Counselling in SA2

Photo of Dr Andrew G Thomas, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Dr Andrew G Thomas
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified
Swansea SA2  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Are you someone navigating personal challenges and relationship problems, or just struggling with your mental health in general? I am a compassionate, evidence-informed therapist who can provide emotional warmth and support, while helping you with self-awareness and understanding the underlying reasons for your difficulties. If you want to gain insight into your psychology and make informed decisions to take positive steps towards growth, then my expertise in fostering self-awareness and supporting change can help equip you with the tools you need to thrive in life.
Are you someone navigating personal challenges and relationship problems, or just struggling with your mental health in general? I am a compassionate, evidence-informed therapist who can provide emotional warmth and support, while helping you with self-awareness and understanding the underlying reasons for your difficulties. If you want to gain insight into your psychology and make informed decisions to take positive steps towards growth, then my expertise in fostering self-awareness and supporting change can help equip you with the tools you need to thrive in life.
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Photo of Helen Rees-Morgan, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Helen Rees-Morgan
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
I am an integrative counsellor with 16 years experience. I combine extensive knowledge from different theories and approaches to tailor the client experience to their needs. I work with the client to identify the issues they would like to work on and the timescale in which they would like to do this, whether it be short term or longer work. I work with all ages and an extensive list of issues, some common issues I work with are Autism and ADHD symptoms, anxiety, depression, self harm, suicide, stress, family issues, LGBTQ+ issues and Children and young people. Please contact me for a consultation to see if suitable.
I am an integrative counsellor with 16 years experience. I combine extensive knowledge from different theories and approaches to tailor the client experience to their needs. I work with the client to identify the issues they would like to work on and the timescale in which they would like to do this, whether it be short term or longer work. I work with all ages and an extensive list of issues, some common issues I work with are Autism and ADHD symptoms, anxiety, depression, self harm, suicide, stress, family issues, LGBTQ+ issues and Children and young people. Please contact me for a consultation to see if suitable.
01792 966172 View 01792 966172
Photo of Stuart Forbes, Psychologist in SA2, Wales
Stuart Forbes
Psychologist, MSc, HCPC - Ed. Psych.
Verified
Swansea SA2  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a highly experienced Psychologist and have worked in many areas, schools and homes across Wales and the UK during my career. During this time I have trained in and used a wide range of therapuetic techniques to help make a real difference in the lives of children, families and teachers I have worked with. I am an EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and specialise in helping people with PTSD, fear, anxiety, anger or panic to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress that are the result of disturbing life experiences.
I am a highly experienced Psychologist and have worked in many areas, schools and homes across Wales and the UK during my career. During this time I have trained in and used a wide range of therapuetic techniques to help make a real difference in the lives of children, families and teachers I have worked with. I am an EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and specialise in helping people with PTSD, fear, anxiety, anger or panic to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress that are the result of disturbing life experiences.
01792 986173 View 01792 986173
Photo of Masoumeh Minou, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Masoumeh Minou
Psychotherapist, PhD, MBACP
Verified
Hi, my name is Dr Mas Minou and I'm a Behavioural Psychologist, Coach & Psychotherapist, MBACP. Our relationship with ourselves or with others, our health, financial situation, career, family, fitness can all get complicated. Within a safe and confidential space I offer effective and practical approaches to help you reach your desired outcomes. I apply relational approaches combined with psychologically-informed behaviour change techniques to help you work through any psychological problems you might be experiencing. Whether you are seeking change or want to leave behind shame, old hurt or work through your grief, I can help.
Hi, my name is Dr Mas Minou and I'm a Behavioural Psychologist, Coach & Psychotherapist, MBACP. Our relationship with ourselves or with others, our health, financial situation, career, family, fitness can all get complicated. Within a safe and confidential space I offer effective and practical approaches to help you reach your desired outcomes. I apply relational approaches combined with psychologically-informed behaviour change techniques to help you work through any psychological problems you might be experiencing. Whether you are seeking change or want to leave behind shame, old hurt or work through your grief, I can help.
