Counselling in GU7

Photo of Iris Osk Gudsteinsdottir, Counsellor in GU7, England
Iris Osk Gudsteinsdottir
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
You may find yourself in need of support and have gathered the courage to reach out, well done for making this step on your therapeutic journey. I am here to listen and to support you with what you want to work through. You may find that your previous coping strategies are no longer working for you, or you may wish to work through life experiences that have negatively impacted your life. Wherever you find yourself today, I will endeavour to work with you so that you can work through your obstacles and reach the outcome you are hoping to achieve.
You may find yourself in need of support and have gathered the courage to reach out, well done for making this step on your therapeutic journey. I am here to listen and to support you with what you want to work through. You may find that your previous coping strategies are no longer working for you, or you may wish to work through life experiences that have negatively impacted your life. Wherever you find yourself today, I will endeavour to work with you so that you can work through your obstacles and reach the outcome you are hoping to achieve.
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Photo of Tim O'Neill, Counsellor in GU7, England
Tim O'Neill
Counsellor, MA, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified
My name is Tim. I have 26 years experience as a BACP Senior Accredited Counsellor/Psychotherapist. I offer counselling to adults of all ages and young people. I also offer online sessions and Walk & Talk therapy. The areas of counselling I have specialisms in are young people, various Anxiety disorders, Stress, Depression and Bereavement. I also offer counselling to trainee counsellors. I am a qualified supervisor of experienced and trainee counsellors. I also have BUPA recognition. Other Issues i work with include: family issues, relationship breakdown, panic disorder and self-harm. I offer a Free initial 20 min phone consultation.
My name is Tim. I have 26 years experience as a BACP Senior Accredited Counsellor/Psychotherapist. I offer counselling to adults of all ages and young people. I also offer online sessions and Walk & Talk therapy. The areas of counselling I have specialisms in are young people, various Anxiety disorders, Stress, Depression and Bereavement. I also offer counselling to trainee counsellors. I am a qualified supervisor of experienced and trainee counsellors. I also have BUPA recognition. Other Issues i work with include: family issues, relationship breakdown, panic disorder and self-harm. I offer a Free initial 20 min phone consultation.
07723 428530 View 07723 428530
Photo of Michele Atkin Therapies, Counsellor in GU7, England
Michele Atkin Therapies
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Sometimes life can feel ‘just too much’, you feel like you have reached your capacity, you are emotionally sensitive or feel numb. You lack clarity in your thoughts and do not know where to turn. Take a deep breath and know that help is at hand. I offer guidance and support in a safe, non-judgemental space, to explore the things on your mind. I work in person and online, facilitating our sessions, working with you, at your pace, allowing you to tell your story. I will hear your words and see you as a unique individual. I believe in your ability to heal and grow.
Sometimes life can feel ‘just too much’, you feel like you have reached your capacity, you are emotionally sensitive or feel numb. You lack clarity in your thoughts and do not know where to turn. Take a deep breath and know that help is at hand. I offer guidance and support in a safe, non-judgemental space, to explore the things on your mind. I work in person and online, facilitating our sessions, working with you, at your pace, allowing you to tell your story. I will hear your words and see you as a unique individual. I believe in your ability to heal and grow.
01483 968663 View 01483 968663
Photo of Gillian Clay, Counsellor in GU7, England
Gillian Clay
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
I consider myself to be a warm, caring and approachable person. I know that coming for counselling takes great courage and I will do my utmost to help you feel at ease. I trained in an integrative approach to counselling, this allows me to tailor therapy, to meet each individual client's needs. I believe that people are unique human beings, who have the potential to make the most of their lives. I have considerable experience of working with nervous illness including, anxiety, depression, OCD, diversity, age related issues and also a wide range of personal problems and relationship problems.
I consider myself to be a warm, caring and approachable person. I know that coming for counselling takes great courage and I will do my utmost to help you feel at ease. I trained in an integrative approach to counselling, this allows me to tailor therapy, to meet each individual client's needs. I believe that people are unique human beings, who have the potential to make the most of their lives. I have considerable experience of working with nervous illness including, anxiety, depression, OCD, diversity, age related issues and also a wide range of personal problems and relationship problems.
