Counselling in Bonnington, Edinburgh

Photo of Shannon Jones, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Shannon Jones
Counsellor, MA, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I am a person-centered counsellor with a background in private practice and independent schools. I believe that healing happens in the context of relationships, and I am dedicated to cultivating a safe and welcoming environment where clients can come as they are and work collaboratively toward their goals. It takes great strength to decide to come to counselling and it has been a joy to witness the healing that happens when clients give themselves space to slow down and process.
I am a person-centered counsellor with a background in private practice and independent schools. I believe that healing happens in the context of relationships, and I am dedicated to cultivating a safe and welcoming environment where clients can come as they are and work collaboratively toward their goals. It takes great strength to decide to come to counselling and it has been a joy to witness the healing that happens when clients give themselves space to slow down and process.
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Photo of Isabel Martinez, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Isabel Martinez
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I offer a safe space for clients who might be struggling with life situations or want to work on self awareness. My main interest as a therapist is to accompany my clients in a process of self discovery that inspires growth.
I offer a safe space for clients who might be struggling with life situations or want to work on self awareness. My main interest as a therapist is to accompany my clients in a process of self discovery that inspires growth.
01764 915910 View 01764 915910
Photo of Ruth Burnett, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Ruth Burnett
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1  (Online Only)
Children and teenagers can benefit from counselling therapies, and studies show that these are hugely effective, both in the short and long term. For older kids and teens, talking therapy can provide a unique space to safely explore what's going on to make them sad, angry, or anxious. For younger children, using play and art, as well as talking therapy, can help them begin to piece together things that might be difficult for them. Life doesn't always go according to plan, and sometimes things happen that no one is prepared for - an accident, a traumatic experience, a situation no one could have foreseen happening.
Children and teenagers can benefit from counselling therapies, and studies show that these are hugely effective, both in the short and long term. For older kids and teens, talking therapy can provide a unique space to safely explore what's going on to make them sad, angry, or anxious. For younger children, using play and art, as well as talking therapy, can help them begin to piece together things that might be difficult for them. Life doesn't always go according to plan, and sometimes things happen that no one is prepared for - an accident, a traumatic experience, a situation no one could have foreseen happening.
0131 510 3790 View 0131 510 3790
Photo of Summerside Counselling, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Summerside Counselling
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH3
At Summerside Counselling we can help with issues including stress, anxiety, depression, loss, and low self esteem amongst many others. Our experienced counsellors are fully qualified and offer effective and affordable counselling. We can help you explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to have a better understanding of yourself which in turn brings acceptance and healing.
At Summerside Counselling we can help with issues including stress, anxiety, depression, loss, and low self esteem amongst many others. Our experienced counsellors are fully qualified and offer effective and affordable counselling. We can help you explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to have a better understanding of yourself which in turn brings acceptance and healing.
0131 381 8280 View 0131 381 8280
Photo of Child and Brain, Psychologist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Child and Brain
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
Has your child anxiety? Sensory or motor issues? Struggles at school? Can you cope with these? Have you had any assessment and/without medication but it seems not to be enough? Your child might have ADHD, Dyslexia, development delay or something else, but solutions offered do not improve their quality of life? Primitive reflexes integration therapy can help. Neuroscience techniques are developing quickly nowadays, and therapies based on neuroplasticity stimulation are under science research giving great results.
Has your child anxiety? Sensory or motor issues? Struggles at school? Can you cope with these? Have you had any assessment and/without medication but it seems not to be enough? Your child might have ADHD, Dyslexia, development delay or something else, but solutions offered do not improve their quality of life? Primitive reflexes integration therapy can help. Neuroscience techniques are developing quickly nowadays, and therapies based on neuroplasticity stimulation are under science research giving great results.
0131 381 0268 View 0131 381 0268
Sinéad Ní Mhaoileoin
Psychotherapist, COSRT General
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH4
I am a highly qualified Relationship & Sex Therapist with 15 years experience. I am also trained in 2 evidence-based treatment models, each grounded in decades of research, Emotionally Focused Therapy and The Gottman Method. These provide us with deeper understandings and knowledge of what is required to help couples build more secure, resilient and loving bonds. Often, couples in distress don't know how to respond to each other in the face of emotional turmoil as a result of not getting the love they need and want from each other. Unlocking these co-created patterns of dis-connection with a relationship therapist is often required.
