Photo of Soul at Heart Counselling / Lorraine Anderson, Psychotherapist in PL4, England
Soul at Heart Counselling / Lorraine Anderson
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
Therapy offers a private and sacred space to think, feel and experience your true self. It explores your needs and processes feelings as they arise, and from this comes a new clarity of awareness. I sometimes think of it as coming out of the dark woods and into the light. This transformation of the self takes place at first within the therapeutic relationship. Being listened to unfolds a discovery of new insights, which activates the development of inner strength, resilience, resolve, and purpose, as it gradually releases you from the felt wounds you have been carrying, such as anger, confusion, sadness, grief, regret or loss.
Therapy offers a private and sacred space to think, feel and experience your true self. It explores your needs and processes feelings as they arise, and from this comes a new clarity of awareness. I sometimes think of it as coming out of the dark woods and into the light. This transformation of the self takes place at first within the therapeutic relationship. Being listened to unfolds a discovery of new insights, which activates the development of inner strength, resilience, resolve, and purpose, as it gradually releases you from the felt wounds you have been carrying, such as anger, confusion, sadness, grief, regret or loss.
01752 982120 View 01752 982120
Photo of Karl Borthwick, Psychotherapist in PL4, England
Karl Borthwick
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Plymouth PL4  (Online Only)
I specialise in working with clients with PTSD and trauma based symptoms. I also work with OCD and other mental health problem, through the use of CBT & EMDR. CBT works by the theory that we can manage and modulate our emotions through evaluating/changing our cognitions & behaviours accordingly. EMDR utilises bilateral stimulation (eye movements) to aid the reprocessing of symptoms of Trauma and PTSD, focusing on trauma memories whilst integrating and updating these with Adaptive Information Processing, aiding resolution of symptoms in the present
I specialise in working with clients with PTSD and trauma based symptoms. I also work with OCD and other mental health problem, through the use of CBT & EMDR. CBT works by the theory that we can manage and modulate our emotions through evaluating/changing our cognitions & behaviours accordingly. EMDR utilises bilateral stimulation (eye movements) to aid the reprocessing of symptoms of Trauma and PTSD, focusing on trauma memories whilst integrating and updating these with Adaptive Information Processing, aiding resolution of symptoms in the present
01572 491102 View 01572 491102
Photo of Caroline Ann Stevens, Counsellor in PL4, England
Caroline Ann Stevens
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I understand that talking about troubling personal issues can feel really difficult sometimes yet working with a counsellor can help you to unlock that difficulty. I am friendly, easy to talk to and keen to help if you feel that talking to a professional might help you. I currently work in a counselling agency in Plymouth as well as running my own practice so have a range of experience working with many different people in many different situations.
I understand that talking about troubling personal issues can feel really difficult sometimes yet working with a counsellor can help you to unlock that difficulty. I am friendly, easy to talk to and keen to help if you feel that talking to a professional might help you. I currently work in a counselling agency in Plymouth as well as running my own practice so have a range of experience working with many different people in many different situations.
01572 494662 View 01572 494662
Photo of Jon Matthew Rowe, Counsellor in PL4, England
Jon Matthew Rowe
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Most people experience times in their lives when their feelings and their life as a whole seems totally unmanageable. Those moments are often described as ‘not being able to see the wood for the trees’- times when we feel that no one understands and we do not know which way to turn. Seeing a counsellor can often help you to gain a different perspective on life and see things more clearly. I believe that every person deserves the opportunity to be heard and to be given the chance to work through their problems in a safe and confidential space.
Most people experience times in their lives when their feelings and their life as a whole seems totally unmanageable. Those moments are often described as ‘not being able to see the wood for the trees’- times when we feel that no one understands and we do not know which way to turn. Seeing a counsellor can often help you to gain a different perspective on life and see things more clearly. I believe that every person deserves the opportunity to be heard and to be given the chance to work through their problems in a safe and confidential space.