01792 940896 View 01792 940896
Photo of Sofia Ferreira, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Sofia Ferreira
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Waitlist for new clients
Throughout our life-time there will always come a time when we all struggle with issues. I believe that we always do the best we can when those issues arise, even though sometimes we haven’t yet develop the skills to deal with them in an effective and healthy way. I think that this is where counselling can help - I see my role as a provider of a safe non-judgemental place where learning, growth and change can happen. And everyone can do it, whether you are neurotypical or neurodivergent.
Throughout our life-time there will always come a time when we all struggle with issues. I believe that we always do the best we can when those issues arise, even though sometimes we haven’t yet develop the skills to deal with them in an effective and healthy way. I think that this is where counselling can help - I see my role as a provider of a safe non-judgemental place where learning, growth and change can happen. And everyone can do it, whether you are neurotypical or neurodivergent.
01792 989454 View 01792 989454
Photo of Change4Me Counselling Service (MBACP, Accred), Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Change4Me Counselling Service (MBACP, Accred)
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Hi my name is Lindsey, I am an accredited Counsellor with the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy. I have been in practice since 2012. I work with adults experiencing a range of issues including generalised anxiety, assertiveness issues,panic attacks, depression, PTSD, panic attacks, loss and bereavement. I offer a FREE 10 minute phone consultation. If you decide to have counselling with me, we will establish what you wish to achieve from counselling and we will work together in sessions to set a direction in moving forward towards your goal.
Hi my name is Lindsey, I am an accredited Counsellor with the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy. I have been in practice since 2012. I work with adults experiencing a range of issues including generalised anxiety, assertiveness issues,panic attacks, depression, PTSD, panic attacks, loss and bereavement. I offer a FREE 10 minute phone consultation. If you decide to have counselling with me, we will establish what you wish to achieve from counselling and we will work together in sessions to set a direction in moving forward towards your goal.
01656 334088 View 01656 334088
Photo of Stuart Griffin, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Stuart Griffin
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
Hello. I offer a safe and compassionate transitional relationship, supporting you to find more self-compassion and develop healthy relationships. The relationship that we create together can help you to understand how unhelpful (although originally useful) patterns of relating to ourselves and others endure in the present. This unique relationship can offer a world of possibilities for different ways of being in the world. Informed by up-to date neuroscience, I offer a safe relationship to empower you to manage enduring symptoms of past trauma.
Hello. I offer a safe and compassionate transitional relationship, supporting you to find more self-compassion and develop healthy relationships. The relationship that we create together can help you to understand how unhelpful (although originally useful) patterns of relating to ourselves and others endure in the present. This unique relationship can offer a world of possibilities for different ways of being in the world. Informed by up-to date neuroscience, I offer a safe relationship to empower you to manage enduring symptoms of past trauma.
01792 342448 View 01792 342448
Photo of Judith Collins, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Judith Collins
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
As an experienced integrative counsellor I see clients come into therapy for many reasons from experiencing crisis, to feeling alone or feeling generally unhappy with their lives. Understanding the client need or goals allows me to use different approaches or techniques that are the most benefit to the client. As a counsellor I offer a safe non judgemental space allowing the client to explore and identify underlying causes and gain new insights into the way the client is feeling bringing about individual change and a more positive way of being.
As an experienced integrative counsellor I see clients come into therapy for many reasons from experiencing crisis, to feeling alone or feeling generally unhappy with their lives. Understanding the client need or goals allows me to use different approaches or techniques that are the most benefit to the client. As a counsellor I offer a safe non judgemental space allowing the client to explore and identify underlying causes and gain new insights into the way the client is feeling bringing about individual change and a more positive way of being.
01792 966436 View 01792 966436
Photo of Phil Owen in SA2, Wales
Phil Owen