I am a highly qualified Relationship & Sex Therapist with 15 years experience. I am also trained in 2 evidence-based treatment models, each grounded in decades of research, Emotionally Focused Therapy and The Gottman Method. These provide us with deeper understandings and knowledge of what is required to help couples build more secure, resilient and loving bonds. Often, couples in distress don't know how to respond to each other in the face of emotional turmoil as a result of not getting the love they need and want from each other. Unlocking these co-created patterns of dis-connection with a relationship therapist is often required.
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Photo of Polly Bennett, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Polly Bennett
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I will work with you as a whole person to find and create a space for change and growth. It can be incredibly difficult to pause and see with clarity how to be who we want to be. It is my belief that change is possible. Therapy is one way to begin that change you are searching for. I know that you are the expert on your own life. In listening deeply alongside asking questions I will reflect aspects of you which may struggle to be known. I know the importance of feeling heard and understood in relation to another. I am a depth therapist which means I work on what underlies issues. I work both long and short term.
I will work with you as a whole person to find and create a space for change and growth. It can be incredibly difficult to pause and see with clarity how to be who we want to be. It is my belief that change is possible. Therapy is one way to begin that change you are searching for. I know that you are the expert on your own life. In listening deeply alongside asking questions I will reflect aspects of you which may struggle to be known. I know the importance of feeling heard and understood in relation to another. I am a depth therapist which means I work on what underlies issues. I work both long and short term.
0131 381 6357 View 0131 381 6357
Irene M C Soldavini
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH3  (Online Only)
I am Irene, a registered BACP counsellor. My academic and life experiences have allowed me to understand intrapersonal and interpersonal complexities individuals face. I believe each client is unique, and my practice focuses on creating a tailored counselling experience for each individual by creating an inclusive, non-judgmental space for them to explore, and become aware of their experiences and feelings. I offer counselling sessions in English and Italian.
I am Irene, a registered BACP counsellor. My academic and life experiences have allowed me to understand intrapersonal and interpersonal complexities individuals face. I believe each client is unique, and my practice focuses on creating a tailored counselling experience for each individual by creating an inclusive, non-judgmental space for them to explore, and become aware of their experiences and feelings. I offer counselling sessions in English and Italian.
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Photo of Psicología en Edimburgo, Psychologist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Psicología en Edimburgo
Psychologist, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
People usually come to therapy when they feel that they no longer have the ability to deal with the difficulties they are experiencing, or maybe when they identified a pattern in their behaviour that creates suffering, when many emotions or thoughts come at the same time and make it impossible to cope with them, when they want to learn about themselves and get deep down to get a better relationship with oneself, when the previous ways of coping and support by friends and relatives are not enough to offer them the solutions and relief they seek. Either the reason to come to therapy, it's valid because it's your own.
People usually come to therapy when they feel that they no longer have the ability to deal with the difficulties they are experiencing, or maybe when they identified a pattern in their behaviour that creates suffering, when many emotions or thoughts come at the same time and make it impossible to cope with them, when they want to learn about themselves and get deep down to get a better relationship with oneself, when the previous ways of coping and support by friends and relatives are not enough to offer them the solutions and relief they seek. Either the reason to come to therapy, it's valid because it's your own.
0131 381 0242 View 0131 381 0242
Photo of Nicoletta Katseniou, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Nicoletta Katseniou
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH6
Hello and welcome! I'm Nicoletta, a qualified therapist based in Edinburgh, Scotland. I offer in-person or online sessions if you prefer the comfort of your own space. My approach is based on the core principles of trauma-informed practice which means that I work within a non-hierarchical framework that offers safety, choices, collaboration, trustworthiness and transparency. As we do not live in a vacuum, I firmly believe in the importance of exploring sociocultural, environmental and economic factors that contribute to the origin and maintenance of psychological distress.
Hello and welcome! I'm Nicoletta, a qualified therapist based in Edinburgh, Scotland. I offer in-person or online sessions if you prefer the comfort of your own space. My approach is based on the core principles of trauma-informed practice which means that I work within a non-hierarchical framework that offers safety, choices, collaboration, trustworthiness and transparency. As we do not live in a vacuum, I firmly believe in the importance of exploring sociocultural, environmental and economic factors that contribute to the origin and maintenance of psychological distress.
0131 381 8957 View 0131 381 8957
Photo of Dr Mikaela Sansone-Pollock, Psychologist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Dr Mikaela Sansone-Pollock
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
Hi, I’m Mikaela, a counselling psychologist with a strong belief that every person is deserving of self-regard, respect, and support to live their best life. From the moment we meet I will receive you and your concerns without judgment. I am trained in  multiple modalities to support people like you to feel better. Whether you have been experiencing low mood or anxiety, panic attacks, trauma-related symptoms, low self-esteem, or any of the many other challenges that one can experience in life, I am here to help.