01752 982796 View 01752 982796
Photo of Picking Up The Pieces, Counsellor in PL4, England
Picking Up The Pieces
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
I'm Megan. Life can throw unexpected difficulties in our direction at any time & things can get tough making you feel anxious, fearful, sad, trapped or alone causing you to struggle & feel you cant find your way out-you are alone. Picking Up the Pieces can help you to understand your situation better, together we can find ways forward, enhance choices to regain control & achieve a happier you.
I'm Megan. Life can throw unexpected difficulties in our direction at any time & things can get tough making you feel anxious, fearful, sad, trapped or alone causing you to struggle & feel you cant find your way out-you are alone. Picking Up the Pieces can help you to understand your situation better, together we can find ways forward, enhance choices to regain control & achieve a happier you.
01752 982187 View 01752 982187
Photo of Leonora Eddolls, Counsellor in PL4, England
Leonora Eddolls
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
I have worked as a Relate Counsellor since 2013 specialising in couples, family and individual counselling.   As a neurodivergent individual with a neurodivergent family I developed a special interest in neurodivergence including Adult ADHD and Adult Autism.  I completed additional post graduate training to assist me in supporting individuals and couples in understanding the differences in the way the brain operates between neurodivergent and predominant neurotypes with the aim of building better and stronger relationships.
I have worked as a Relate Counsellor since 2013 specialising in couples, family and individual counselling.   As a neurodivergent individual with a neurodivergent family I developed a special interest in neurodivergence including Adult ADHD and Adult Autism.  I completed additional post graduate training to assist me in supporting individuals and couples in understanding the differences in the way the brain operates between neurodivergent and predominant neurotypes with the aim of building better and stronger relationships.
01572 494640 View 01572 494640
Photo of Dr Lynsey Williams in PL4, England
Dr Lynsey Williams
PhD
Verified Verified
I will reply to requests for help quickly and will get back to you promptly. I am a trained Humanistic therapist, this means I am led by my client’s needs, and work to understand the unique experience of each individual that has led them to seek help. All the clients I see want to resolve difficulties they are experiencing and achieve improvements to their emotional wellbeing and the relationship they have with themself and others. The skills and approaches developed over the course of my career enable me to adapt to your specific needs.
I will reply to requests for help quickly and will get back to you promptly. I am a trained Humanistic therapist, this means I am led by my client’s needs, and work to understand the unique experience of each individual that has led them to seek help. All the clients I see want to resolve difficulties they are experiencing and achieve improvements to their emotional wellbeing and the relationship they have with themself and others. The skills and approaches developed over the course of my career enable me to adapt to your specific needs.
01752 982805 View 01752 982805
Photo of Karen Toms, Counsellor in PL4, England
Karen Toms
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Are you at a life crossroads? Weighed down by anxiety and/or depression? Or struggling with low esteem, confidence issues or career difficulties? Clients often come to me having spent a long time feeling below par. They may have struggled with physical as well as mental ill health and found it hard to make consistent change. I will provide a calm safe space where you can feel fully supported to talk about issues that are challenging you, have difficult conversations and share tears and laughter. I will support you to decide how you want to move forwards and help you put in place initiatives to create lasting positive change.
Are you at a life crossroads? Weighed down by anxiety and/or depression? Or struggling with low esteem, confidence issues or career difficulties? Clients often come to me having spent a long time feeling below par. They may have struggled with physical as well as mental ill health and found it hard to make consistent change. I will provide a calm safe space where you can feel fully supported to talk about issues that are challenging you, have difficult conversations and share tears and laughter. I will support you to decide how you want to move forwards and help you put in place initiatives to create lasting positive change.
01572 498965 View 01572 498965
Photo of Find a Voice Counselling & Psychotherapy BA(Hons), Counsellor in PL4, England
Find a Voice Counselling & Psychotherapy BA(Hons)
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
ONLINE TELEPHONE FACE2FACE Welcome to “Find a voice…” I am a qualified BACP registered Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I offer Humanistic, psychodynamic, creative and cognitive behavioural therapy. We are all diverse human beings and completely individual in our needs and our preferences therefor each session is led by the individual needs of my clients. Talking about our feelings and emotions can be hard and taking the first steps in to therapy is possibly the hardest part of the journey. I offer a free initial 30 min session to see how you feel and how you would like to move forward. Sliding scale concessions.