07480 788326 View 07480 788326
Photo of Joanna Williams, Counsellor in GU7, England
Joanna Williams
Counsellor, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Godalming GU7  (Online Only)
Sometimes life gets difficult, for all of us. Maybe you've had a recent big change in your life: upheavals in personal relationships, bereavement or another kind of loss, or general feelings of stress or anxiety. Maybe events from your past are preventing you living your best possible life in the present. Maybe you feel lost and at a crossroads, not sure which way to turn. Having someone to talk to, in a confidential and non-judgemental space, can make a huge difference.
Sometimes life gets difficult, for all of us. Maybe you've had a recent big change in your life: upheavals in personal relationships, bereavement or another kind of loss, or general feelings of stress or anxiety. Maybe events from your past are preventing you living your best possible life in the present. Maybe you feel lost and at a crossroads, not sure which way to turn. Having someone to talk to, in a confidential and non-judgemental space, can make a huge difference.
01483 694715 View 01483 694715
Photo of Lisa Maycock, Counsellor in GU7, England
Lisa Maycock
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Godalming GU7  (Online Only)
Are you currently struggling to cope or in need of assistance to help you get through a difficult situation? Perhaps you need to identify and/or make a change to your current circumstances to improve your life or just feel happier/more comfortable in your own skin? You may be feeling quite stuck and feel you could use a safe space to explore a long-term issue or talk through a more recent situation and identify possible options/solutions going forward? Many of these scenarios can severely affect you and directly interfere with your quality of life, your decision making abilities and ultimately, your happiness. Counselling can help!
Are you currently struggling to cope or in need of assistance to help you get through a difficult situation? Perhaps you need to identify and/or make a change to your current circumstances to improve your life or just feel happier/more comfortable in your own skin? You may be feeling quite stuck and feel you could use a safe space to explore a long-term issue or talk through a more recent situation and identify possible options/solutions going forward? Many of these scenarios can severely affect you and directly interfere with your quality of life, your decision making abilities and ultimately, your happiness. Counselling can help!
07966 376011 View 07966 376011
Photo of Gemma Ross, Psychotherapist in GU7, England
Gemma Ross
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified
I have worked with children and adults for over 25 years. I offer a creative and embodied approach to supporting clients with a variety of emotional, physical and mental health needs. My area of expertise are ASD, ADHD, CPTSD, trauma, depression, anxiety, psychosis, ED and self worth. Together I support you to set your own achievable goals, to work towards healings wounds and reshaping old patterns.
I have worked with children and adults for over 25 years. I offer a creative and embodied approach to supporting clients with a variety of emotional, physical and mental health needs. My area of expertise are ASD, ADHD, CPTSD, trauma, depression, anxiety, psychosis, ED and self worth. Together I support you to set your own achievable goals, to work towards healings wounds and reshaping old patterns.
01483 694279 View 01483 694279
Photo of Charlotte Musgrove, Counsellor in GU7, England
Charlotte Musgrove
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Waitlist for new clients
I welcome your needs, be that uncovering the source of your anxiety, beginning to work with your depression, reflecting on relationships and your own patterns of relating, or together voyaging into what is your extrinsic meaning, who and how am I in this world? The therapeutic space I offer is yours to focus on any aspect of life. I am a committed, genuine, caring therapist, that is invested in developing our therapeutic relationship. Together, every step of the way and in your own time, we can explore your life experience and discover where emotions may have got stuck and are now impacting your present.
I welcome your needs, be that uncovering the source of your anxiety, beginning to work with your depression, reflecting on relationships and your own patterns of relating, or together voyaging into what is your extrinsic meaning, who and how am I in this world? The therapeutic space I offer is yours to focus on any aspect of life. I am a committed, genuine, caring therapist, that is invested in developing our therapeutic relationship. Together, every step of the way and in your own time, we can explore your life experience and discover where emotions may have got stuck and are now impacting your present.
01483 968825 View 01483 968825
Photo of Evgenija Donovska, Counsellor in GU7, England
Evgenija Donovska
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
