Counselling in Craigentinny

Photo of Deborah McGill, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Deborah McGill
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Craigentinny EH7
I work with people bringing a wide range of issues including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, trauma, difficulties around weight, size and eating, loss and grief, and relationship problems. You may feel stuck and not know how to move forward in your life or you may be aware of repeating unhelpful patterns in relationships. Together we can explore your difficulties and look for ways forward.
I work with people bringing a wide range of issues including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, trauma, difficulties around weight, size and eating, loss and grief, and relationship problems. You may feel stuck and not know how to move forward in your life or you may be aware of repeating unhelpful patterns in relationships. Together we can explore your difficulties and look for ways forward.
0131 378 8282 View 0131 378 8282
Photo of Adam Macalpine, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Adam Macalpine
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Craigentinny EH7
I offer a safe and facilitative space for you to think about what you need in order to feel better. An important part of that process is the relationship we develop and I will be with you each step of the way. I will listen, empathise, wonder with you, as well as laugh, cry, and get angry. Life is incredibly difficult at times. We could most likely all benefit from a space where we can share ourselves, our thoughts and feelings, and be shown acceptance. More than that, be shown care and understanding of what we are going through. If you feel that you would benefit from that kind of space, then please get in touch.
I offer a safe and facilitative space for you to think about what you need in order to feel better. An important part of that process is the relationship we develop and I will be with you each step of the way. I will listen, empathise, wonder with you, as well as laugh, cry, and get angry. Life is incredibly difficult at times. We could most likely all benefit from a space where we can share ourselves, our thoughts and feelings, and be shown acceptance. More than that, be shown care and understanding of what we are going through. If you feel that you would benefit from that kind of space, then please get in touch.
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More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Sarah Worth, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Sarah Worth
Counsellor, MSc, ACC Reg
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH9
I don’t know if you have ever had the opportunity to share your story where someone really listens. I mean really listens, wanting to know you, your story, your ups and downs. Where nothing is off limits. Space to speak what maybe you’ve never spoken before. Sitting in the counsellee seat is not always easy and opening up to someone you do not know can be daunting. I know that taking that first step requires courage and I would love to walk with you on your journey.
I don’t know if you have ever had the opportunity to share your story where someone really listens. I mean really listens, wanting to know you, your story, your ups and downs. Where nothing is off limits. Space to speak what maybe you’ve never spoken before. Sitting in the counsellee seat is not always easy and opening up to someone you do not know can be daunting. I know that taking that first step requires courage and I would love to walk with you on your journey.
0131 381 0082 View 0131 381 0082
Photo of Emma Anway, Psychotherapist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Emma Anway
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH10
I believe that people experience healing in and through relationships. Brené Brown defines connection as “the energy that exists between people when they feel seen, heard, and valued; when they derive sustenance and strength from the relationship”. Therapy can be a powerful, safe space to experience that connection both as individuals and partnerships.
I believe that people experience healing in and through relationships. Brené Brown defines connection as “the energy that exists between people when they feel seen, heard, and valued; when they derive sustenance and strength from the relationship”. Therapy can be a powerful, safe space to experience that connection both as individuals and partnerships.
01934 314094 View 01934 314094
Photo of Harper Clinical Psychology, Psychologist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Harper Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH8
Harper Clinical Psychology is based in Edinburgh and managed by Dr Alison Harper. Alison has over 20 years’ experience of working with a wide range of mental health issues. Also working in the practice with Alison are 6 psychological therapists who offer assessment, formulation and therapy, offering a flexible and collaborative approach to addressing mental health issues. Our website www.harperclinicalpsychology.com gives a more detailed view of our services.
Harper Clinical Psychology is based in Edinburgh and managed by Dr Alison Harper. Alison has over 20 years’ experience of working with a wide range of mental health issues. Also working in the practice with Alison are 6 psychological therapists who offer assessment, formulation and therapy, offering a flexible and collaborative approach to addressing mental health issues. Our website www.harperclinicalpsychology.com gives a more detailed view of our services.
01764 915830 View 01764 915830
Photo of Celeste Micciche, Psychotherapist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Celeste Micciche
Psychotherapist, MSc, BACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH7
I am an Italian psychologist and psychotherapist based in Edinburgh and Whitburn, Bathgate. Given my training in these two areas, I work with various issues that may afflict you, such as depression, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders, relationship issues, etc. Also, I use an affirmative approach in my work. This means that I validate and support the needs of people of sexual and gender minorities, promoting the search and the expression of an authentic dimension of themselves and their own identity.
