Photo of Elanor Cormack, CPsychol, Psychologist
Elanor Cormack
Psychologist, CPsychol
Verified Verified
I am Dr Elanor Cormack and am a chartered Sport and Exercise Psychologist based in Perthshire, Scotland. I operate Cormack Psychology to provide psychologist support to sport performers and exercisers of all levels. I bring more than a decade of experience working in sports management, combined with academic studies in Sport & Exercise Psychology. I believe that everyone can benefit from psychological support and development, regardless of their level of involvement in sport or exercise. I draw my approach from the needs of my client and spend time exploring these with clients before agreeing a plan of support.
I am Dr Elanor Cormack and am a chartered Sport and Exercise Psychologist based in Perthshire, Scotland. I operate Cormack Psychology to provide psychologist support to sport performers and exercisers of all levels. I bring more than a decade of experience working in sports management, combined with academic studies in Sport & Exercise Psychology. I believe that everyone can benefit from psychological support and development, regardless of their level of involvement in sport or exercise. I draw my approach from the needs of my client and spend time exploring these with clients before agreeing a plan of support.
01738 230826 View 01738 230826
Photo of Caroline Campbell Mbacp (Accred), MBACP, Counsellor
Caroline Campbell Mbacp (Accred)
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perth PH1
We are all unique and how we cope and deal with the problems that life can throw at us are unique too. Finding the right person to help you navigate the problems you are facing is arguably the most important part of Counselling. I can offer a safe space for you to explore and resolve your problems and together find a way to forward. If you decide this is the right time for you to come to counselling I will work with you in a collaborative way that feels safe and effective for you.
We are all unique and how we cope and deal with the problems that life can throw at us are unique too. Finding the right person to help you navigate the problems you are facing is arguably the most important part of Counselling. I can offer a safe space for you to explore and resolve your problems and together find a way to forward. If you decide this is the right time for you to come to counselling I will work with you in a collaborative way that feels safe and effective for you.
01738 503701 View 01738 503701
Photo of Roxanne Kerr, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Roxanne Kerr
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
When you have been struggling with your mental health for a long time and feel that you have tried everything already and nothing works, it can be difficult to believe that you will ever start to feel better again.   I can help support you to overcome the difficulti​es you are experiencing which may have prevented you living your life to the fullest, impacted your relationships or left you questioning your own sense of self. I work in an unique way where collaboration is a key component of the work we will do together and where your input into the therapeutic process is respected and welcome.
When you have been struggling with your mental health for a long time and feel that you have tried everything already and nothing works, it can be difficult to believe that you will ever start to feel better again.   I can help support you to overcome the difficulti​es you are experiencing which may have prevented you living your life to the fullest, impacted your relationships or left you questioning your own sense of self. I work in an unique way where collaboration is a key component of the work we will do together and where your input into the therapeutic process is respected and welcome.
01738 505895 View 01738 505895
Photo of Laura Thomson - Broomfield Psychology - Dr Laura Thomson , DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Broomfield Psychology - Dr Laura Thomson
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Perth PH1  (Online Only)
Welcome to Broomfield Psychology, we provide psychology and psychotherapy services to children and families, young people and adults. I am Dr Laura Thomson and I work with people experiencing a wide range of difficulties and mental health problems. I offer a professional, experienced and effective therapeutic approach and will work collaboratively with you and your goals for change. I have a caring and approachable style and together we can work through the issues that have led you to seek support.
Welcome to Broomfield Psychology, we provide psychology and psychotherapy services to children and families, young people and adults. I am Dr Laura Thomson and I work with people experiencing a wide range of difficulties and mental health problems. I offer a professional, experienced and effective therapeutic approach and will work collaboratively with you and your goals for change. I have a caring and approachable style and together we can work through the issues that have led you to seek support.
