Photo of Sam Pattison, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Sam Pattison
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Paisley PA1  (Online Only)
I take a whole picture approach to my therapeutic work, getting to know clients and what is important for them, and why. My approach to working is a beginning-to-end approach, meaning that my focus is taking clients from where they are to where they want to be. I take great enjoyment in helping clients work toward their goals, and in supporting them in achieving a better relationship and understanding of themselves while doing so. I work online in a person-centred way with clients 12 and above. I have experience working with a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, self-harm, self-esteem related issues, trauma and abuse.
I take a whole picture approach to my therapeutic work, getting to know clients and what is important for them, and why. My approach to working is a beginning-to-end approach, meaning that my focus is taking clients from where they are to where they want to be. I take great enjoyment in helping clients work toward their goals, and in supporting them in achieving a better relationship and understanding of themselves while doing so. I work online in a person-centred way with clients 12 and above. I have experience working with a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, self-harm, self-esteem related issues, trauma and abuse.
0141 673 8667 View 0141 673 8667
Photo of Arran Southall (Desktop Counselling), Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Arran Southall (Desktop Counselling)
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
Are you tired of feeling anxious and depressed? Struggling with a difficult situation? Therapy is an investment in yourself and can enable great change in your life. It would be my privilege to support you in whatever challenge you are facing.
Are you tired of feeling anxious and depressed? Struggling with a difficult situation? Therapy is an investment in yourself and can enable great change in your life. It would be my privilege to support you in whatever challenge you are facing.
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Photo of Rebecca Strawser, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Rebecca Strawser
Psychotherapist, PMCOSCA
Verified Verified
Choosing a therapist can feel scary and overwhelming. With my friendly, professional and non-judgemental approach, I aim to make that process as comfortable as possible. I'm an accredited psychotherapist, practising CBT with an integrative approach. I have extensive experience working with adults and young people with anxiety, depression, panic, low self-esteem and other struggles. Get in touch for a no-obligation chat to see whether or not I might be a good fit for you. I can work online or in person.
Choosing a therapist can feel scary and overwhelming. With my friendly, professional and non-judgemental approach, I aim to make that process as comfortable as possible. I'm an accredited psychotherapist, practising CBT with an integrative approach. I have extensive experience working with adults and young people with anxiety, depression, panic, low self-esteem and other struggles. Get in touch for a no-obligation chat to see whether or not I might be a good fit for you. I can work online or in person.
0141 673 6052 View 0141 673 6052
Photo of Therapy with Stephany, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Therapy with Stephany
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Let's work together to support your mental & emotional wellbeing. I am an accredited Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist who is passionate about supporting & empowering others through delivering effective CBT with a warm and collaborative approach. I help individuals overcome common mental health difficulties such as depression, anxiety, OCD and low self-esteem. Additionally, I have a special interest in women's health, and have experience of supporting women with various conditions specific to women's health, such as PMDD. I have also recently completed further training to help support those who have experienced baby loss.
Let's work together to support your mental & emotional wellbeing. I am an accredited Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist who is passionate about supporting & empowering others through delivering effective CBT with a warm and collaborative approach. I help individuals overcome common mental health difficulties such as depression, anxiety, OCD and low self-esteem. Additionally, I have a special interest in women's health, and have experience of supporting women with various conditions specific to women's health, such as PMDD. I have also recently completed further training to help support those who have experienced baby loss.
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Photo of Paisley Counselling, Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
Paisley Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
