Counselling in NG15

View cities in NG15
Photo of Samantha Etchells, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Samantha Etchells
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Hello, I'm Sam. I am a Humanistic and Integrative counsellor and psychotherapist and I work with adults, children, and young people. My philosophy is that our experiences and relationships shape us into who we are. I believe the therapeutic relationship can help people make sense of who they truly are so that they can live a more fulfilling life. I offer an empathic, compassionate, non-judgemental relational experience to help facilitate self-awareness, change, and growth.
Hello, I'm Sam. I am a Humanistic and Integrative counsellor and psychotherapist and I work with adults, children, and young people. My philosophy is that our experiences and relationships shape us into who we are. I believe the therapeutic relationship can help people make sense of who they truly are so that they can live a more fulfilling life. I offer an empathic, compassionate, non-judgemental relational experience to help facilitate self-awareness, change, and growth.
0115 647 8848 View 0115 647 8848
Photo of Heather Petcher, Counsellor in NG15, England
Heather Petcher
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Nottingham NG15  (Online Only)
At the heart of my practice is the emphasis on building a warm, safe and empathic therapeutic relationship based on acceptance and trust within a non judgemental and nurturing environment. I offer a safe space for you to explore your emotions to what is happening, or what has happened in your life and how this is affecting you in the present. I believe you are the expert of you and have all the capabilities to find your own way through your problems with my support, to build confidence within and facilitate personal growth.
At the heart of my practice is the emphasis on building a warm, safe and empathic therapeutic relationship based on acceptance and trust within a non judgemental and nurturing environment. I offer a safe space for you to explore your emotions to what is happening, or what has happened in your life and how this is affecting you in the present. I believe you are the expert of you and have all the capabilities to find your own way through your problems with my support, to build confidence within and facilitate personal growth.
0115 647 7173 View 0115 647 7173
Photo of Gemma Thorley, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Gemma Thorley
Psychotherapist, MA, MBABCP
Verified
With 1 in 4 people experiencing mental health difficulties such as depression and anxiety there is more and more need for people to find support and help when they need it. I believe that therapy is journey that we will travel together, working as a team to overcome your difficulties.
With 1 in 4 people experiencing mental health difficulties such as depression and anxiety there is more and more need for people to find support and help when they need it. I believe that therapy is journey that we will travel together, working as a team to overcome your difficulties.
01623 392895 View 01623 392895
Photo of Lauren Dalby, Counsellor in NG15, England
Lauren Dalby
Counsellor, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Hello, I am Lauren a person-centred psychotherapist and counsellor, educated to MA level. I work with clients 'face to face', online or on the telephone. I work with teenagers and adults of all ages. I have experience of working with wide a range of mental health related issues including bereavement and PTSD. I have an in-depth understanding of the impact that school and education can have on staff, students and their families; I can help you explore and understand your anxieties and fears in this area of your life. Making the decision to talk to a counsellor can be scary but counselling can really help you.
Hello, I am Lauren a person-centred psychotherapist and counsellor, educated to MA level. I work with clients 'face to face', online or on the telephone. I work with teenagers and adults of all ages. I have experience of working with wide a range of mental health related issues including bereavement and PTSD. I have an in-depth understanding of the impact that school and education can have on staff, students and their families; I can help you explore and understand your anxieties and fears in this area of your life. Making the decision to talk to a counsellor can be scary but counselling can really help you.
01777 802509 View 01777 802509
Photo of Jo Dean, Counsellor in NG15, England
Jo Dean
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
I am a highly qualified and experienced therapist working in Nottingham with clients seeking support when they are struggling with emotional or mental health challenges. Many people seek therapy when they are feeling vulnerable and experiencing a challenging time in their lives, due to past experiences or events that are happening in the present day. I understand how big this first step is. My role as a therapist is to provide you with a safe and confidential space to talk and help you explore the challenges you are currently facing and help you heal and find solutions. I have worked for the Priory Clinic, Steps Together Rehab.