01250 718043 View 01250 718043
Photo of Debbie Guild, MBACP, Counsellor
Debbie Guild
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1  (Online Only)
Whatever your reason for seeking counselling; abuse, anxiety, overthinking, self-esteem, work or relationship issues, to name but a few, you're probably looking for something to change. Counselling offers you a different kind of relationship, one where you can open up, explore and reassess current or historic issues which may be holding you back. With greater understanding comes greater resilience and self-empowerment, which can enable you to make the changes you want in order to enjoy your life more fully. That life can be hard is a fact. That we have to face challenging times alone is not. Get in touch and start that change!
Whatever your reason for seeking counselling; abuse, anxiety, overthinking, self-esteem, work or relationship issues, to name but a few, you're probably looking for something to change. Counselling offers you a different kind of relationship, one where you can open up, explore and reassess current or historic issues which may be holding you back. With greater understanding comes greater resilience and self-empowerment, which can enable you to make the changes you want in order to enjoy your life more fully. That life can be hard is a fact. That we have to face challenging times alone is not. Get in touch and start that change!
0141 280 6158 View 0141 280 6158
Photo of Isabella Burns Msc, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Isabella Burns Msc
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
I am an experienced counsellor with over 10 years experience of working with adult individuals and couples. I work with clients who are experiencing difficulties in their lives, such as: anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, panic, relationship issues, gender identity, life changes. I provide a safe and confidential environment for clients online. Each person is unique and experiences life in different ways. If your particular problem isn't listed here, don't let this put you off contacting me. I can offer short or long term counselling.
I am an experienced counsellor with over 10 years experience of working with adult individuals and couples. I work with clients who are experiencing difficulties in their lives, such as: anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, panic, relationship issues, gender identity, life changes. I provide a safe and confidential environment for clients online. Each person is unique and experiences life in different ways. If your particular problem isn't listed here, don't let this put you off contacting me. I can offer short or long term counselling.
07998 073623 View 07998 073623
Photo of Shirlae Carruthers, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Shirlae Carruthers
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
I can help you with a wide range of issues including anxiety, depression, loss and bereavement, stress, suicidal thoughts and relationship issues. I am a passionate believer in the 'Person Centred Approach' and the positive effect this type of counselling can have on a person. Having a safe space to talk about yourself and your life, where no judgement is made, will enable you to find your way back to a more positive way of being.
I can help you with a wide range of issues including anxiety, depression, loss and bereavement, stress, suicidal thoughts and relationship issues. I am a passionate believer in the 'Person Centred Approach' and the positive effect this type of counselling can have on a person. Having a safe space to talk about yourself and your life, where no judgement is made, will enable you to find your way back to a more positive way of being.
0131 357 6295 View 0131 357 6295
Photo of Kerry Collins, MBACP, Counsellor
Kerry Collins
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perth PH1
I offer counselling/psychotherapy for adults or children. I also offer Couples Counselling. I am the lead counsellor at All-of-You Therapy, located in Central Dundee, south of the Kingsway Bypass. In addition to providing our children's counselling service at All-of-You Therapy, I have provided counselling in primary schools for children with the award winning Place2Be, providing early intervention, play-led therapy. Early intervention provides children, who find themselves vulnerable, anxious, worried or dealing with other issues, with emotional tools to cope in the present but also to deal with these issues in later life.
I offer counselling/psychotherapy for adults or children. I also offer Couples Counselling. I am the lead counsellor at All-of-You Therapy, located in Central Dundee, south of the Kingsway Bypass. In addition to providing our children's counselling service at All-of-You Therapy, I have provided counselling in primary schools for children with the award winning Place2Be, providing early intervention, play-led therapy. Early intervention provides children, who find themselves vulnerable, anxious, worried or dealing with other issues, with emotional tools to cope in the present but also to deal with these issues in later life.
