Gina Phillips
Counsellor, MBACP Accred Verified
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am an experienced BACP accredited counsellor with an Advanced Diploma in Integrative Counselling and a Post Graduate Certificate in CBT. I believe that the most important aspect of counselling is a strong therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client. I aim to provide a warm, safe, supportive, non-judgemental space, which allows you to challenge established ways of thinking and being. Working collaboratively I aim to help you evaluate your needs to gain a deeper understanding and practical tools to enable you to make empowered choices.
020 4538 1064
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am an experienced BACP accredited counsellor with an Advanced Diploma in Integrative Counselling and a Post Graduate Certificate in CBT. I believe that the most important aspect of counselling is a strong therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client. I aim to provide a warm, safe, supportive, non-judgemental space, which allows you to challenge established ways of thinking and being. Working collaboratively I aim to help you evaluate your needs to gain a deeper understanding and practical tools to enable you to make empowered choices.
Photo of Marta Zdzieblowska, Psychotherapist
Marta Zdzieblowska
Psychotherapist, BACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
As an Integrative practitioner, I draw on a range of psychological approaches as well as on Mindfulness and other research backed ways to cultivating wellbeing.
I offer a creative, compassionate and research backed approach to online counselling and psychotherapy. You may feel overwhelmed, stuck or unsure of your next steps, perhaps there is something that is not allowing you to live your life fully. Together, we can create a space for you to focus on what matters, explore both your difficulties and aspirations. This can be an entry point to living life with more meaning, more joy and connection with yourself and others.
020 3871 8394
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
As an Integrative practitioner, I draw on a range of psychological approaches as well as on Mindfulness and other research backed ways to cultivating wellbeing.
I offer a creative, compassionate and research backed approach to online counselling and psychotherapy. You may feel overwhelmed, stuck or unsure of your next steps, perhaps there is something that is not allowing you to live your life fully. Together, we can create a space for you to focus on what matters, explore both your difficulties and aspirations. This can be an entry point to living life with more meaning, more joy and connection with yourself and others.
Photo of Lorraine Collins MSc, Psychotherapist
Lorraine Collins MSc
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I have had the privilege of working alongside some of the most experienced psychotherapists and analysts, whose broad range of experience has helped me to develop my own practice in a more holistic and integrative way.
At times the challenges of life can make us feel overwhelmed and isolated and it may feel difficult to talk about our feelings and fears to those closest to us. Feelings of shame, guilt or not knowing where to start can add to the feeling of being alone. I offer a space in which to explore these feelings in a safe and confidential setting without judgement, where together we can begin to understand what brought you to therapy in the first place.
020 3962 0658
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I have had the privilege of working alongside some of the most experienced psychotherapists and analysts, whose broad range of experience has helped me to develop my own practice in a more holistic and integrative way.
At times the challenges of life can make us feel overwhelmed and isolated and it may feel difficult to talk about our feelings and fears to those closest to us. Feelings of shame, guilt or not knowing where to start can add to the feeling of being alone. I offer a space in which to explore these feelings in a safe and confidential setting without judgement, where together we can begin to understand what brought you to therapy in the first place.
Photo of Helen Caro, Counsellor
Helen Caro
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I am fully qualified Integrative Relational Counsellor. This means that I draw upon a variety of skills and approaches depending on what your needs and personality requires. Above all else, I believe that it is the relationship between you and I that will offer the best opportunity for change. I see clients with a wide range of issues and rest assured no matter how big or small the problem seems to you, you will be treated with warmth and respect. Some of the challenges I work with include: Anxiety, Depression, General low mood, Bereavement, Low self-confidence and self-esteem and stress. This list is by no means exhaustive.