I am a highly qualified and experienced therapist working in Nottingham with clients seeking support when they are struggling with emotional or mental health challenges. Many people seek therapy when they are feeling vulnerable and experiencing a challenging time in their lives, due to past experiences or events that are happening in the present day. I understand how big this first step is. My role as a therapist is to provide you with a safe and confidential space to talk and help you explore the challenges you are currently facing and help you heal and find solutions. I have worked for the Priory Clinic, Steps Together Rehab.
0115 697 1022 View 0115 697 1022
Photo of Dr Carla Rainbow, Psychologist in NG15, England
Dr Carla Rainbow
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Nottingham NG15  (Online Only)
I am Dr Carla Rainbow, and I am both a Chartered Clinical Psychologist and a registered Counselling Psychotherapist (Dip TC, Dip SP&C, FD, BSc (Hons), PG Dip, MSc, DClinPsy, CPsychol, Reg MBACP, MSfDBT, EuroPsy). This means I am qualified to the very highest level, and experienced to be able to help you with even the most complex problems that you might be experiencing. On top of my experience (including within the NHS and prison services), and my qualifications, I work really hard at building effective working relationships, because research suggests that can be one of the most effective indicators for good therapeutic outcomes.
I am Dr Carla Rainbow, and I am both a Chartered Clinical Psychologist and a registered Counselling Psychotherapist (Dip TC, Dip SP&C, FD, BSc (Hons), PG Dip, MSc, DClinPsy, CPsychol, Reg MBACP, MSfDBT, EuroPsy). This means I am qualified to the very highest level, and experienced to be able to help you with even the most complex problems that you might be experiencing. On top of my experience (including within the NHS and prison services), and my qualifications, I work really hard at building effective working relationships, because research suggests that can be one of the most effective indicators for good therapeutic outcomes.
View
Photo of Raj Butler, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Raj Butler
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Making the decision about coming to counselling can be quite daunting however more and more people are looking to therapists for support. It is important to choose a therapist that is right for you so I will give you as much information as possible to help you make an informed choice. I believe that when we have a better understanding of who we are/our patterns of behaviour then we can engage in healthier relationships, live autonomous lives and fulfil our potential.
Making the decision about coming to counselling can be quite daunting however more and more people are looking to therapists for support. It is important to choose a therapist that is right for you so I will give you as much information as possible to help you make an informed choice. I believe that when we have a better understanding of who we are/our patterns of behaviour then we can engage in healthier relationships, live autonomous lives and fulfil our potential.
0115 647 7037 View 0115 647 7037
Photo of Lisa Fox, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Lisa Fox
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Hi, I’m Lisa, a Humanistic and Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. If you are seeking support, experiencing feelings of dissatisfaction in your life or relationships, grappling with the weight of your past or with the challenges of depression or anxiety, I provide a safe and empathic environment to help you explore your concerns. For the previous two years as a counsellor and psychotherapist, my primary focus has been on supporting individuals who have been impacted by sexual abuse or incest. Additionally, I have experience providing therapy to young adults within an educational setting.
Hi, I’m Lisa, a Humanistic and Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. If you are seeking support, experiencing feelings of dissatisfaction in your life or relationships, grappling with the weight of your past or with the challenges of depression or anxiety, I provide a safe and empathic environment to help you explore your concerns. For the previous two years as a counsellor and psychotherapist, my primary focus has been on supporting individuals who have been impacted by sexual abuse or incest. Additionally, I have experience providing therapy to young adults within an educational setting.
01623 572188 View 01623 572188
Photo of Kay Bingham, Counsellor in NG15, England
Kay Bingham
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
There are times in our life when pressures mount up so much, that they really impact on the quality of our day to day living and our overall wellbeing. This may be caused by specific events such as a relationship breakup, the death of a pet or loved one, redundancy or our health. It could be more general such as the impact of Covid-19, unfulfilling relationships whether that be with your colleagues, parents, siblings, partner or your children. Or, you’re not sure what’s causing you to feel so fed up – you ‘should’ be happy. Building resilience does not eradicate the stress and anxiety of everyday life, but it does reduce the impact.