My name is Kim Wylie and Paisley Counselling is my company. I am a highly experienced integrative counsellor with training in various trauma modalities. My specialism is in supporting adult survivors of childhood trauma. In both individual and couples work, I incorporate protective techniques which enable clients to process their experiences without being flooded by intolerable emotions. Working collaboratively, I attune to each person’s needs throughout our work together. I have a passion for helping people heal and strongly believe that counselling can facilitate clients to realise their aims and goals.
My name is Kim Wylie and Paisley Counselling is my company. I am a highly experienced integrative counsellor with training in various trauma modalities. My specialism is in supporting adult survivors of childhood trauma. In both individual and couples work, I incorporate protective techniques which enable clients to process their experiences without being flooded by intolerable emotions. Working collaboratively, I attune to each person’s needs throughout our work together. I have a passion for helping people heal and strongly believe that counselling can facilitate clients to realise their aims and goals.
0141 673 0856 View 0141 673 0856
Photo of Cindy Knapton CBT, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Cindy Knapton CBT
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Paisley PA1  (Online Only)
Sometimes life is overwhelming and we don't have all the answers. Stressful events can cause negative thoughts and anxiety which keep you on edge and impact sleep. To cope, you may try really hard to fix things, please others, or avoid activities and settings you previously enjoyed, as it all seems too much. This keeps us stuck in a vicious cycle, which is just exhausting. The good news is that CBT can help. By understanding your experience, you can learn achievable coping strategies that work for you. This means you can feel more in control, manage difficult emotions and get back to being you.
Sometimes life is overwhelming and we don't have all the answers. Stressful events can cause negative thoughts and anxiety which keep you on edge and impact sleep. To cope, you may try really hard to fix things, please others, or avoid activities and settings you previously enjoyed, as it all seems too much. This keeps us stuck in a vicious cycle, which is just exhausting. The good news is that CBT can help. By understanding your experience, you can learn achievable coping strategies that work for you. This means you can feel more in control, manage difficult emotions and get back to being you.
0141 673 9493 View 0141 673 9493
Photo of Rebecca Hepson, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Rebecca Hepson
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
I believe that the most important relationship we will have over our lifetime is the relationship that we have with ourselves. Throughout our lives we can come to conclusions about ourselves and others that cause us to feel insecure with who we are and around others. My job as a therapist and life coach is to provide a talking space for you to figure out what is holding you back from achieving the relationships and lifestyle you deserve. The more we understand who we really are, the easier it becomes to truly and deliberately create the life we desire.
I believe that the most important relationship we will have over our lifetime is the relationship that we have with ourselves. Throughout our lives we can come to conclusions about ourselves and others that cause us to feel insecure with who we are and around others. My job as a therapist and life coach is to provide a talking space for you to figure out what is holding you back from achieving the relationships and lifestyle you deserve. The more we understand who we really are, the easier it becomes to truly and deliberately create the life we desire.
01389 317526 View 01389 317526
Photo of Dawn McGuire in PA1, Scotland
Dawn McGuire
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Each one of us has times in life when we feel uncertain of how to move forward. Perhaps you’ve noticed yourself getting stuck in unhelpful patterns or cycles of behaviour and you’re finding it hard to see a way out? Or you’re experiencing difficult feelings that are getting in the way of living a more fulfilled, contented life? I work with clients to help make sense of the challenges that have brought them to therapy. I work with a wide range of issues including Self-Esteem, Depressions, Anxiety Disorders, PTSD, Stress, Bereavement and many more.
Each one of us has times in life when we feel uncertain of how to move forward. Perhaps you’ve noticed yourself getting stuck in unhelpful patterns or cycles of behaviour and you’re finding it hard to see a way out? Or you’re experiencing difficult feelings that are getting in the way of living a more fulfilled, contented life? I work with clients to help make sense of the challenges that have brought them to therapy. I work with a wide range of issues including Self-Esteem, Depressions, Anxiety Disorders, PTSD, Stress, Bereavement and many more.
07396 721327 View 07396 721327
Photo of Johnnie Taylor BA(Hons) RMN PgDipCouns MSc , Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
Johnnie Taylor BA(Hons) RMN PgDipCouns MSc
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Paisley PA1  (Online Only)