ONLINE TELEPHONE FACE2FACE Welcome to “Find a voice…” I am a qualified BACP registered Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I offer Humanistic, psychodynamic, creative and cognitive behavioural therapy. We are all diverse human beings and completely individual in our needs and our preferences therefor each session is led by the individual needs of my clients. Talking about our feelings and emotions can be hard and taking the first steps in to therapy is possibly the hardest part of the journey. I offer a free initial 30 min session to see how you feel and how you would like to move forward. Sliding scale concessions.
07723 447162 View 07723 447162
Photo of Personal & Relationship Counselling, Counsellor in PL4, England
Personal & Relationship Counselling
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Personal and Relationship Counselling are a group of BACP Accredited therapists, psychotherapists and supervisors. We have been providing counselling for individuals, relationships and organisations, in the Plymouth, Devon and Cornwall areas for 30 years. Our Counsellors have been vetted for both professional and personal qualities, because we know these are essential for positive therapeutic results, and want to continue to build on our excellent reputation. If you feel that you would like to begin counselling, please visit our website to see who you could be talking to.
Personal and Relationship Counselling are a group of BACP Accredited therapists, psychotherapists and supervisors. We have been providing counselling for individuals, relationships and organisations, in the Plymouth, Devon and Cornwall areas for 30 years. Our Counsellors have been vetted for both professional and personal qualities, because we know these are essential for positive therapeutic results, and want to continue to build on our excellent reputation. If you feel that you would like to begin counselling, please visit our website to see who you could be talking to.
01752 968311 View 01752 968311
Photo of Mark Stephen Worthington, Psychologist in PL4, England
Mark Stephen Worthington
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
I have 20+ years experience working with adults who have experienced traumatic histories, difficulties in relationships, overwhelming feelings, a complex world within their minds, troubling voices, intrusive thoughts, losses, low mood, frustrations, anxieties, who might have learned to cope in ways that can attract all kinds psychiatric diagnoses. I work with people who might have tried particular models of talking therapy before but need a tailored approach to understanding their troubles. I often see people who are not clear about what is troubling them or what they want, but require a safe space in which clarity might emerge.
I have 20+ years experience working with adults who have experienced traumatic histories, difficulties in relationships, overwhelming feelings, a complex world within their minds, troubling voices, intrusive thoughts, losses, low mood, frustrations, anxieties, who might have learned to cope in ways that can attract all kinds psychiatric diagnoses. I work with people who might have tried particular models of talking therapy before but need a tailored approach to understanding their troubles. I often see people who are not clear about what is troubling them or what they want, but require a safe space in which clarity might emerge.
01572 497005 View 01572 497005
Photo of Counselling Christian Leaders, Counsellor in PL4, England
Counselling Christian Leaders
Counsellor, ACC-CP
Verified Verified
I am an ACC Accredited & BACP registered counsellor who has been in various leadership roles for 30 years in Church and different ministries offering a service to individuals and couples who also serve in any leadership role a Christian context. I have worked with many Christian clients and those from many diverse backgrounds who have issues that don't seem to have been resolved independently of therapy. I offer an integrative way of working having trained in Person Centred Therapy, Gestalt, CBT, inner Child, Christian Mindfulness and Therapeutic writing. Find out more about me on my website.
I am an ACC Accredited & BACP registered counsellor who has been in various leadership roles for 30 years in Church and different ministries offering a service to individuals and couples who also serve in any leadership role a Christian context. I have worked with many Christian clients and those from many diverse backgrounds who have issues that don't seem to have been resolved independently of therapy. I offer an integrative way of working having trained in Person Centred Therapy, Gestalt, CBT, inner Child, Christian Mindfulness and Therapeutic writing. Find out more about me on my website.