I am an Italian psychologist and psychotherapist based in Edinburgh and Whitburn, Bathgate. Given my training in these two areas, I work with various issues that may afflict you, such as depression, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders, relationship issues, etc. Also, I use an affirmative approach in my work. This means that I validate and support the needs of people of sexual and gender minorities, promoting the search and the expression of an authentic dimension of themselves and their own identity.
0141 673 8698 View 0141 673 8698
Photo of Saskia Burnett, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Saskia Burnett
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH16
As a therapist, I firmly believe that each of us holds the answers to our own issues within. My role here is to help you recognise these and support you in working through them. I will aim to create a trusting counselling relationship throughout our sessions, where you can feel able to express your feelings in an empathic and accepting environment. Through this collaboration, our aim would be for you to gain a deeper understanding of yourself, in turn facilitating the change you are aspiring to achieve.
As a therapist, I firmly believe that each of us holds the answers to our own issues within. My role here is to help you recognise these and support you in working through them. I will aim to create a trusting counselling relationship throughout our sessions, where you can feel able to express your feelings in an empathic and accepting environment. Through this collaboration, our aim would be for you to gain a deeper understanding of yourself, in turn facilitating the change you are aspiring to achieve.
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Photo of Prism Psychology, Psychologist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Prism Psychology
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edinburgh EH3  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I work with a wide range of issues including: anxiety, depression, stress, psychological issues caused by physical health problems (e.g. diabetes, chronic pain), phobias, obsessive-compulsive issues (OCD), personality issues, low self-esteem, managing life transitions (such as retirement or having a baby) and many more issues. I specialise in working with individuals suffering from eating disorders (including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder) and those who have experienced psychological trauma, including childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder.
I work with a wide range of issues including: anxiety, depression, stress, psychological issues caused by physical health problems (e.g. diabetes, chronic pain), phobias, obsessive-compulsive issues (OCD), personality issues, low self-esteem, managing life transitions (such as retirement or having a baby) and many more issues. I specialise in working with individuals suffering from eating disorders (including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder) and those who have experienced psychological trauma, including childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder.
01427 809594 View 01427 809594
Photo of Bill Lee, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Bill Lee
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH10
Welcome. I am a qualified counsellor and chartered psychologist with years of experience working with individuals and groups. I offer psychotherapeutic counselling online and in Edinburgh and Southampton. Apart from counselling, I have over 27 years' experience of university teaching and research in psychology, which has enriched my practice. I can help with relationships, personality issues, cultural adjustment, identity, anxiety, bereavement, stress, gender, sexuality, self-esteem, life transitions and existential crisis.
Welcome. I am a qualified counsellor and chartered psychologist with years of experience working with individuals and groups. I offer psychotherapeutic counselling online and in Edinburgh and Southampton. Apart from counselling, I have over 27 years' experience of university teaching and research in psychology, which has enriched my practice. I can help with relationships, personality issues, cultural adjustment, identity, anxiety, bereavement, stress, gender, sexuality, self-esteem, life transitions and existential crisis.
0131 357 6226 View 0131 357 6226
Photo of Zoe Powell Martin, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Zoe Powell Martin
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Zoe - it's a pleasure to meet you. I am an experienced LGBTQ+ and University counsellor currently offering online counselling and psychotherapy. I provide a warm, safe and nurturing space to support you on your therapeutic journey. As a therapist, I am committed to ensure that your therapy sessions are co-constructed to meet your individual therapeutic needs. Benefitting from shared-decision making, a focus on therapeutic direction as well as empathy, support, compassion and attention, you can expect a uniquely inclusive and collaborative therapeutic experience.
Hello, I'm Zoe - it's a pleasure to meet you. I am an experienced LGBTQ+ and University counsellor currently offering online counselling and psychotherapy. I provide a warm, safe and nurturing space to support you on your therapeutic journey. As a therapist, I am committed to ensure that your therapy sessions are co-constructed to meet your individual therapeutic needs. Benefitting from shared-decision making, a focus on therapeutic direction as well as empathy, support, compassion and attention, you can expect a uniquely inclusive and collaborative therapeutic experience.
01363 722166 View 01363 722166
Photo of Sue Cooper, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Sue Cooper
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH16
If you are reading this today it may be that you are feeling low in mood or anxious. You may want your life to move in a more productive direction or feel more balanced in your relationships. Counselling offers the possibility of getting to know who you really are and to understand what might be stopping you from finding fulfillment and ease in your life. The journey to yourself can feel challenging and sometimes scary, but it is through this process that you will begin to find your potential to grow in self awareness. Through self-understanding develops confidence, self-worth and a greater freedom to choose the right path for you.