There are times in our life when pressures mount up so much, that they really impact on the quality of our day to day living and our overall wellbeing. This may be caused by specific events such as a relationship breakup, the death of a pet or loved one, redundancy or our health. It could be more general such as the impact of Covid-19, unfulfilling relationships whether that be with your colleagues, parents, siblings, partner or your children. Or, you’re not sure what’s causing you to feel so fed up – you ‘should’ be happy. Building resilience does not eradicate the stress and anxiety of everyday life, but it does reduce the impact.
01623 392744 View 01623 392744
Photo of Susan Ellen Draper-Todkill, Counsellor in NG15, England
Susan Ellen Draper-Todkill
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
My normal daily routine is supporting Professional Emergency Services personnel, NHS, Police, Ambulance and Paramedics, Prison Services, Fire Service, Furloughed workers, Working from Home . CMIS (Critical Incident Stress Management) response currently using Skype , Zoom etc. Counselling and Hypnotherapy for Managing and Eliminating Stress, Anxiety, Low Mood, Alcohol Reduction, Smoking Cessation, Weight Management , Low Self Esteem, Relationship issues, Divorce, Coaching. Qualified Supervisor for Counsellors and Hypnotherapists. Supporting you through challenging times in difficult circumstances. Contact me now with your concerns
My normal daily routine is supporting Professional Emergency Services personnel, NHS, Police, Ambulance and Paramedics, Prison Services, Fire Service, Furloughed workers, Working from Home . CMIS (Critical Incident Stress Management) response currently using Skype , Zoom etc. Counselling and Hypnotherapy for Managing and Eliminating Stress, Anxiety, Low Mood, Alcohol Reduction, Smoking Cessation, Weight Management , Low Self Esteem, Relationship issues, Divorce, Coaching. Qualified Supervisor for Counsellors and Hypnotherapists. Supporting you through challenging times in difficult circumstances. Contact me now with your concerns
01623 259226 View 01623 259226
Photo of Joe Roe in NG15, England
Joe Roe
Get back your mojo with Joe Roe (she/her) The Mental Health Coach. Shifting you from anxiety and stress to calm, confident and happiness. Using a beautiful blend of coaching & NLP, working together to move you forward to achieve your goals with your mental health wealth, goal clarity, self belief, motivation, work, relationships and life style choices, cleaning up memories and phobias. Over 20 years coaching experience and 7 years in own private practice successfully coaching people just like you to live a calm, confident and happy life, full of purpose.
Get back your mojo with Joe Roe (she/her) The Mental Health Coach. Shifting you from anxiety and stress to calm, confident and happiness. Using a beautiful blend of coaching & NLP, working together to move you forward to achieve your goals with your mental health wealth, goal clarity, self belief, motivation, work, relationships and life style choices, cleaning up memories and phobias. Over 20 years coaching experience and 7 years in own private practice successfully coaching people just like you to live a calm, confident and happy life, full of purpose.
01623 572247 View 01623 572247
Photo of Peter Ashby, Counsellor in NG15, England
Peter Ashby
Counsellor, UKCP Trainee
Verified
1 Endorsed
Hello and a Warm Welcome, Are you the type of person who works hard and yet other people seem to be promoted before you? Do you put yourself last and yet others complain you don't do enough for them? Do you feel trapped in a cycle of negative patterns.? Does it feel like it has always been this way and always will be? Do you find you have difficulty saying No and then feel guilty or anxious when you need to say no? Do you then feel burnt out, stressed, or resentful towards others? Would you like to find a safe non-judgemental space where you can be seen and heard, a space for you to be able to talk about and process the issues?
Hello and a Warm Welcome, Are you the type of person who works hard and yet other people seem to be promoted before you? Do you put yourself last and yet others complain you don't do enough for them? Do you feel trapped in a cycle of negative patterns.? Does it feel like it has always been this way and always will be? Do you find you have difficulty saying No and then feel guilty or anxious when you need to say no? Do you then feel burnt out, stressed, or resentful towards others? Would you like to find a safe non-judgemental space where you can be seen and heard, a space for you to be able to talk about and process the issues?