I am an adult, young persons and couples counsellor working for NHS talking therapies as well as running a small private practice. Psychotherapy and Counselling can help by providing a safe and holding space for people to explore their difficulties, thoughts, relationships, feelings and existential dilemmas. A space where we are supported through the presence of an emphatic other to work through emotional difficulties. I value a welcoming, compassionate, warm and accepting stance. I work with anxiety, depression, personality styles, substance abuse and self-harm, self criticism…
I am an adult, young persons and couples counsellor working for NHS talking therapies as well as running a small private practice. Psychotherapy and Counselling can help by providing a safe and holding space for people to explore their difficulties, thoughts, relationships, feelings and existential dilemmas. A space where we are supported through the presence of an emphatic other to work through emotional difficulties. I value a welcoming, compassionate, warm and accepting stance. I work with anxiety, depression, personality styles, substance abuse and self-harm, self criticism…
01483 967425 View 01483 967425
Photo of Rowanne Mackie, Counsellor in GU7, England
Rowanne Mackie
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Is something negatively impacting your life? Perhaps you're struggling with negative habits, indecision or low self-confidence? Perhaps you feel stuck or repeating unhelpful patterns? I am passionate about empowering you to change & achieve your goals. You will feel heard & supported. I am highly experienced in working online & face to face with you using individually tailored, proven techniques. Down-to-earth, my uniqueness lies with my extensive life experience, my ability to understand, build trust & gain results. I strive to create a safe, confidential & supportive space for you to explore, grow & change.
Is something negatively impacting your life? Perhaps you're struggling with negative habits, indecision or low self-confidence? Perhaps you feel stuck or repeating unhelpful patterns? I am passionate about empowering you to change & achieve your goals. You will feel heard & supported. I am highly experienced in working online & face to face with you using individually tailored, proven techniques. Down-to-earth, my uniqueness lies with my extensive life experience, my ability to understand, build trust & gain results. I strive to create a safe, confidential & supportive space for you to explore, grow & change.
020 8103 6016 View 020 8103 6016
Photo of Seana Tomlinson, Counsellor in GU7, England
Seana Tomlinson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Sometimes life can feel difficult or overwhelming, you might be experiencing feelings of overwhelm, sadness, grief, anxiety or distress. Maybe you have experienced a loss or a trauma? Maybe you are having relationship difficulties? Perhaps you feel you have lost your way in life? I know it can be a daunting step to reach out to find some support for yourself, but I will provide a calm, safe and judgement-free, space for you to explore and make sense of what is going on for you and support you as you find your own way forward.
Sometimes life can feel difficult or overwhelming, you might be experiencing feelings of overwhelm, sadness, grief, anxiety or distress. Maybe you have experienced a loss or a trauma? Maybe you are having relationship difficulties? Perhaps you feel you have lost your way in life? I know it can be a daunting step to reach out to find some support for yourself, but I will provide a calm, safe and judgement-free, space for you to explore and make sense of what is going on for you and support you as you find your own way forward.
01483 956886 View 01483 956886
Photo of Mary Madelaine Lambert, Counsellor in GU7, England
Mary Madelaine Lambert
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Hello I'm Maddy an Integrative Counsellor/psychotherapist based in Surrey UK. I work with individual clients (now online) from 18 years and upwards of any age and background. It may be that you are having a difficult time now or that you find life repetitively difficult- emotionally exhausting or disappointing and dull. I provide a non-judgemental space and recognise how life experiences combined with the human condition can severely corrode the quality of life. Everyone experiences life differently- how do you experience yours?
Hello I'm Maddy an Integrative Counsellor/psychotherapist based in Surrey UK. I work with individual clients (now online) from 18 years and upwards of any age and background. It may be that you are having a difficult time now or that you find life repetitively difficult- emotionally exhausting or disappointing and dull. I provide a non-judgemental space and recognise how life experiences combined with the human condition can severely corrode the quality of life. Everyone experiences life differently- how do you experience yours?
01483 694077 View 01483 694077
Photo of Tricia Slater, Counsellor in GU7, England
Tricia Slater