01382 919468 View 01382 919468
Photo of Caroline Millar - Limitless Counselling (Caroline), MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Limitless Counselling (Caroline)
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
Face to Face/Online/walk and Talk available. Sometimes life just gets a bit hard. That's a fact. Counselling offers a chance to talk about life and the challenges we face. Counselling gives us an opportunity to talk to someone who can sometimes help us make sense of how we feel and think.Counselling is a safe place to express and explore. I am a MSc qualified Counsellor, BACP registered. I offer a free, no obligation zoom chat where you can ask questions, and put aside any concerns or fears you may have about the counselling process. Limited immediate start available.
Face to Face/Online/walk and Talk available. Sometimes life just gets a bit hard. That's a fact. Counselling offers a chance to talk about life and the challenges we face. Counselling gives us an opportunity to talk to someone who can sometimes help us make sense of how we feel and think.Counselling is a safe place to express and explore. I am a MSc qualified Counsellor, BACP registered. I offer a free, no obligation zoom chat where you can ask questions, and put aside any concerns or fears you may have about the counselling process. Limited immediate start available.
01382 919400 View 01382 919400
Photo of Claire Robertson - Heartwork Services, MBACP, Counsellor
Heartwork Services
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
Life, as it turns out, is not without its challenges. Clients often come to visit me with a sense of loss anxiety or sadness. I love watching clients acquire a renewed sense of self-compassion and self-worth. My wish is to support you on your journey to discover that you have the tools required to overcome the challenges in your life. For me it is an honour and a privilege to support you to recognise that harnessing your strengths will allow you to have a more fulfilling and happy life.
Life, as it turns out, is not without its challenges. Clients often come to visit me with a sense of loss anxiety or sadness. I love watching clients acquire a renewed sense of self-compassion and self-worth. My wish is to support you on your journey to discover that you have the tools required to overcome the challenges in your life. For me it is an honour and a privilege to support you to recognise that harnessing your strengths will allow you to have a more fulfilling and happy life.
01382 919583 View 01382 919583
Photo of Naomi Nyamudoka, MBACP, Counsellor
Naomi Nyamudoka
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
I specialise in working with trauma and neurodivergence. I believe the relationship is key to the work and I will offer a warm and safe setting for us to explore what you chose to bring. Being autistic myself I can offer a different way of seeing things for non autistic clients and a shared lived experience for those autistic clients. I offer a non judgemental space for you to explore different parts of yourself. I strive to work in the best way for my clients individually meaning I do not have an agenda in mind other than to be fully present with you.
I specialise in working with trauma and neurodivergence. I believe the relationship is key to the work and I will offer a warm and safe setting for us to explore what you chose to bring. Being autistic myself I can offer a different way of seeing things for non autistic clients and a shared lived experience for those autistic clients. I offer a non judgemental space for you to explore different parts of yourself. I strive to work in the best way for my clients individually meaning I do not have an agenda in mind other than to be fully present with you.
01764 915840 View 01764 915840
Photo of Pamela Finch, MCOSCA, Counsellor
Pamela Finch
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perth PH1
I am an integrative trauma therapist and clinical supervisor. I work with clients aged 18+, offering in-person or online therapy. I believe there is no one size fits all approach to therapy so I am committed to offering a safe space where you can explore the topics you bring to therapy in a way that works for you. Throughout our work together I can offer tools from various modalities such as person-centred, CBT, psychodynamic therapy, mindfulness and more to suit your unique needs and preferences. Together we will build a tailored package of support that is right for you.
I am an integrative trauma therapist and clinical supervisor. I work with clients aged 18+, offering in-person or online therapy. I believe there is no one size fits all approach to therapy so I am committed to offering a safe space where you can explore the topics you bring to therapy in a way that works for you. Throughout our work together I can offer tools from various modalities such as person-centred, CBT, psychodynamic therapy, mindfulness and more to suit your unique needs and preferences. Together we will build a tailored package of support that is right for you.