If you are reading this today it may be that you are feeling low in mood or anxious. You may want your life to move in a more productive direction or feel more balanced in your relationships. Counselling offers the possibility of getting to know who you really are and to understand what might be stopping you from finding fulfillment and ease in your life. The journey to yourself can feel challenging and sometimes scary, but it is through this process that you will begin to find your potential to grow in self awareness. Through self-understanding develops confidence, self-worth and a greater freedom to choose the right path for you.
01506 379386 View 01506 379386
Photo of Jen Stewart, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Jen Stewart
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Edinburgh EH9
Hi, I'm Jen and I am looking forward to meeting with you. Life can be tough and if you are experiencing a hard time, counselling can help. I am a person-centred therapist which means my focus throughout our work together is getting alongside you, as you embark on your therapy journey in a warm, compassionate, and non-judgemental way. Building our relationship is central to the work we will do together, and I look forward to getting to know you and working with you. I hope you will find me an approachable and empathic practitioner, fully committed to helping you make informed decisions about how you want to live your life.
Hi, I'm Jen and I am looking forward to meeting with you. Life can be tough and if you are experiencing a hard time, counselling can help. I am a person-centred therapist which means my focus throughout our work together is getting alongside you, as you embark on your therapy journey in a warm, compassionate, and non-judgemental way. Building our relationship is central to the work we will do together, and I look forward to getting to know you and working with you. I hope you will find me an approachable and empathic practitioner, fully committed to helping you make informed decisions about how you want to live your life.
0131 381 0238 View 0131 381 0238
Photo of Dr Katie Davis, Psychologist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Dr Katie Davis
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH6
What if. Two words that send your mind down a well-worn path. Words and images that pop into your head at any moment and no matter how hard you try to push it away you find yourself stuck; thinking, feeling and doing the same thing over and over. Maybe it’s reliving the past, maybe it’s worrying about the future, or feeling you need to do something right now or something bad will happen. “What if” is hard to live with. But when your mind is stuck in the “what if’s” your brain is telling you there is something you need to figure out, something you need to rebalance.
What if. Two words that send your mind down a well-worn path. Words and images that pop into your head at any moment and no matter how hard you try to push it away you find yourself stuck; thinking, feeling and doing the same thing over and over. Maybe it’s reliving the past, maybe it’s worrying about the future, or feeling you need to do something right now or something bad will happen. “What if” is hard to live with. But when your mind is stuck in the “what if’s” your brain is telling you there is something you need to figure out, something you need to rebalance.
0131 381 8063 View 0131 381 8063
Photo of Zoe Chouliara, Psychologist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Zoe Chouliara
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH7
‘You are not just a catalogue of adversities that you are faced with in life. You are not just the ‘damage’ that you have been told you suffered from. You are not even the pathology or the series of labels and diagnoses that have been given to you. You are a creature of immeasurable strength with the innate ability to grow and trust again and keep trusting and even learning to trust for a first time. You are hard wired and geared to connect with other and through that connection to protect your mental health and recover. You are a Growing Truster.’ Prof. Dr Zoë Chouliara Formerly Professor in Mental Health, Consultant Psychologist
‘You are not just a catalogue of adversities that you are faced with in life. You are not just the ‘damage’ that you have been told you suffered from. You are not even the pathology or the series of labels and diagnoses that have been given to you. You are a creature of immeasurable strength with the innate ability to grow and trust again and keep trusting and even learning to trust for a first time. You are hard wired and geared to connect with other and through that connection to protect your mental health and recover. You are a Growing Truster.’ Prof. Dr Zoë Chouliara Formerly Professor in Mental Health, Consultant Psychologist
01764 915791 View 01764 915791
Photo of Kay Winters, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Kay Winters
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Edinburgh EH1
Are you feeling alone, unheard or misunderstood? Maybe you feel anxious, angry, or hurt. Do you feel as though no one is there for you or listens to how you are feeling? Maybe you have tried to speak to friends and family but they either just don't get it or tell you what you should or shouldn't be doing and the conversation shifts to their problems. When was the last time someone really sat with you and gave you their undivided attention to talk about how YOU are feeling? What would it feel like to truly be heard and understood? To be able to express how you feel without the worry of being judged or fear of upsetting someone?
Are you feeling alone, unheard or misunderstood? Maybe you feel anxious, angry, or hurt. Do you feel as though no one is there for you or listens to how you are feeling? Maybe you have tried to speak to friends and family but they either just don't get it or tell you what you should or shouldn't be doing and the conversation shifts to their problems. When was the last time someone really sat with you and gave you their undivided attention to talk about how YOU are feeling? What would it feel like to truly be heard and understood? To be able to express how you feel without the worry of being judged or fear of upsetting someone?