01803 223012 View 01803 223012
Photo of Ciara White Psychotherapy And Supervision, Psychotherapist in PL4, England
Ciara White Psychotherapy And Supervision
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Traumatic life events can create sudden, urgent need for support. Equally, therapy can be a positive, planned act of self care, facing old wounds or barriers to growth and happiness. 17 years practice with young people, adults, couples and families has taught me that everyone has unique experiences and needs. Therefore my approach is integrative, tailored to each client and draws on 7 years training which includes psychodynamic psychotherapy, solution focused therapy, CBT, DBT, trauma focused and humanistic counselling. I am committed to providing a positive, rewarding and life enhancing experience for both clients and supervisees.
Traumatic life events can create sudden, urgent need for support. Equally, therapy can be a positive, planned act of self care, facing old wounds or barriers to growth and happiness. 17 years practice with young people, adults, couples and families has taught me that everyone has unique experiences and needs. Therefore my approach is integrative, tailored to each client and draws on 7 years training which includes psychodynamic psychotherapy, solution focused therapy, CBT, DBT, trauma focused and humanistic counselling. I am committed to providing a positive, rewarding and life enhancing experience for both clients and supervisees.
07480 534860 View 07480 534860
Photo of Dragonfly Counselling and Psychotherapy, Counsellor in PL4, England
Dragonfly Counselling and Psychotherapy
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Elizabeth is dedicated to supporting people with anxiety, depression, stress and mental health issues, for your emotional wellbeing. You might find yourself repeating unhelpful patterns of behaviour, or a past experience has had an impact on your life and the time as come to make sense of them. Maybe you would like to take some time to get to know yourself. Dragonfly Counselling & Psychotherapy offers a confidential, supportive, and safe space to reflect. My person centred approach means that together we will prioritise your needs, develop your own self, understand and express your feelings and process any inner conflicts.
Elizabeth is dedicated to supporting people with anxiety, depression, stress and mental health issues, for your emotional wellbeing. You might find yourself repeating unhelpful patterns of behaviour, or a past experience has had an impact on your life and the time as come to make sense of them. Maybe you would like to take some time to get to know yourself. Dragonfly Counselling & Psychotherapy offers a confidential, supportive, and safe space to reflect. My person centred approach means that together we will prioritise your needs, develop your own self, understand and express your feelings and process any inner conflicts.
01752 982958 View 01752 982958
Photo of Anna Batey Counselling/Supervision/EMDR, Counsellor in PL4, England
Anna Batey Counselling/Supervision/EMDR
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you so focused on worrying about what could happen that you're not making anything happen? Is this stopping you from achieving your goals? This negative cycle is exhausting and can leave you feeling trapped and alone. The good news is that the ability to change is in your hands; imagine waking up every day and not feeling like this. I've helped lots of people suffering from anxiety take control and live the life they want to live. Let me help you to live yours. If you'd like to find out more I offer a free phone or Zoom consultation.
Are you so focused on worrying about what could happen that you're not making anything happen? Is this stopping you from achieving your goals? This negative cycle is exhausting and can leave you feeling trapped and alone. The good news is that the ability to change is in your hands; imagine waking up every day and not feeling like this. I've helped lots of people suffering from anxiety take control and live the life they want to live. Let me help you to live yours. If you'd like to find out more I offer a free phone or Zoom consultation.
01752 982558 View 01752 982558
Photo of Naheed Holmes, Counsellor in PL4, England
Naheed Holmes
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
People come to counselling for various reasons; talking with someone unconnected with your situation, can assist you in gaining new insight and support with your concerns. When you have the opportunity to explore these issues together with your counsellor, you may find ways to create new, healthier responses that benefit your behaviour, relationships and ultimately, your own wellbeing. My role is always to support you and ‘untangle’ issues in a collaborative way, allowing you to develop new ways of thinking to promote positive change.
People come to counselling for various reasons; talking with someone unconnected with your situation, can assist you in gaining new insight and support with your concerns. When you have the opportunity to explore these issues together with your counsellor, you may find ways to create new, healthier responses that benefit your behaviour, relationships and ultimately, your own wellbeing. My role is always to support you and ‘untangle’ issues in a collaborative way, allowing you to develop new ways of thinking to promote positive change.
