Photo of Lorraine Davidson, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Lorraine Davidson
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Inverness IV1
I understand that life can become difficult and stressful. Some situations can feel overwhelming. I'm here to listen and to start you on the path to good mental health. Counselling provides a regular time and space for you to talk about your troubles and explore difficult feelings in an environment that is dependable, free from intrusion and confidential. Your viewpoint will always be respected. Counselling can support you to deal with specific problems, cope with a crisis, improve your relationships, or develop better ways of living. You can gain insight into your feelings and behaviour and make positive changes for mental health
I understand that life can become difficult and stressful. Some situations can feel overwhelming. I'm here to listen and to start you on the path to good mental health. Counselling provides a regular time and space for you to talk about your troubles and explore difficult feelings in an environment that is dependable, free from intrusion and confidential. Your viewpoint will always be respected. Counselling can support you to deal with specific problems, cope with a crisis, improve your relationships, or develop better ways of living. You can gain insight into your feelings and behaviour and make positive changes for mental health
01408 910351 View 01408 910351
Photo of Catriona Bowie, Counsellor in Inverness, Scotland
Catriona Bowie
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified
Inverness IV1
There are countless reasons why someone might be looking for a counsellor. Everyone in the world is unique and as such their worries, concerns or issues are also unique. In the current climate the world has changed and as such you life might have too. As a Person Centred Counsellor my hope is to help you through whatever is not right for you and to be able to help you be the best you possible. I offer a safe, supportive, confidential and non-judgemental place for your counselling journey.
There are countless reasons why someone might be looking for a counsellor. Everyone in the world is unique and as such their worries, concerns or issues are also unique. In the current climate the world has changed and as such you life might have too. As a Person Centred Counsellor my hope is to help you through whatever is not right for you and to be able to help you be the best you possible. I offer a safe, supportive, confidential and non-judgemental place for your counselling journey.
01456 498719 View 01456 498719

See more therapy options for Inverness

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Inverness

50+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Inverness who prioritize treating:

86% Anxiety
83% Depression
81% Self Esteem
78% Relationship Issues
78% Stress
68% Bereavement
68% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

6 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

56% Aviva
56% AXA PPP
56% Vitality

How Counsellors in Inverness see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Inverness?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.