01527 390261 View 01527 390261
Photo of Paul Bell, Psychotherapist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Paul Bell
Psychotherapist, ACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1
I am a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist, with 12 years experience working in NHS CAMHS teams and the charity sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and offer developmental support to parents and carers. I have specific training and experience in the treatment of adolescent depression, psychotherapeutic interventions for fostered, adopted and looked after children, and psychotherapy for university students suffering with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy to children and young people suffering from depression, who have a diagnosis of autism.
I am a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist, with 12 years experience working in NHS CAMHS teams and the charity sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and offer developmental support to parents and carers. I have specific training and experience in the treatment of adolescent depression, psychotherapeutic interventions for fostered, adopted and looked after children, and psychotherapy for university students suffering with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy to children and young people suffering from depression, who have a diagnosis of autism.
0131 357 6279 View 0131 357 6279
Photo of Jenna Robertson, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Jenna Robertson
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH3
Whether you are struggling with anxiety, ADHD, depression, stress, life adjustments, relational issues, or other struggles with mental health, you deserve to be heard and supported. The isolation and confusion can feel overwhelming, but as long as you are dedicated to moving forward there is so much hope and so many possibilities for healing.
Whether you are struggling with anxiety, ADHD, depression, stress, life adjustments, relational issues, or other struggles with mental health, you deserve to be heard and supported. The isolation and confusion can feel overwhelming, but as long as you are dedicated to moving forward there is so much hope and so many possibilities for healing.
01383 663412 View 01383 663412
Photo of Lovisa Tidblom, Counsellor in Craigentinny, Scotland
Lovisa Tidblom
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH6
Whether you are new to therapy or have been attending for years, whether you have a clear goal or are uncertain about your reasons, I am here to guide you in finding your way forward.
Whether you are new to therapy or have been attending for years, whether you have a clear goal or are uncertain about your reasons, I am here to guide you in finding your way forward.
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Photo of Ania Kinga, Psychotherapist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Ania Kinga
Psychotherapist, MSc, BACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH8  (Online Only)
Kiedy jest nam źle, to normalne że chcemy aby było lepiej. Może nas coś boli, martwi albo przeszkadza nam pewna sytuacja i zastanawiamy się co zrobić, jak rozwiązać nasz problem. Wtedy możemy porozmawiać z psychoterapeutą, osobą która zna się na ludzkiej psychologii (myślach, emocjach, zachowaniach) i która wie, jak pomoc: zrozumieć skąd się bierze problem i jak się z nim zmierzyć. Jako psychoterapeutka pomagam poprzez rozmowę i znam różne sposoby poruszania trudnych tematów, aby było łatwo, emocjonalnie bezpiecznie, ale też konkretnie i skutecznie. Zależnie od problemu, zaproponuję counselling albo psychoterapię.
Kiedy jest nam źle, to normalne że chcemy aby było lepiej. Może nas coś boli, martwi albo przeszkadza nam pewna sytuacja i zastanawiamy się co zrobić, jak rozwiązać nasz problem. Wtedy możemy porozmawiać z psychoterapeutą, osobą która zna się na ludzkiej psychologii (myślach, emocjach, zachowaniach) i która wie, jak pomoc: zrozumieć skąd się bierze problem i jak się z nim zmierzyć. Jako psychoterapeutka pomagam poprzez rozmowę i znam różne sposoby poruszania trudnych tematów, aby było łatwo, emocjonalnie bezpiecznie, ale też konkretnie i skutecznie. Zależnie od problemu, zaproponuję counselling albo psychoterapię.
07513 216876 View 07513 216876
Photo of Annette MacDonald, Psychotherapist in Craigentinny, Scotland
Annette MacDonald
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1
Hi. My name is Annette and I am a qualified and experienced Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and a member of the BABCP. We all need a help during difficult times and sometimes we need that extra support when we feel overwhelmed. Seeking help when we are feeling vulnerable can be daunting and anxiety provoking. I provide a non judgemental, safe and confidential environment, tailored to your specific needs and at your pace. Together we can identify and challenge thinking patterns and styles and build on the resilience you already possess. Therapy can provide you with the strategies you need to help build a more positive future.
Hi. My name is Annette and I am a qualified and experienced Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and a member of the BABCP. We all need a help during difficult times and sometimes we need that extra support when we feel overwhelmed. Seeking help when we are feeling vulnerable can be daunting and anxiety provoking. I provide a non judgemental, safe and confidential environment, tailored to your specific needs and at your pace. Together we can identify and challenge thinking patterns and styles and build on the resilience you already possess. Therapy can provide you with the strategies you need to help build a more positive future.
01698 533191 View 01698 533191

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Craigentinny

< 10

Counsellors in Craigentinny who prioritize treating:

100% Relationship Issues
100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Bereavement
100% Emotional Disturbance
100% Peer Relationships
100% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

7 Years

Gender breakdown

100% Male

How Counsellors in Craigentinny see their clients

100% In Person and Online
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Craigentinny?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.