View
Photo of Alison MacLeod, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Alison MacLeod
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
Life can be a challenge, especially now. As your therapist, I can offer you a secure and trusted space to bring your needs and concerns. I believe that therapy should lead to a “step change” where my clients become able to make an immediate difference to the way they think and their relationships with others. I work to build trust and empathy and strive to understand the world from your perspective. I can help you to understand that small changes to the way you see things can have a major impact on how you feel.
Life can be a challenge, especially now. As your therapist, I can offer you a secure and trusted space to bring your needs and concerns. I believe that therapy should lead to a “step change” where my clients become able to make an immediate difference to the way they think and their relationships with others. I work to build trust and empathy and strive to understand the world from your perspective. I can help you to understand that small changes to the way you see things can have a major impact on how you feel.
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Photo of Louise Loughran, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Louise Loughran
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
I offer specialist Autism Assessment services to teenagers and young adults. I have over 15 years' experience working with Autistic young people and I am dedicated to delivering a high quality, personalised experience. My team share the values of professionalism, compassion and commitment to the young people and families we see.
I offer specialist Autism Assessment services to teenagers and young adults. I have over 15 years' experience working with Autistic young people and I am dedicated to delivering a high quality, personalised experience. My team share the values of professionalism, compassion and commitment to the young people and families we see.
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Photo of Andy Sanwell, MSc, MCOSCA, Counsellor
Andy Sanwell
Counsellor, MSc, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perth PH1
I assume you have something you would like to talk privately to somebody about. I wonder what it is like to be you. Do you often feel alien, struggling to understand and be understood by others? Is finding friends and keeping them hard? Would you rather avoid groups whilst wanting to belong? Does change hit you hard? Do you feel distant from others and even yourself? And maybe answering seemingly simple questions, such as “how are you?” or “what do you need?” feels difficult. I have some idea of what that is like. I offer you acceptance within a non-judgemental, empathic therapeutic relationship.
I assume you have something you would like to talk privately to somebody about. I wonder what it is like to be you. Do you often feel alien, struggling to understand and be understood by others? Is finding friends and keeping them hard? Would you rather avoid groups whilst wanting to belong? Does change hit you hard? Do you feel distant from others and even yourself? And maybe answering seemingly simple questions, such as “how are you?” or “what do you need?” feels difficult. I have some idea of what that is like. I offer you acceptance within a non-judgemental, empathic therapeutic relationship.
01382 919065 View 01382 919065
Photo of Shirley Anne Henderson, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Shirley Anne Henderson
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Shirley and I am an accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist. I deliver CBT online and by telephone as this is convenient for you to be in your home/suitable location, at a time that suits you, without travelling to appointments. CBT is a problem-specific and pragmatic approach which helps you identify your specific issues and then we can work together to give you tools and strategies that help you make changes in your life. CBT helps you understand the importance of thinking and how it affects how you feel and what you do. I will help you stay in control and manage your own recovery on a long-term basis.
Hello, I'm Shirley and I am an accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist. I deliver CBT online and by telephone as this is convenient for you to be in your home/suitable location, at a time that suits you, without travelling to appointments. CBT is a problem-specific and pragmatic approach which helps you identify your specific issues and then we can work together to give you tools and strategies that help you make changes in your life. CBT helps you understand the importance of thinking and how it affects how you feel and what you do. I will help you stay in control and manage your own recovery on a long-term basis.
01382 919512 View 01382 919512
Photo of Susan Hollins - Susan Hollins Counselling, Counsellor
Susan Hollins Counselling
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
How to describe the massive impact of loss and grief on our hearts, minds and daily life? The weight, chaos and turmoil of grief is a common experience which plays out uniquely in each of us. We lose interest in just about everything; nothing seems to matter. We're often frightened, wondering whether how we feel today we'll still be feeling in the distant future. We're often angry, intolerant of others. We seek so many reassurances... We don't want to let go of our grief because it's connected powerfully to the one we love and miss. How can we learn to let grief share our life? How can we understand it? How can we keep afloat?