Hi, I’m Mikaela, a counselling psychologist with a strong belief that every person is deserving of self-regard, respect, and support to live their best life. From the moment we meet I will receive you and your concerns without judgment. I am trained in  multiple modalities to support people like you to feel better. Whether you have been experiencing low mood or anxiety, panic attacks, trauma-related symptoms, low self-esteem, or any of the many other challenges that one can experience in life, I am here to help.
0131 381 2606 View 0131 381 2606
Photo of Ruth Lynch, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Ruth Lynch
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH6
I'm Ruth, a CBT and REBT therapist helping clients UK wide, online, or face to face in my therapy room in Edinburgh. I integrate a variety of alternative therapies such as compassion focussed therapy, acceptance focussed and CT Therapy, tailoring to each individual's personal problems and situations. My approach is a collaborative journey, introducing cognitive tools to help manage your unhealthy negative emotions and thoughts. For those who prefer simply talking, I am an experienced counsellor and life coach.
I'm Ruth, a CBT and REBT therapist helping clients UK wide, online, or face to face in my therapy room in Edinburgh. I integrate a variety of alternative therapies such as compassion focussed therapy, acceptance focussed and CT Therapy, tailoring to each individual's personal problems and situations. My approach is a collaborative journey, introducing cognitive tools to help manage your unhealthy negative emotions and thoughts. For those who prefer simply talking, I am an experienced counsellor and life coach.
020 3835 5615 View 020 3835 5615
Photo of Jessica J Sweet, Psychologist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Jessica J Sweet
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH7  (Online Only)
Feeling overwhelmed or stuck? Struggling with time management, goal-setting, motivation, relationships, or self-care? I can offer you practical strategies and support to face challenges and achieve your goals. We all have moments when life can feel like too much, whether we're neurotypical or neurodivergent. Let's team up to boost your self-assurance, improve your relationships, reach your goals, and find that sense of fulfillment that you deserve. Together, we'll create a personalised plan that capitalises on your individual strengths and vewpoint. A free 15 min. call will help us decide whether therapy or coaching would suit you.
Feeling overwhelmed or stuck? Struggling with time management, goal-setting, motivation, relationships, or self-care? I can offer you practical strategies and support to face challenges and achieve your goals. We all have moments when life can feel like too much, whether we're neurotypical or neurodivergent. Let's team up to boost your self-assurance, improve your relationships, reach your goals, and find that sense of fulfillment that you deserve. Together, we'll create a personalised plan that capitalises on your individual strengths and vewpoint. A free 15 min. call will help us decide whether therapy or coaching would suit you.
0131 381 5066 View 0131 381 5066
Photo of Russell Counselling, Counsellor in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Russell Counselling
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I know that the decision to seek therapy and to find a suitable therapist can be daunting, so my approach is to never forget what it is like to sit in the client’s chair. Whether you're going through separation and divorce, experiencing abuse, depression, trauma, generally feeling sad or struggling with other emotional issues, I can help. I am here for You.
I know that the decision to seek therapy and to find a suitable therapist can be daunting, so my approach is to never forget what it is like to sit in the client’s chair. Whether you're going through separation and divorce, experiencing abuse, depression, trauma, generally feeling sad or struggling with other emotional issues, I can help. I am here for You.
0131 357 6150 View 0131 357 6150
Photo of Maria Banaszkiewicz, Psychotherapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Maria Banaszkiewicz
Psychotherapist, MA, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
Searching for the right therapist can be an energy and time-consuming process. I am a Relational Integrative Psychotherapist in training, registered with UKCP. I also completed my master's degree in Psychology and I am a graduate member of BPS. I offer you a unique relationship where you can explore the patterns and scripts which have shaped your way of being with yourself and other people in a safe and sensitive way.
Searching for the right therapist can be an energy and time-consuming process. I am a Relational Integrative Psychotherapist in training, registered with UKCP. I also completed my master's degree in Psychology and I am a graduate member of BPS. I offer you a unique relationship where you can explore the patterns and scripts which have shaped your way of being with yourself and other people in a safe and sensitive way.
0131 381 0054 View 0131 381 0054
Photo of Fiona Simpson, Psychologist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Fiona Simpson
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I am a Chartered Psychologist with over 20 years’ experience of working with people across the age range to manage and overcome psychological problems. I work with most types of psychological problems and greatly enjoy the diversity of my practice. I use a number of different psychological therapies, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interpersonal psychotherapy, Schema-focussed Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) targeting problems with the most effective evidence based