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Are you caring for a loved one with Dementia? Perhaps you care for your husband or wife, or maybe you are looking after one of your parents? Being a carer can bring about feelings of isolation, exhaustion, loss, anticipatory grief, frustration and anger. I spent several years working for the Alzheimer’s Society supporting carers of people with Dementia, so I understand how challenging it can be. I also have personal experience of having a family member with Dementia. Talking through the difficult feelings you are struggling with, in a safe and non-judgemental space, can make a big difference and help you cope.
Are you caring for a loved one with Dementia? Perhaps you care for your husband or wife, or maybe you are looking after one of your parents? Being a carer can bring about feelings of isolation, exhaustion, loss, anticipatory grief, frustration and anger. I spent several years working for the Alzheimer’s Society supporting carers of people with Dementia, so I understand how challenging it can be. I also have personal experience of having a family member with Dementia. Talking through the difficult feelings you are struggling with, in a safe and non-judgemental space, can make a big difference and help you cope.
01483 967485 View 01483 967485
Photo of Sam Segar Counselling, Counsellor in GU7, England
Sam Segar Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Suffering? Struggling? Worried? Stressed? Can't cope? But you want to sort it out, become clear and unravel the current problems in your life. Difficulties in relationships, family or children? A newly diagnosed health issue or your identity? Finding it difficult to know which way to turn and need some support to find the direction to go. Are events repeating themselves in your life? Would you like to change them and cease the repetition?
Suffering? Struggling? Worried? Stressed? Can't cope? But you want to sort it out, become clear and unravel the current problems in your life. Difficulties in relationships, family or children? A newly diagnosed health issue or your identity? Finding it difficult to know which way to turn and need some support to find the direction to go. Are events repeating themselves in your life? Would you like to change them and cease the repetition?
01483 968094 View 01483 968094
Photo of Maria Midson, Counsellor in GU7, England
Maria Midson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Hello, my name is Maria and I'm an experienced, professional BACP counsellor. I recognise you've taken a bold step to reach out for help and it can be daunting to find a therapist who you can trust and connect with. Being sensitive, curious, non judgemental, along with a sense of humour enables my clients to feel safe, to be open and vulnerable with themselves and others. Perhaps your experiencing difficulties with life, relationships or work and cope by keeping busy, numbing yourself or avoiding your thoughts and feelings. These strategies may leave you feeling anxious, stressed, lonely or depressed if not dealt with.
Hello, my name is Maria and I'm an experienced, professional BACP counsellor. I recognise you've taken a bold step to reach out for help and it can be daunting to find a therapist who you can trust and connect with. Being sensitive, curious, non judgemental, along with a sense of humour enables my clients to feel safe, to be open and vulnerable with themselves and others. Perhaps your experiencing difficulties with life, relationships or work and cope by keeping busy, numbing yourself or avoiding your thoughts and feelings. These strategies may leave you feeling anxious, stressed, lonely or depressed if not dealt with.
07723 494704 View 07723 494704
Photo of Erin Eley, Psychotherapist in GU7, England
Erin Eley
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified
We all experience challenges at stages in our life, maybe you are feeling stuck or anxiety is holding you back from the life you want. Perhaps, even you are noticing a pattern or behaviour that no longer feels helpful. I work with a range of clients and have a special interest working with those struggling with anxiety or their self-identity in or out of relationships.
We all experience challenges at stages in our life, maybe you are feeling stuck or anxiety is holding you back from the life you want. Perhaps, even you are noticing a pattern or behaviour that no longer feels helpful. I work with a range of clients and have a special interest working with those struggling with anxiety or their self-identity in or out of relationships.
01483 967438 View 01483 967438
Photo of Lisa Jane Fairhead, Counsellor in GU7, England
Lisa Jane Fairhead
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Hello. With over 15 years of training and experience working with couples and individuals as a Relational Psychotherapist/Counsellor, I understand how 'life' can impact the relationships with our intimate partners, family and work colleagues. We can often feel unprepared or deskilled to manage them. I offer you a warm, safe environment in which you can talk freely and where we can work together to explore the issues and concerns that you may bring. My aim is to help you to understand and manage these issues and to bring about realistic and lasting changes that are in your best interest.