As a Blue Health Coach I specialise in Blue Health, a term that spans a range of research into the benefits of being in, near, on and under water… Whether that is: Natural water: lakes rivers streams the ocean – experiencing a range of sporting or leisure pursuits. I use Blue Health Science and the natural beach or coastal environment to work with my clients. For clients that would like to try, I also provide a more active Surf Therapy, where we use the activity as a way to experience flow state and mindfulness, improving physical and mental wellbeing. I am also qualified in EMDR, EFT and Recovery and Wellbeing Coaching.
As a Blue Health Coach I specialise in Blue Health, a term that spans a range of research into the benefits of being in, near, on and under water… Whether that is: Natural water: lakes rivers streams the ocean – experiencing a range of sporting or leisure pursuits. I use Blue Health Science and the natural beach or coastal environment to work with my clients. For clients that would like to try, I also provide a more active Surf Therapy, where we use the activity as a way to experience flow state and mindfulness, improving physical and mental wellbeing. I am also qualified in EMDR, EFT and Recovery and Wellbeing Coaching.
01792 949409 View 01792 949409
Photo of Catherine Thomas, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Catherine Thomas
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred
Verified
You may be struggling with life and all it involves, overwhelmed by emotions like anxiety and anger, and desperately trying to manage but constantly losing your grip. Or you may be using coping strategies that used to work - food, alcohol, or other substances - but now don't, or it may be those coping strategies are actually causing you more problems, but you don't know how to change. You may find it difficult to speak to others about your anxieties and difficulties and you feel alone and isolated in your struggle, powerless to make any lasting change.
You may be struggling with life and all it involves, overwhelmed by emotions like anxiety and anger, and desperately trying to manage but constantly losing your grip. Or you may be using coping strategies that used to work - food, alcohol, or other substances - but now don't, or it may be those coping strategies are actually causing you more problems, but you don't know how to change. You may find it difficult to speak to others about your anxieties and difficulties and you feel alone and isolated in your struggle, powerless to make any lasting change.
01792 342359 View 01792 342359
Photo of Karen Ford, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Karen Ford
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Hi my name is Karen, I am an experienced Integrative Counsellor and accredited member of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (MBACP Accred). I have over 16 years of counselling experience working with a wide range of issues including loss and bereavement, anxiety/stress, depression, relationships, abuse and trauma. Life can bring a variety of challenges which can sometimes leave us feeling confused, defeated and lost. My aim is to provide a safe, confidential space where I can support you with whatever difficulties and challenges you might be facing and find more positive ways of managing these.
Hi my name is Karen, I am an experienced Integrative Counsellor and accredited member of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (MBACP Accred). I have over 16 years of counselling experience working with a wide range of issues including loss and bereavement, anxiety/stress, depression, relationships, abuse and trauma. Life can bring a variety of challenges which can sometimes leave us feeling confused, defeated and lost. My aim is to provide a safe, confidential space where I can support you with whatever difficulties and challenges you might be facing and find more positive ways of managing these.
01792 949306 View 01792 949306
Photo of Sally Jenkins, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Sally Jenkins
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
It is ok to need help and support sometimes, I provide a warm and confidential space where clients can talk openly and freely, without judgment. As an integrative therapist I have many different models of working to suit each client as I believe that all of us are unique. I can help you learn about yourself and the relationships around you, seeing a different perspective is often very powerful. I believe in empowering my clients with the tools they need for change and moving forward. I am positive and nurturing, I use humour and occasional challenging to build a trusting relationship where clients can explore their thoughts
It is ok to need help and support sometimes, I provide a warm and confidential space where clients can talk openly and freely, without judgment. As an integrative therapist I have many different models of working to suit each client as I believe that all of us are unique. I can help you learn about yourself and the relationships around you, seeing a different perspective is often very powerful. I believe in empowering my clients with the tools they need for change and moving forward. I am positive and nurturing, I use humour and occasional challenging to build a trusting relationship where clients can explore their thoughts