How to describe the massive impact of loss and grief on our hearts, minds and daily life? The weight, chaos and turmoil of grief is a common experience which plays out uniquely in each of us. We lose interest in just about everything; nothing seems to matter. We're often frightened, wondering whether how we feel today we'll still be feeling in the distant future. We're often angry, intolerant of others. We seek so many reassurances... We don't want to let go of our grief because it's connected powerfully to the one we love and miss. How can we learn to let grief share our life? How can we understand it? How can we keep afloat?
01764 915871 View 01764 915871
Photo of Kirsty Webster, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Kirsty Webster
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perth PH1
I’m a BACP qualified pluralistic therapist (MBACP) and Mental Health First Aid Instructor (SQA/FAA approved). I work with you to explore challenging experiences; thoughts, feelings and behaviours that may be getting in the way of living the life you want to lead. Therapy can help with many different issues, sometimes uncovering challenges that you were unaware of. Managing difficult thoughts, emotions and behaviours; dealing with a mental health condition such as depression and anxiety; or coping with traumatic experiences and events, therapy offers a safe space to explore, to understand yourself, find ways to cope, and even grow.
I’m a BACP qualified pluralistic therapist (MBACP) and Mental Health First Aid Instructor (SQA/FAA approved). I work with you to explore challenging experiences; thoughts, feelings and behaviours that may be getting in the way of living the life you want to lead. Therapy can help with many different issues, sometimes uncovering challenges that you were unaware of. Managing difficult thoughts, emotions and behaviours; dealing with a mental health condition such as depression and anxiety; or coping with traumatic experiences and events, therapy offers a safe space to explore, to understand yourself, find ways to cope, and even grow.
01382 919349 View 01382 919349
Photo of Nicole McKendry - Therapy in the City, MCOSCA, Counsellor
Therapy in the City
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
The first steps we take on our healing journey can be the most challenging but finding the right therapist to work with that you can trust and feel comfortable with can make all the difference in helping you move forward and feel safe and supported in exploring the issues you are facing. I have always believed therapy should be an informal, authentic and relaxing experience. The therapeutic approach I offer is gentle and empathetic , you will find yourself at the centre of our therapy together building a trusting relationship, valuing your individuality rather than just working with your issue.
The first steps we take on our healing journey can be the most challenging but finding the right therapist to work with that you can trust and feel comfortable with can make all the difference in helping you move forward and feel safe and supported in exploring the issues you are facing. I have always believed therapy should be an informal, authentic and relaxing experience. The therapeutic approach I offer is gentle and empathetic , you will find yourself at the centre of our therapy together building a trusting relationship, valuing your individuality rather than just working with your issue.
01382 279927 View 01382 279927
Photo of Sarah Reid Barnett, MBACP, Counsellor
Sarah Reid Barnett
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perth PH1
There are many points in life when we feels cast adrift, unsure of how we feel or why we feel it. Unsure of how to move forward from our past or even from our present. Much of my work revolves around these moments, supporting my clients to find the right way forward. I work in an integrative, trauma informed way which allows me to tailor the way we work together and hold a compassionate safe space to collaborate within. I believe connection is a core human need and that no one should feel alone with their problems.
There are many points in life when we feels cast adrift, unsure of how we feel or why we feel it. Unsure of how to move forward from our past or even from our present. Much of my work revolves around these moments, supporting my clients to find the right way forward. I work in an integrative, trauma informed way which allows me to tailor the way we work together and hold a compassionate safe space to collaborate within. I believe connection is a core human need and that no one should feel alone with their problems.
01334 237287 View 01334 237287
1

See more therapy options for PH1

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in PH1

40+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in PH1 who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
80% Self Esteem
78% Depression
73% Relationship Issues
73% Stress
68% Trauma and PTSD
61% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Bupa
50% Aviva
50% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in PH1 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in PH1?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.