Hello. With over 15 years of training and experience working with couples and individuals as a Relational Psychotherapist/Counsellor, I understand how 'life' can impact the relationships with our intimate partners, family and work colleagues. We can often feel unprepared or deskilled to manage them. I offer you a warm, safe environment in which you can talk freely and where we can work together to explore the issues and concerns that you may bring. My aim is to help you to understand and manage these issues and to bring about realistic and lasting changes that are in your best interest.
01483 663976 View 01483 663976
Photo of Hilary Adams, Counsellor in GU7, England
Hilary Adams
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
As an experienced member of the BACP, I offer counselling sessions for individuals in a private and comfortable environment. I work with a broad range of issues but the ones that come up most often are anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, and self-doubt. Over time we develop patterns of behaviour and coping mechanisms which may once have served us well but which are no longer useful and may be destructive. Just voicing how you feel can produce powerful psychological benefit but we work together to understand what is happening, enabling you to make better choices, improve relationships and reach a place of self-acceptance.
As an experienced member of the BACP, I offer counselling sessions for individuals in a private and comfortable environment. I work with a broad range of issues but the ones that come up most often are anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, and self-doubt. Over time we develop patterns of behaviour and coping mechanisms which may once have served us well but which are no longer useful and may be destructive. Just voicing how you feel can produce powerful psychological benefit but we work together to understand what is happening, enabling you to make better choices, improve relationships and reach a place of self-acceptance.
01483 968837 View 01483 968837
Photo of Rachel Ilett, Counsellor in GU7, England
Rachel Ilett
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Sometimes life can leave us finding it difficult to cope or just to make sense of things at a challenging time. This can lead to feeling overwhelmed by emotions such as anger, frustration, anxiety, loneliness, or sadness. Or perhaps you are having difficulty in your day-to-day relationships either at work, with friends, partner or child? Or you may be having difficulty dealing with mental health problems. Maybe you feel stuck or unable to control your negative feelings or there may be something from the past which is bothering you and you feel you would like to explore this further to make sense of where you are now.
Sometimes life can leave us finding it difficult to cope or just to make sense of things at a challenging time. This can lead to feeling overwhelmed by emotions such as anger, frustration, anxiety, loneliness, or sadness. Or perhaps you are having difficulty in your day-to-day relationships either at work, with friends, partner or child? Or you may be having difficulty dealing with mental health problems. Maybe you feel stuck or unable to control your negative feelings or there may be something from the past which is bothering you and you feel you would like to explore this further to make sense of where you are now.
01483 967561 View 01483 967561
Photo of Bridget McConnell, Counsellor in GU7, England
Bridget McConnell
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
I am an experienced counsellor and psychotherapist. I adopt an integrated counselling approach which means I use a blend of theories and strategies holistically depending on your needs. My approach considers all aspects of your experience: thoughts, emotions, physical (somatic) and energetic aspects of your life. I offer an empathic and supportive relationship alongside the deeper work that helps identify the root cause of your difficulties. I use a variety of psychotherapeutic and creative interventions that enable you to explore and discover more fulfilling ways of being.
I am an experienced counsellor and psychotherapist. I adopt an integrated counselling approach which means I use a blend of theories and strategies holistically depending on your needs. My approach considers all aspects of your experience: thoughts, emotions, physical (somatic) and energetic aspects of your life. I offer an empathic and supportive relationship alongside the deeper work that helps identify the root cause of your difficulties. I use a variety of psychotherapeutic and creative interventions that enable you to explore and discover more fulfilling ways of being.
07480 537001 View 07480 537001

See more therapy options for GU7

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in GU7

60+

Average cost per session

£65

Counsellors in GU7 who prioritize treating:

98% Anxiety
94% Stress
91% Relationship Issues
89% Depression
89% Self Esteem
76% Bereavement
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

88% AXA PPP
81% Cigna and Evernorth
81% Aviva

How Counsellors in GU7 see their clients

93% In Person and Online
7% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
17% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in GU7?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.