07593 511810
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I am fully qualified Integrative Relational Counsellor. This means that I draw upon a variety of skills and approaches depending on what your needs and personality requires. Above all else, I believe that it is the relationship between you and I that will offer the best opportunity for change. I see clients with a wide range of issues and rest assured no matter how big or small the problem seems to you, you will be treated with warmth and respect. Some of the challenges I work with include: Anxiety, Depression, General low mood, Bereavement, Low self-confidence and self-esteem and stress. This list is by no means exhaustive.
Photo of Dr Samina Khatun, Psychologist
Dr Samina Khatun
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych. Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
Dr Samina is a highly specialist counselling psychologist who treats people suffering from a wide spectrum of disorders. Her areas of expertise lie in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of complex PTSD, depression and anxiety disorders, confidence and low self-esteem, relationship issues and trauma. She has over 10 years clinical experience within the NHS and private practice including the Priory in London Harley Street. Her integrative method will help you identify blocks and subconscious programming that are holding you back so that you can heal and shift into a more magnetic state and live your life with greater ease.
020 4538 3892
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
Dr Samina is a highly specialist counselling psychologist who treats people suffering from a wide spectrum of disorders. Her areas of expertise lie in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of complex PTSD, depression and anxiety disorders, confidence and low self-esteem, relationship issues and trauma. She has over 10 years clinical experience within the NHS and private practice including the Priory in London Harley Street. Her integrative method will help you identify blocks and subconscious programming that are holding you back so that you can heal and shift into a more magnetic state and live your life with greater ease.
Photo of Dr Charlotte Lemaigre, Psychologist
Dr Charlotte Lemaigre
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych. Verified
Mayfair
London W1W
Offers online therapy
Given the breadth and depth of my clinical training, I am able to draw upon multiple therapeutic models to offer you integrative and personalised short or long-term psychological therapy depending on your individual therapeutic goals.
I'm a Clinical Psychologist offering specialist assessment and therapy to individuals and couples in London. I am registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and have over ten years experience working in mental health. I work with people who may be experiencing diverse emotional and psychological difficulties such as depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, low self-esteem, substance misuse issues, personality disorder and relationship difficulties. I offer accessible and personalised therapy in-person or from the comfort of your own home with online sessions. Welcome! It's a pleasure to meet you; I'm glad you're here.
020 4538 5713
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1W
Offers online therapy
Given the breadth and depth of my clinical training, I am able to draw upon multiple therapeutic models to offer you integrative and personalised short or long-term psychological therapy depending on your individual therapeutic goals.
I'm a Clinical Psychologist offering specialist assessment and therapy to individuals and couples in London. I am registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and have over ten years experience working in mental health. I work with people who may be experiencing diverse emotional and psychological difficulties such as depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, low self-esteem, substance misuse issues, personality disorder and relationship difficulties. I offer accessible and personalised therapy in-person or from the comfort of your own home with online sessions. Welcome! It's a pleasure to meet you; I'm glad you're here.
Photo of Tanya Refson Marks, Psychotherapist
Tanya Refson Marks
Psychotherapist Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I trained as an integrative therapist, informed by the unconscious and the unpicking of motives influencing feelings and behaviour, as well as being influenced by theorists who value an existential approach to a person's lived experience.
Sometimes it may feel as though patterns are being repeated over and over again and each time you find yourself surprised at reaching the same result. However, people are in constant motion and I hold to the notion that therapy enables self reflection and transformation driving along the process of change. In practice, I will try to ensure you experience a sense of safety in the space for us to better explore your way of being in the world and consider the importance of relationships and memory which are a transformative and pivotal part of what it is you bring to the work and are encouraged to share
020 3856 4497
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I trained as an integrative therapist, informed by the unconscious and the unpicking of motives influencing feelings and behaviour, as well as being influenced by theorists who value an existential approach to a person's lived experience.