Are you living with the symptoms of emotional ‘trauma’, distressing memories and emotional triggers? Is this making life, work and relationships more difficult? Perhaps you experience flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, panic, phobias, anger? We can use Internal Family Systems' therapy with EMDR therapy to compassionately engage with your self. We can befriend your troubled 'parts' and unburden them of their jobs. I use a somatic trauma-informed approach to your therapy, i have worked as a clinical specialist in the NHS and have a great deal of experience, particularly with relationship difficulties, obsessions, and complex cases.
Are you living with the symptoms of emotional ‘trauma’, distressing memories and emotional triggers? Is this making life, work and relationships more difficult? Perhaps you experience flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, panic, phobias, anger? We can use Internal Family Systems' therapy with EMDR therapy to compassionately engage with your self. We can befriend your troubled 'parts' and unburden them of their jobs. I use a somatic trauma-informed approach to your therapy, i have worked as a clinical specialist in the NHS and have a great deal of experience, particularly with relationship difficulties, obsessions, and complex cases.
01227 202266 View 01227 202266
Photo of Angela McCafferty, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Angela McCafferty
Psychotherapist, MCOSCA Accred
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
I am a professionally qualified Accredited Psychotherapist (CBT), based in Paisley, providing therapy services face-to-face and online. I use an integrative style leading with empathy and compassion and the skillset of CBT (ACT), whilst focussing on your individual needs to get the best out of our sessions together. I aim to build a positive and trusting relationship with my clients and offer a relaxed, safe and confidential space to talk through your problems. Using a collaborative non-judgmental approach, I can assist you in learning new ways of coping, decision making and problem-solving techniques.
I am a professionally qualified Accredited Psychotherapist (CBT), based in Paisley, providing therapy services face-to-face and online. I use an integrative style leading with empathy and compassion and the skillset of CBT (ACT), whilst focussing on your individual needs to get the best out of our sessions together. I aim to build a positive and trusting relationship with my clients and offer a relaxed, safe and confidential space to talk through your problems. Using a collaborative non-judgmental approach, I can assist you in learning new ways of coping, decision making and problem-solving techniques.
01505 805895 View 01505 805895
Photo of Laura Brown, Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
Laura Brown
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Not accepting new clients
Anxiety? Bereavement? Stress? Panic? Low-self esteem? Social Anxiety? College or Uni Student? Trainee Counsellor? These are areas I often work with & extend a warm welcome to you to my page. I'm Laura, a fully qualified CBT therapist. I can offer you a safe, confidential space to talk, and will build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship with you, taking a mindful walk alongside you, as we explore together what you choose to bring to your counselling sessions, I will collaborate with you and weave helpful tools and skills into your sessions - from CBT, mindfulness, compassion-focused therapy and more.
Anxiety? Bereavement? Stress? Panic? Low-self esteem? Social Anxiety? College or Uni Student? Trainee Counsellor? These are areas I often work with & extend a warm welcome to you to my page. I'm Laura, a fully qualified CBT therapist. I can offer you a safe, confidential space to talk, and will build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship with you, taking a mindful walk alongside you, as we explore together what you choose to bring to your counselling sessions, I will collaborate with you and weave helpful tools and skills into your sessions - from CBT, mindfulness, compassion-focused therapy and more.
0141 673 1818 View 0141 673 1818
Photo of Jane Hamilton, Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
Jane Hamilton
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
I have trained and practise as a person centred counsellor because I believe everyone has the potential to reach inside and find their own strength and resources, with a little help . There are times in all of our lives when we feel we need some extra help to cope with life events and struggles. I would like to help you through whatever it is that brings you here. Whether it is work, life events, or you're not sure what is wrong but feel something is not right, it can help to share your feelings with that impartial, non-judgemental someone, allowing you to clarify your own thoughts and helping you to see a way through.
I have trained and practise as a person centred counsellor because I believe everyone has the potential to reach inside and find their own strength and resources, with a little help . There are times in all of our lives when we feel we need some extra help to cope with life events and struggles. I would like to help you through whatever it is that brings you here. Whether it is work, life events, or you're not sure what is wrong but feel something is not right, it can help to share your feelings with that impartial, non-judgemental someone, allowing you to clarify your own thoughts and helping you to see a way through.