01623 392892 View 01623 392892
Photo of Debra Brown, Counsellor in NG15, England
Debra Brown
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Life is a journey and you hold the map, but at times it can lead you down a difficult road, with lots of bumps along the way. Life's journey isn't always smooth, we can get lost, take a wrong turning, reach a crossroads and be unable to decide which direction to take, or be unsure of our destination. Through talking and exploring your thoughts and feelings, counselling can help you to smooth these bumps and make your own decisions regarding which direction to take, to help you feel more in control of your own journey, and the destination that you would like to reach.
Life is a journey and you hold the map, but at times it can lead you down a difficult road, with lots of bumps along the way. Life's journey isn't always smooth, we can get lost, take a wrong turning, reach a crossroads and be unable to decide which direction to take, or be unsure of our destination. Through talking and exploring your thoughts and feelings, counselling can help you to smooth these bumps and make your own decisions regarding which direction to take, to help you feel more in control of your own journey, and the destination that you would like to reach.
07396 339145 View 07396 339145
Photo of Emma Barnes, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Emma Barnes
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Hello I am Emma. I am a humanistic & integrative psychotherapist and counsellor and I work with adults, children, and young people. You may be experiencing relationship or family difficulties, loss, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, or loneliness. Work issues such as bullying, stress or pressures to perform may feel overwhelming. Or you may simply feel disconnected in a way that is hard to describe. Whatever your reason for seeing a counsellor I aim to provide you with a non-judgemental, open, honest, empathetic, and supportive space to fully explore your situation and to help you to understand your thoughts and feelings.
Hello I am Emma. I am a humanistic & integrative psychotherapist and counsellor and I work with adults, children, and young people. You may be experiencing relationship or family difficulties, loss, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, or loneliness. Work issues such as bullying, stress or pressures to perform may feel overwhelming. Or you may simply feel disconnected in a way that is hard to describe. Whatever your reason for seeing a counsellor I aim to provide you with a non-judgemental, open, honest, empathetic, and supportive space to fully explore your situation and to help you to understand your thoughts and feelings.
01623 392328 View 01623 392328
Photo of Spiritwell Counselling, Counsellor in NG15, England
Spiritwell Counselling
Counsellor, BACP
Verified
Welcome To Spiritwell Counselling. My name is Maddy and I am a fully qualified, therapeutic counsellor, offering both short and long term counselling to adults. I am based in Kirkby in Ashfield, Nottinghamshire and offer reasonably priced appointments either face to face, over the phone or via video chat. I also offer an optional, free, 30 minute telephone introduction.
Welcome To Spiritwell Counselling. My name is Maddy and I am a fully qualified, therapeutic counsellor, offering both short and long term counselling to adults. I am based in Kirkby in Ashfield, Nottinghamshire and offer reasonably priced appointments either face to face, over the phone or via video chat. I also offer an optional, free, 30 minute telephone introduction.
01623 701272 View 01623 701272
Photo of Adam Yusufali Counselling, Counsellor in NG15, England
Adam Yusufali Counselling
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Hi my name is Adam. I am qualified and registered with the BACP. Sometimes life can get overwhelming or we may experience things that can impact negatively on our general way of being. I want you to know that it is really OK not to be OK and that it is OK to ask for help. If you find yourself struggling with your own sense of self or others around you, then please do reach out, I would like to help you. We can discover the light from within, when we explore and navigate the darkness.
Hi my name is Adam. I am qualified and registered with the BACP. Sometimes life can get overwhelming or we may experience things that can impact negatively on our general way of being. I want you to know that it is really OK not to be OK and that it is OK to ask for help. If you find yourself struggling with your own sense of self or others around you, then please do reach out, I would like to help you. We can discover the light from within, when we explore and navigate the darkness.