Sometimes it may feel as though patterns are being repeated over and over again and each time you find yourself surprised at reaching the same result. However, people are in constant motion and I hold to the notion that therapy enables self reflection and transformation driving along the process of change. In practice, I will try to ensure you experience a sense of safety in the space for us to better explore your way of being in the world and consider the importance of relationships and memory which are a transformative and pivotal part of what it is you bring to the work and are encouraged to share
Photo of Marietta Vafea, Psychotherapist
Marietta Vafea
Psychotherapist, MA, COSRT Accred
Mayfair
London W1S
Not accepting new clients
I am a qualified and accredited Integrative psychosexual therapist. I work with a wide range of psychosexual presentations (such as anorgasmia, delayed or early ejaculation, erectile difficulties, loss or lack of libido, lack of arousal, vaginismus, pain with sex (dyspareunia), compulsive tendencies around sex) as well as relationship and communication difficulties. At the moment I do not accept new clients, but I am happy to recommend someone suitable, if you let me know of your requirements.
020 3962 1152
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Mayfair
London W1S
Not accepting new clients
I am a qualified and accredited Integrative psychosexual therapist. I work with a wide range of psychosexual presentations (such as anorgasmia, delayed or early ejaculation, erectile difficulties, loss or lack of libido, lack of arousal, vaginismus, pain with sex (dyspareunia), compulsive tendencies around sex) as well as relationship and communication difficulties. At the moment I do not accept new clients, but I am happy to recommend someone suitable, if you let me know of your requirements.
Photo of Erinn T. Brown, Psychotherapist
Erinn T. Brown
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I specialize in working with clients experiencing low self-esteem, family of origin issues, childhood relational trauma, difficulties with assertiveness, exploration of sexual orientation, and existential concerns. I also work frequently with individuals who identify with the gifted, expat, and LGBTQ+ communities. Using an integrative approach tailored to the needs of each individual, I strive to help my clients understand and find practical ways to cope with their challenges. I primarily draw upon person-centred, psychodynamic, cognitive behavioural, and solution-focused approaches to therapy in my work.
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
I specialize in working with clients experiencing low self-esteem, family of origin issues, childhood relational trauma, difficulties with assertiveness, exploration of sexual orientation, and existential concerns. I also work frequently with individuals who identify with the gifted, expat, and LGBTQ+ communities. Using an integrative approach tailored to the needs of each individual, I strive to help my clients understand and find practical ways to cope with their challenges. I primarily draw upon person-centred, psychodynamic, cognitive behavioural, and solution-focused approaches to therapy in my work.
Photo of Tracy Ann Phillips, Psychotherapist
Tracy Ann Phillips
Psychotherapist, PsychD, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am a qualified integrative transpersonal psychotherapist /counsellor This means I am trained to use a variety of tools to suit each individual.
I understand it is sometimes hard to make the step towards having therapy. If you are at a point in your life where you need support or guidance in bringing about change, I offer a non judgemental, confidential, compassionate and warm space. Through working together to resolve difficult experiences in various ways, you will begin to see life from a different perspective. This will enable you to understand yourself better, gain more confidence and calm anxieties and depression. I keep up to date with various courses's and reading for continuing professional development. I also work with the Police Firearms Officers Association.
020 8059 9925
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am a qualified integrative transpersonal psychotherapist /counsellor This means I am trained to use a variety of tools to suit each individual.
I understand it is sometimes hard to make the step towards having therapy. If you are at a point in your life where you need support or guidance in bringing about change, I offer a non judgemental, confidential, compassionate and warm space. Through working together to resolve difficult experiences in various ways, you will begin to see life from a different perspective. This will enable you to understand yourself better, gain more confidence and calm anxieties and depression. I keep up to date with various courses's and reading for continuing professional development. I also work with the Police Firearms Officers Association.
Photo of Ruth Lewis Clarke, Psychotherapist
Ruth Lewis Clarke
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Not accepting new clients
I use a humanistic, integrative and transpersonal approach, and work with dreams.