I am a Chartered Psychologist with over 20 years’ experience of working with people across the age range to manage and overcome psychological problems. I work with most types of psychological problems and greatly enjoy the diversity of my practice. I use a number of different psychological therapies, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interpersonal psychotherapy, Schema-focussed Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) targeting problems with the most effective evidence based
0131 378 1294 View 0131 378 1294
Photo of Priyanka Pookadan, Psychotherapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Priyanka Pookadan
Psychotherapist, MSc, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
Sometimes life throws challenges in front of us which we may struggle to cope with. This could be a sudden and unexpected change like a loss or bereavement. It could be something that we have always struggled with that is making it challenging to move forward with life. Situations such as these can be stressful, and sometimes we can't shake off the anxiety and depression or we may even experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure in usually pleasurable activities). It might also be a past trauma or abuse that is causing the challenges in the present life, revealing itself as panic for example.
Sometimes life throws challenges in front of us which we may struggle to cope with. This could be a sudden and unexpected change like a loss or bereavement. It could be something that we have always struggled with that is making it challenging to move forward with life. Situations such as these can be stressful, and sometimes we can't shake off the anxiety and depression or we may even experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure in usually pleasurable activities). It might also be a past trauma or abuse that is causing the challenges in the present life, revealing itself as panic for example.
01764 915906 View 01764 915906
Photo of Ken Lee, Psychotherapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Ken Lee
Psychotherapist, MSc, ACP
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
I am a child and adolescent psychotherapist with more than 13 years experience working in the NHS, CAMHS teams and private sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and also support to parents and carers. I have experience treating adolescents with depression, psychotherapy for care experienced children and university students with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy for children who have a diagnosis of autism and ADHD who suffer from emotional difficulties.
I am a child and adolescent psychotherapist with more than 13 years experience working in the NHS, CAMHS teams and private sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and also support to parents and carers. I have experience treating adolescents with depression, psychotherapy for care experienced children and university students with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy for children who have a diagnosis of autism and ADHD who suffer from emotional difficulties.
0131 381 2995 View 0131 381 2995
Photo of The Anchor Practice, Psychotherapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
The Anchor Practice
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH1
The Anchor Practice is a private mental health service specialising in the treatment of children, adolescents, young adults and families. Our clinicians have trained to the highest standards within the NHS, and have many years of experience providing clinical work in NHS CAMHS teams, as well as teaching on academic and clinical university courses. At The Anchor Practice we offer thorough assessment and treatment for a wide range of mental health difficulties, and a number of our treatments are currently recommended in NICE guidelines. A full description of our services can be found at: www.theanchorpractice.co.uk
The Anchor Practice is a private mental health service specialising in the treatment of children, adolescents, young adults and families. Our clinicians have trained to the highest standards within the NHS, and have many years of experience providing clinical work in NHS CAMHS teams, as well as teaching on academic and clinical university courses. At The Anchor Practice we offer thorough assessment and treatment for a wide range of mental health difficulties, and a number of our treatments are currently recommended in NICE guidelines. A full description of our services can be found at: www.theanchorpractice.co.uk
0131 297 6121 View 0131 297 6121
Photo of Taylor Broughton, Psychotherapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh, Scotland
Taylor Broughton
Psychotherapist, MA, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Bonnington, Edinburgh EH3  (Online Only)
UPDATE: Out of office until April 15th, 2024. I have space for new clients from May. Just Human Therapy is a humanist, feminist, LGBTQ+ affirming online counselling service based in Scotland. Going to therapy can feel tough, so I aim to make it as approachable as possible. Often this isn't a quick fix, but an explorative, collaborative process to come back to who you are and what you need. If you're struggling with low mood, lingering trauma affects, or obsessive worry, I can support your steps forward.
UPDATE: Out of office until April 15th, 2024. I have space for new clients from May. Just Human Therapy is a humanist, feminist, LGBTQ+ affirming online counselling service based in Scotland. Going to therapy can feel tough, so I aim to make it as approachable as possible. Often this isn't a quick fix, but an explorative, collaborative process to come back to who you are and what you need. If you're struggling with low mood, lingering trauma affects, or obsessive worry, I can support your steps forward.
0131 381 8529 View 0131 381 8529

See more therapy options for Bonnington, Edinburgh

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Bonnington, Edinburgh

40+

Average cost per session

£65

Counsellors in Bonnington, Edinburgh who prioritize treating:

85% Anxiety
77% Self Esteem
73% Depression
71% Relationship Issues
71% Stress
60% Trauma and PTSD
56% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Aviva
64% AXA PPP
64% Vitality

How Counsellors in Bonnington, Edinburgh see their clients

80% In Person and Online
20% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
22% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Bonnington, Edinburgh?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.