01357 518914 View 01357 518914
Photo of North Ayrshire Psychology (Dr Harriet Hockaday), Psychologist in PA1, Scotland
North Ayrshire Psychology (Dr Harriet Hockaday)
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
My name is Dr Harriet Hockaday, and I am a HCPC registered qualified Clinical Psychologist. I am an experienced and specialist therapist, who has worked in various mental health services within the NHS since 2014, including in adult mental heath, older adult psychology, and neuropsychology services. I currently offer online and telephone based therapy to adults (18+) across the UK. I also offer face-to-face appointments in comfortable surroundings in Beith, North Ayrshire.
My name is Dr Harriet Hockaday, and I am a HCPC registered qualified Clinical Psychologist. I am an experienced and specialist therapist, who has worked in various mental health services within the NHS since 2014, including in adult mental heath, older adult psychology, and neuropsychology services. I currently offer online and telephone based therapy to adults (18+) across the UK. I also offer face-to-face appointments in comfortable surroundings in Beith, North Ayrshire.
01505 805531 View 01505 805531
Photo of Vicki Allen, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Vicki Allen
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
I have a particular interest in working with people with relationship problems, including their relationship with their self and, with their own emotions and emotional regulation. This can manifest as social anxiety, with an underlying sense of not being good enough or being odd/not fitting in with other people and society’s expectations. If you struggle with your own identity - not knowing your own likes/dislikes/values (sometimes called codependency), then get in touch. We can explore together what gets in the way of you knowing (and accepting) the real you.
I have a particular interest in working with people with relationship problems, including their relationship with their self and, with their own emotions and emotional regulation. This can manifest as social anxiety, with an underlying sense of not being good enough or being odd/not fitting in with other people and society’s expectations. If you struggle with your own identity - not knowing your own likes/dislikes/values (sometimes called codependency), then get in touch. We can explore together what gets in the way of you knowing (and accepting) the real you.
0141 280 6719 View 0141 280 6719
Photo of Dianne Foy, Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
Dianne Foy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
There are many reasons why someone will seek counselling. Major life changes, even positive ones, can disrupt the balance of everyday life and impact our mental health. Traumas and experiences from our past can intrude on our peace of mind in the present. Bereavement and loss, illness and disability, relationship and work issues can affect our ability to function. Sometimes it feels like we have limited choices and we are unsure of where to turn to for support. Person-centred counselling is a safe and confidential space where you can be yourself and share what is troubling you.
There are many reasons why someone will seek counselling. Major life changes, even positive ones, can disrupt the balance of everyday life and impact our mental health. Traumas and experiences from our past can intrude on our peace of mind in the present. Bereavement and loss, illness and disability, relationship and work issues can affect our ability to function. Sometimes it feels like we have limited choices and we are unsure of where to turn to for support. Person-centred counselling is a safe and confidential space where you can be yourself and share what is troubling you.
01505 805515 View 01505 805515
Photo of Wendy B Hanson, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Wendy B Hanson
Psychotherapist, PhD, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Paisley PA1  (Online Only)
I am a qualified Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with experience of working with anxiety, depression, relationships, low self-esteem, stress and work-place issues. I’ll help you discover and learn tools for dealing with these issues and, in a confidential and non-judgemental environment, we can work through what is going on for you now and help you develop a means of moving forward in your life.
I am a qualified Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with experience of working with anxiety, depression, relationships, low self-esteem, stress and work-place issues. I’ll help you discover and learn tools for dealing with these issues and, in a confidential and non-judgemental environment, we can work through what is going on for you now and help you develop a means of moving forward in your life.
0141 483 7504 View 0141 483 7504
Photo of All Seasons Therapy, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