01792 989360 View 01792 989360
Photo of Hayleigh Isaac, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Hayleigh Isaac
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Do you sometimes feel alone, with no one to lean on for support? Do you feel overwhelmed by difficult or challenging life events and want help to feel like yourself again? Within a counselling session, I can support you as you explore and understand your situation, identify helpful techniques or coping strategies, and set and work towards personal goals. I provide support for a wide range of physical and emotional difficulties. I have specialist experience in supporting people living with chronic/long-term health conditions, and those who are bereaved or preparing for a bereavement.
Do you sometimes feel alone, with no one to lean on for support? Do you feel overwhelmed by difficult or challenging life events and want help to feel like yourself again? Within a counselling session, I can support you as you explore and understand your situation, identify helpful techniques or coping strategies, and set and work towards personal goals. I provide support for a wide range of physical and emotional difficulties. I have specialist experience in supporting people living with chronic/long-term health conditions, and those who are bereaved or preparing for a bereavement.
01792 989464 View 01792 989464
Photo of Jemila Thomas, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Jemila Thomas
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified
My name is Jemila Thomas, I am a trained Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and a full member of the BABCP (http://www.babcp.com/Default.aspx), which is a regulatory body, that ensures that I have the most up to date and relevant training, to be able to support my clients. I ensure that I create a non judgmental, calm and safe environment to explore and manage your difficulties. I Offer both CBT and EMDR.
My name is Jemila Thomas, I am a trained Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and a full member of the BABCP (http://www.babcp.com/Default.aspx), which is a regulatory body, that ensures that I have the most up to date and relevant training, to be able to support my clients. I ensure that I create a non judgmental, calm and safe environment to explore and manage your difficulties. I Offer both CBT and EMDR.
01792 952407 x078110 View 01792 952407 x078110
Photo of Rosie Bufton, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Rosie Bufton
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Drama Therap.
Verified
I have extensive experience working as a creative therapist and solution focused therapist with children, young people and adults. As a neurodivergent person I have lived experience of the challenges that can come up when you experience the world differently, so I offer an understanding space for those who feel excluded, lonely and overwhelmed by the world. I have extensive experience working with those recovering from trauma and complex trauma, using creative methods to find expression for experiences. For couples and families I offer solution focused sessions to improve communications and ways of being together.
I have extensive experience working as a creative therapist and solution focused therapist with children, young people and adults. As a neurodivergent person I have lived experience of the challenges that can come up when you experience the world differently, so I offer an understanding space for those who feel excluded, lonely and overwhelmed by the world. I have extensive experience working with those recovering from trauma and complex trauma, using creative methods to find expression for experiences. For couples and families I offer solution focused sessions to improve communications and ways of being together.
01792 949829 View 01792 949829
Photo of Mair Llewellyn, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Mair Llewellyn
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
I specialise in working with adults and young people living with the effects of the trauma of childhood sexual abuse, rape, and sexual assault. You may be living with overwhelming anxiety, depression, flashbacks, nightmares, panic attacks, self-harm, addictions, and suicidal thoughts. Sometimes you might feel as though you don't know who you are or that you have no worth. I can also work with you if you've experienced other types of trauma or if you're feeling paralysed or overwhelmed by your emotions or having difficulty coping with everyday life and you don't know the reason why and you don't know how to make a change.
I specialise in working with adults and young people living with the effects of the trauma of childhood sexual abuse, rape, and sexual assault. You may be living with overwhelming anxiety, depression, flashbacks, nightmares, panic attacks, self-harm, addictions, and suicidal thoughts. Sometimes you might feel as though you don't know who you are or that you have no worth. I can also work with you if you've experienced other types of trauma or if you're feeling paralysed or overwhelmed by your emotions or having difficulty coping with everyday life and you don't know the reason why and you don't know how to make a change.
01792 342371 View 01792 342371
Photo of Bob Mattingly, Counsellor in SA2, Wales
Bob Mattingly