Hello and welcome! I am a qualified and fully accredited psychotherapist, working from offices in Central London (near Bond Street tube) and WimbIedon. I work with clients facing a range of difficult issues in their lives. This is usually long-term work, but can also be short-term depending on needs. For me, the journey of psychotherapy is about deeper self-knowledge so that you gain the confidence to reveal more of your authentic self in the outside world. It is a fascinating (though at times painful) journey to find your feelings, voice, strength and qualities.
020 8059 4336
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Not accepting new clients
I use a humanistic, integrative and transpersonal approach, and work with dreams.
Hello and welcome! I am a qualified and fully accredited psychotherapist, working from offices in Central London (near Bond Street tube) and WimbIedon. I work with clients facing a range of difficult issues in their lives. This is usually long-term work, but can also be short-term depending on needs. For me, the journey of psychotherapy is about deeper self-knowledge so that you gain the confidence to reveal more of your authentic self in the outside world. It is a fascinating (though at times painful) journey to find your feelings, voice, strength and qualities.
Photo of Olivia Laven-Morris, Counsellor
Olivia Laven-Morris
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
It can sometimes be difficult to gain perspective on our lives or have our feelings acknowledged. In counselling I provide a safe, empathic and non-judgmental space in which you can explore pain, confusion and difficulty. I can help you explore feeling low or anxious and together we can draw out your innate resources to help you to cope. As an integrative counsellor I believe a good counselling relationship is the most significant factor, and I draw on a range of techniques to help you develop self-awareness and self-compassion.
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
It can sometimes be difficult to gain perspective on our lives or have our feelings acknowledged. In counselling I provide a safe, empathic and non-judgmental space in which you can explore pain, confusion and difficulty. I can help you explore feeling low or anxious and together we can draw out your innate resources to help you to cope. As an integrative counsellor I believe a good counselling relationship is the most significant factor, and I draw on a range of techniques to help you develop self-awareness and self-compassion.
Photo of Stella Stathi, Psychotherapist
Stella Stathi
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
My approach is integrative and holistic, and my main influences are: Jungian & Somatic Psychology, Mindfulness, Expressive Arts Therapy, Embodied Spirituality and Energy Healing.
I am a qualified, experienced Jungian/Somatic Psychotherapist & Coach, Eating Psychology, Eating Disorders & Body-Image Specialist, and Embodiment Guide. I work with high-achieving, soulful womxn who, often secretly, struggle with Food, Body & Self-Esteem, and are ready to break free, for good. Together we will do the deep, inner work that will allow you to make real, lasting peace with food and feel fully comfortable and confident in your skin, from the inside out. Please join my waiting list if you are interested in working together (copy-paste the following link in your browser): http://bit.ly/one2onewaitinglist.
020 3962 1110
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1K
Offers online therapy
My approach is integrative and holistic, and my main influences are: Jungian & Somatic Psychology, Mindfulness, Expressive Arts Therapy, Embodied Spirituality and Energy Healing.
I am a qualified, experienced Jungian/Somatic Psychotherapist & Coach, Eating Psychology, Eating Disorders & Body-Image Specialist, and Embodiment Guide. I work with high-achieving, soulful womxn who, often secretly, struggle with Food, Body & Self-Esteem, and are ready to break free, for good. Together we will do the deep, inner work that will allow you to make real, lasting peace with food and feel fully comfortable and confident in your skin, from the inside out. Please join my waiting list if you are interested in working together (copy-paste the following link in your browser): http://bit.ly/one2onewaitinglist.
Photo of Nicholas Jagels Counselling, Counsellor
Nicholas Jagels Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1F
Offers online therapy
I provide a safe, gentle and non judgemental space to talk. As an integrative counsellor, I accept that as individuals we are all unique and have different needs when seeking therapy and support. I believe that it is ultimately the relationship between the client and therapist that is fundamental for a trusting, understanding and safe therapeutic alliance and this allows for the opportunity to explore your feelings, emotions, relationships, ways of thinking and patterns of behaviour.