0115 697 1319 View 0115 697 1319
Photo of Jenna Robertson, Counsellor in NG15, England
Jenna Robertson
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Whether you are struggling with anxiety, ADHD, depression, stress, life adjustments, relational issues, or other struggles with mental health, you deserve to be heard and supported. The isolation and confusion can feel overwhelming, but as long as you are dedicated to moving forward there is so much hope and so many possibilities for healing.
Whether you are struggling with anxiety, ADHD, depression, stress, life adjustments, relational issues, or other struggles with mental health, you deserve to be heard and supported. The isolation and confusion can feel overwhelming, but as long as you are dedicated to moving forward there is so much hope and so many possibilities for healing.
01383 663412 View 01383 663412
Photo of Paul J. Gilbert, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Paul J. Gilbert
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
I am an experienced and highly qualified Psychotherapist and Counsellor. I offer Single-Session, Short-Term and Long-Term Therapy. I work with a wide range of problems such as Depression, Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem, Sadness, Loss, Relationship Issues, BPD, OCD, Anger, Feeling Lost, Domestic Violence, Trauma, Sexual Violence & Abuse etc. People can seek therapy when they are feeling vulnerable and experiencing a challenging time in their lives, often due to past experiences or events that are happening in the present time. I will help you to explore and understand your experience and find solutions together.
I am an experienced and highly qualified Psychotherapist and Counsellor. I offer Single-Session, Short-Term and Long-Term Therapy. I work with a wide range of problems such as Depression, Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem, Sadness, Loss, Relationship Issues, BPD, OCD, Anger, Feeling Lost, Domestic Violence, Trauma, Sexual Violence & Abuse etc. People can seek therapy when they are feeling vulnerable and experiencing a challenging time in their lives, often due to past experiences or events that are happening in the present time. I will help you to explore and understand your experience and find solutions together.
0115 671 3873 View 0115 671 3873
Photo of Cheryl Robinson, Counsellor in NG15, England
Cheryl Robinson
Counsellor, BACP
Verified
COUPLES and IndividuaIs - I understand that feeling of being overwhelmed with life's difficulties, be they work stresses, relationship problems, family problems or loss. Life feels unmanageable right now. This may be causing you to feel depressed, anxious or even angry? Struggling with these issues can affect your quality of life and I would like to help. Give you space to share those distressing thoughts and feelings. I will help you to understand why you are being affected in this way. Together we will find ways to help you feel more in control of your feelings.
COUPLES and IndividuaIs - I understand that feeling of being overwhelmed with life's difficulties, be they work stresses, relationship problems, family problems or loss. Life feels unmanageable right now. This may be causing you to feel depressed, anxious or even angry? Struggling with these issues can affect your quality of life and I would like to help. Give you space to share those distressing thoughts and feelings. I will help you to understand why you are being affected in this way. Together we will find ways to help you feel more in control of your feelings.
01623 259256 View 01623 259256
Photo of Tracy Bankier - Counselling And Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in NG15, England
Tracy Bankier - Counselling And Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified
Hi, I’m Tracy, an accredited Humanistic and Integrative psychotherapist and counsellor. Experiencing feelings of being invisible, unimportant, low in mood or motivation, stuck and general dissatisfaction can all be signs that you may need some support to navigate your problems. Our initial meeting is an opportunity for you to discuss what brings you to counselling and to decide if I am the right person to support you. I offer short and long term therapy to suit your needs.
Hi, I’m Tracy, an accredited Humanistic and Integrative psychotherapist and counsellor. Experiencing feelings of being invisible, unimportant, low in mood or motivation, stuck and general dissatisfaction can all be signs that you may need some support to navigate your problems. Our initial meeting is an opportunity for you to discuss what brings you to counselling and to decide if I am the right person to support you. I offer short and long term therapy to suit your needs.
0115 824 6254 View 0115 824 6254

See more therapy options for NG15

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in NG15

20+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in NG15 who prioritize treating:

96% Depression
96% Anxiety
92% Self Esteem
92% Stress
85% Relationship Issues
73% Trauma and PTSD
69% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% Aviva
50% Bupa
50% Vitality

How Counsellors in NG15 see their clients

89% In Person and Online
11% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in NG15?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.