All Seasons Therapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Having gone through some of my own personal struggles, I know how important it is to have someone listen. To be able to vocalise your thoughts without any fear of judgment. Sometimes it can feel like the end of the road with no-where else to turn. It can feel like there is no hope left. Negative thoughts seem to go round and round in your head. This is the time to reach out and let someone help you. I aim to provide a safe and confidential space to work through issues and will use other evidenced based therapeutic approaches to suit individual needs, such as compassion focused therapy and mindfulness. ​
Having gone through some of my own personal struggles, I know how important it is to have someone listen. To be able to vocalise your thoughts without any fear of judgment. Sometimes it can feel like the end of the road with no-where else to turn. It can feel like there is no hope left. Negative thoughts seem to go round and round in your head. This is the time to reach out and let someone help you. I aim to provide a safe and confidential space to work through issues and will use other evidenced based therapeutic approaches to suit individual needs, such as compassion focused therapy and mindfulness. ​
0141 673 7989 View 0141 673 7989
Photo of Colin Marshall, Psychotherapist in PA1, Scotland
Colin Marshall
Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Hi I am a Gestalt therapist/Counsellor. I have over 10 years experience helping people with a variety of issues. If you want to change your life or change yourself or you are struggling with everyday issues counselling is the very place for you. With a safe place to explore yourself and your life with a non judgmental person (me) sitting along side you, this can be a very empowering and enriching experience. Life can get on top of us at times, taking some time out for yourself to process all the things that go swirling around our heads can be vital to a happy healthy life.
Hi I am a Gestalt therapist/Counsellor. I have over 10 years experience helping people with a variety of issues. If you want to change your life or change yourself or you are struggling with everyday issues counselling is the very place for you. With a safe place to explore yourself and your life with a non judgmental person (me) sitting along side you, this can be a very empowering and enriching experience. Life can get on top of us at times, taking some time out for yourself to process all the things that go swirling around our heads can be vital to a happy healthy life.
0141 280 6116 View 0141 280 6116
Photo of Heidi Ashley, Psychologist in PA1, Scotland
Heidi Ashley
Psychologist, PsychD
Verified Verified
I’m Heidi, an experienced psychologist who works passionately to help adults overcome their problems, move on and enjoy their lives. If your problem’s been bothering you a while, didn’t really shift when you tried therapy before, or returned once therapy ended, you shouldn’t feel disheartened. My greatest joy and satisfaction is helping clients like you! It is possible to get so much more from therapy than simply insight or improved coping skills. Your difficulties don’t need to keep overshadowing your life. All human beings are hardwired to grow and to heal - and you are no exception.
I’m Heidi, an experienced psychologist who works passionately to help adults overcome their problems, move on and enjoy their lives. If your problem’s been bothering you a while, didn’t really shift when you tried therapy before, or returned once therapy ended, you shouldn’t feel disheartened. My greatest joy and satisfaction is helping clients like you! It is possible to get so much more from therapy than simply insight or improved coping skills. Your difficulties don’t need to keep overshadowing your life. All human beings are hardwired to grow and to heal - and you are no exception.
0141 673 8704 View 0141 673 8704
Photo of GMQ Counselling, Counsellor in PA1, Scotland
GMQ Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Face to Face, Online and Telephone Counselling to fit around your availability. Individual counselling sessions: Standard fee for the first session is £25 then £55 per hour thereafter (concessionary rates negotiable). I also offer a free initial telephone consultation which lasts around 15 minutes to find out more about you and to assess what is best for you and your availability.
Face to Face, Online and Telephone Counselling to fit around your availability. Individual counselling sessions: Standard fee for the first session is £25 then £55 per hour thereafter (concessionary rates negotiable). I also offer a free initial telephone consultation which lasts around 15 minutes to find out more about you and to assess what is best for you and your availability.
01355 201352 View 01355 201352

See more therapy options for PA1

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in PA1

20+

Average cost per session

£55

Counsellors in PA1 who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
96% Self Esteem
93% Depression
93% Stress
75% Relationship Issues
71% Coping Skills
68% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

6 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

57% Aviva
43% AXA PPP
43% Vitality

How Counsellors in PA1 see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
25% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in PA1?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.