01572 491096 View 01572 491096
Photo of Lee Ash, Counsellor in PL4, England
Lee Ash
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hello, my name is Lee Ash. I trust you have found me because you are going through a difficult time and are seeking support and a safe person to share your struggle with. I understand that reaching out to an unfamiliar person can be a challenging experience, so I will do my best to lessen any fears you may have about the counselling process through sharing information about myself and my counselling practice. The first thing I want you to know is that when you contact me I respond. I am very aware that when someone is seeking counselling they don’t want to wait too long for a response. So I make it a priority to make contact ASAP.
Hello, my name is Lee Ash. I trust you have found me because you are going through a difficult time and are seeking support and a safe person to share your struggle with. I understand that reaching out to an unfamiliar person can be a challenging experience, so I will do my best to lessen any fears you may have about the counselling process through sharing information about myself and my counselling practice. The first thing I want you to know is that when you contact me I respond. I am very aware that when someone is seeking counselling they don’t want to wait too long for a response. So I make it a priority to make contact ASAP.
01752 395604 View 01752 395604
Photo of Tia Leanne Webber, Counsellor in PL4, England
Tia Leanne Webber
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Are you looking for a counsellor that can help you make sense of your feelings, how events have affected you or to make sense of what is happening around you. You as the client will be at the centre of the work that we do making what we do tailored to your own unique needs. Hello I am Tia and a fully qualified Counsellor working with Adults, Young People and Children and Couples whether this be face to face or online. How can counselling help? Many present day issues stem from past experience. Together we will look at helping you to understand patterns of behaviour to make a more positive changes in your life.
Are you looking for a counsellor that can help you make sense of your feelings, how events have affected you or to make sense of what is happening around you. You as the client will be at the centre of the work that we do making what we do tailored to your own unique needs. Hello I am Tia and a fully qualified Counsellor working with Adults, Young People and Children and Couples whether this be face to face or online. How can counselling help? Many present day issues stem from past experience. Together we will look at helping you to understand patterns of behaviour to make a more positive changes in your life.
01572 491083 View 01572 491083
Photo of Philipp Grote, Counsellor in PL4, England
Philipp Grote
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I am an integrative counsellor offers a trauma informed way of working. Mental health related labels often create the impression that the difficulties we experience as people are based on our personality or that we are somehow permanently damaged. Symptoms can include long term mental health issues, often from childhood, often built around a sense of shame and isolation.
I am an integrative counsellor offers a trauma informed way of working. Mental health related labels often create the impression that the difficulties we experience as people are based on our personality or that we are somehow permanently damaged. Symptoms can include long term mental health issues, often from childhood, often built around a sense of shame and isolation.
01572 494661 View 01572 494661
Photo of Kim Sturgeon, Psychotherapist in PL4, England
Kim Sturgeon
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
I specialise in working with women who want to unpack and understand themselves and their experiences. From a non-pathologising and trauma-informed perspective, I work together with clients to process difficult experiences and find new ways of being that facilitate a life that is meaningful and fulfilling. I'm a fully qualified (level 6) Integrative Counsellor with additional training in sexual trauma and supporting survivors of sexual abuse with sex and intimacy.
I specialise in working with women who want to unpack and understand themselves and their experiences. From a non-pathologising and trauma-informed perspective, I work together with clients to process difficult experiences and find new ways of being that facilitate a life that is meaningful and fulfilling. I'm a fully qualified (level 6) Integrative Counsellor with additional training in sexual trauma and supporting survivors of sexual abuse with sex and intimacy.
01752 987209 View 01752 987209

See more therapy options for PL4

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in PL4

40+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in PL4 who prioritize treating:

94% Depression
94% Anxiety
81% Stress
77% Relationship Issues
77% Self Esteem
73% Coping Skills
69% Bereavement

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% AXA PPP
33% Any/Out-of-network Insurance
33% Aviva

How Counsellors in PL4 see their clients

94% In Person and Online
6% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
21% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in PL4?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.