Counsellor, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
Sometimes in life we get stuck in patterns which, though once useful ways of being and relating, have now outgrown their usefulness to us, perhaps beginning to get in our way even. Psychotherapy can offer both the space to express, grasp and understand these patterns and then the support and challenge to grow in ways which seem right for you. I draw on a range of sources to bring my curiosity to meet you as a whole person. I am interested in your thoughts, your feelings, your actions and what may be going on in your body as well as what may emerge in the here and now of our relationship.
Sometimes in life we get stuck in patterns which, though once useful ways of being and relating, have now outgrown their usefulness to us, perhaps beginning to get in our way even. Psychotherapy can offer both the space to express, grasp and understand these patterns and then the support and challenge to grow in ways which seem right for you. I draw on a range of sources to bring my curiosity to meet you as a whole person. I am interested in your thoughts, your feelings, your actions and what may be going on in your body as well as what may emerge in the here and now of our relationship.
01962 571848 View 01962 571848
Photo of Inner Solis with Sarah Boudreaux, Psychologist in SA2, Wales
Inner Solis with Sarah Boudreaux
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified
As a coaching psychologist I employ a holistic, integrated, mindful, heart-centred and person-centred approach rooted in positive psychology, cognitive behavioural coaching, somatic practice and inner child work. Leveraging knowledge in behaviour and coaching to help you understand and cultivate emotional and self-regulation, motivation, spiritual growth, self-compassion and healing. I utilising coaching frameworks and strengths to create a personal self-development plan, helping you rebuild your sense of self and find what you need within yourself to move in a direction that feels right for you.
As a coaching psychologist I employ a holistic, integrated, mindful, heart-centred and person-centred approach rooted in positive psychology, cognitive behavioural coaching, somatic practice and inner child work. Leveraging knowledge in behaviour and coaching to help you understand and cultivate emotional and self-regulation, motivation, spiritual growth, self-compassion and healing. I utilising coaching frameworks and strengths to create a personal self-development plan, helping you rebuild your sense of self and find what you need within yourself to move in a direction that feels right for you.
01491 527570 View 01491 527570
Photo of Dave Wilde, Psychotherapist in SA2, Wales
Dave Wilde
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
I specialise in complex PTSD, including sexual, emotional and physical abuse. I also have extensive experience in treating anxiety, depression, addiction, eating disorders and working with trainee counsellors and couples. I will work with you to explore your issues, and help you understand what changes you can make to feel better about yourself and your relationships. My background of working in the public and voluntary sectors, as well as teaching and student support in further and higher education, has given me over 20 years' experience of working with people who need help with with a range of mental health issues.
I specialise in complex PTSD, including sexual, emotional and physical abuse. I also have extensive experience in treating anxiety, depression, addiction, eating disorders and working with trainee counsellors and couples. I will work with you to explore your issues, and help you understand what changes you can make to feel better about yourself and your relationships. My background of working in the public and voluntary sectors, as well as teaching and student support in further and higher education, has given me over 20 years' experience of working with people who need help with with a range of mental health issues.
01792 720287 View 01792 720287
Photo of Victor John Payne, Psychologist in SA2, Wales
Victor John Payne
Psychologist, PhD, CPsychol
Verified
Swansea SA2  (Online Only)
I try to create a safe, comfortable environment to help people with mental health issues.. I have experience of helping people with, trauma effects, borderline personality disorder, dissociation, depression, anxiety and relationship difficulties.
I try to create a safe, comfortable environment to help people with mental health issues.. I have experience of helping people with, trauma effects, borderline personality disorder, dissociation, depression, anxiety and relationship difficulties.
01792 739724 View 01792 739724

See more therapy options for SA2

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in SA2

20+

Average cost per session

£45

Counsellors in SA2 who prioritize treating:

81% Depression
81% Anxiety
70% Relationship Issues
70% Stress
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% Self Esteem
56% Bereavement

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% AXA PPP
100% Bupa
100% Health Assured

How Counsellors in SA2 see their clients

82% In Person and Online
18% Online Only

Gender breakdown

68% Female
32% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in SA2?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.