01920 452580
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1F
Offers online therapy
I provide a safe, gentle and non judgemental space to talk. As an integrative counsellor, I accept that as individuals we are all unique and have different needs when seeking therapy and support. I believe that it is ultimately the relationship between the client and therapist that is fundamental for a trusting, understanding and safe therapeutic alliance and this allows for the opportunity to explore your feelings, emotions, relationships, ways of thinking and patterns of behaviour.
Dr. Yordan K. Zhekov
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London W1S
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, stressed or struggling with everyday life? Perhaps you are experiencing feelings you can't quite identify? Are you looking for help with various life challenging issues/situations? Have you got to the point where you can't go on alone and need someone else to help you? Whatever you are facing, you no longer have to do this alone, I am here to provide you with relevant support and address your needs. As an integrative counsellor I am using a compilation of therapeutic methods tailored to the individual's needs and goals providing an environment for enablement and empowerment of their achievement.
01923 936765
Verified
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Mayfair
London W1S
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, stressed or struggling with everyday life? Perhaps you are experiencing feelings you can't quite identify? Are you looking for help with various life challenging issues/situations? Have you got to the point where you can't go on alone and need someone else to help you? Whatever you are facing, you no longer have to do this alone, I am here to provide you with relevant support and address your needs. As an integrative counsellor I am using a compilation of therapeutic methods tailored to the individual's needs and goals providing an environment for enablement and empowerment of their achievement.
Photo of Virginie Sussest, Counsellor
Virginie Sussest
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Mayfair
London N16
Offers online therapy
​My approach is integrative, this means that I am flexible and focus on the whole of an individual.
Feeling depressed, anxious and unworthy; suffering loss, bereavement, relationship issues, or just wanting to make sense of the world and know yourself better? Counselling can help. As a psychotherapist my main concern is to provide you with an environment where you fell feel safe and accepted. A place where you can speak freely and reflect without be judged regardless of who you are. A safe place where you can grow and blossom - I will not offer advice, but will offer a response appropriate to the material you have shared, perhaps offering a new perspective. Finding the right counsellor is a very important step in a person’s life.
01296 327585
Verified
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Mayfair
London N16
Offers online therapy
​My approach is integrative, this means that I am flexible and focus on the whole of an individual.
Feeling depressed, anxious and unworthy; suffering loss, bereavement, relationship issues, or just wanting to make sense of the world and know yourself better? Counselling can help. As a psychotherapist my main concern is to provide you with an environment where you fell feel safe and accepted. A place where you can speak freely and reflect without be judged regardless of who you are. A safe place where you can grow and blossom - I will not offer advice, but will offer a response appropriate to the material you have shared, perhaps offering a new perspective. Finding the right counsellor is a very important step in a person’s life.
Photo of Dr Kelly Dickson, Counsellor
Dr Kelly Dickson
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1C
Offers online therapy
The evidence suggests that finding a therapist you feel able to talk to and understood by is key to a successful therapeutic experience. I am a down-to-earth, intelligent and non-judgmental integrative psychotherapist working with a range of issues. Ideally, therapy is a collaborative partnership and my style is active and empowering. I see you as the 'expert' in your life and myself as the 'expert' on therapeutic interventions. Together we focus on utilising your strengths and fostering insight and awareness in a safe and confidential environment. I love my work and look forward to helping you improve your mental health and wellbeing
020 3962 0347
Verified
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Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1C
Offers online therapy
The evidence suggests that finding a therapist you feel able to talk to and understood by is key to a successful therapeutic experience. I am a down-to-earth, intelligent and non-judgmental integrative psychotherapist working with a range of issues. Ideally, therapy is a collaborative partnership and my style is active and empowering. I see you as the 'expert' in your life and myself as the 'expert' on therapeutic interventions. Together we focus on utilising your strengths and fostering insight and awareness in a safe and confidential environment. I love my work and look forward to helping you improve your mental health and wellbeing
Photo of Angela Ruotolo, Counsellor
Angela Ruotolo
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
Being an integrative therapist, I can bring together many pathways that offer different approaches, tools and techniques that can be tailored to fit the needs of each client.
Therapy can be a life changing experience, a time for growth, exploration and personal development. You may be coming in the hope to resolve some past or current experiences or you may feel overwhelmed, confused, lost, stuck. You may even be experiencing difficult symptoms and unhelpful behaviours that inhibit you from living your life to the full. Whatever your reasons are for coming to therapy, we will work together to find the right approach for you.
020 3856 3173
Verified
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Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
Being an integrative therapist, I can bring together many pathways that offer different approaches, tools and techniques that can be tailored to fit the needs of each client.
Therapy can be a life changing experience, a time for growth, exploration and personal development. You may be coming in the hope to resolve some past or current experiences or you may feel overwhelmed, confused, lost, stuck. You may even be experiencing difficult symptoms and unhelpful behaviours that inhibit you from living your life to the full. Whatever your reasons are for coming to therapy, we will work together to find the right approach for you.
Photo of Ingrid Geser, Counsellor
Ingrid Geser
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am a qualified integrative counsellor and believe that no single therapeutic approach holds the answers for everyone.
If you are thinking about counselling, it is very likely that life is causing you distress or is not fulfilling in the way that you would like. You might be facing a life changing event like redundancy or bereavement, struggling in an intimate relationship, or suffering after a painful experience and feel that, on your own, you can’t find a solution. Or you might feel stuck and don’t know where you are going with your life. This is where I can help. My experience as a therapist has shown me that our feelings of despair and hopelessness can be a catalyst for change and personal growth.
01748 901752
Verified
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Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1B
Offers online therapy
I am a qualified integrative counsellor and believe that no single therapeutic approach holds the answers for everyone.
If you are thinking about counselling, it is very likely that life is causing you distress or is not fulfilling in the way that you would like. You might be facing a life changing event like redundancy or bereavement, struggling in an intimate relationship, or suffering after a painful experience and feel that, on your own, you can’t find a solution. Or you might feel stuck and don’t know where you are going with your life. This is where I can help. My experience as a therapist has shown me that our feelings of despair and hopelessness can be a catalyst for change and personal growth.
Photo of Virginia Geffroy, Psychotherapist
Virginia Geffroy
Psychotherapist, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1J
Offers online therapy
I am an integrative psychotherapist. My approach is flexible so that it can be adapted to your needs. I work relationally, which means that, through the therapeutic relationship, you are encouraged to explore and understand how early experiences and past relationships impact on your present difficulties. In order to access emotional pain and past traumatic experiences trapped in the body I sometimes use a more mindful approach focused on the body in addition to traditional talking therapies. Of special interest to me is how unresolved and traumatic experiences can be healed and transformed by a greater integration of the mind and
01748 901264
Verified
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Office is near:
Mayfair
London W1J
Offers online therapy
I am an integrative psychotherapist. My approach is flexible so that it can be adapted to your needs. I work relationally, which means that, through the therapeutic relationship, you are encouraged to explore and understand how early experiences and past relationships impact on your present difficulties. In order to access emotional pain and past traumatic experiences trapped in the body I sometimes use a more mindful approach focused on the body in addition to traditional talking therapies. Of special interest to me is how unresolved and traumatic experiences can be healed and transformed by a greater integration of the mind and

See more therapy options for Mayfair, London

Integrative Counsellors
Integrative therapy in Mayfair, London refers to therapy in which elements from different types of therapy may be used. Therapists 'integrate' two or more therapeutic styles (e.g. Cognitive and Family Systems) to bring about a personalised and practical approach to healing. These Mayfair, London integrative therapy Counsellors practice an integrative therapy style.

Integrative therapy (with a small 'i') may also refer to the process of 'integrating' the personality by taking disowned or unresolved aspects of the self and making them part of a cohesive personality whole. It reduces the use of defense mechanisms that inhibit spontaneity and allows flexibility in solving emotional problems.