Counselling in Walsall

Photo of Stewart Kunaka, Psychologist in Walsall, England
Stewart Kunaka
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Walsall WS5
Distress in life can bring about: confusion, pain, self-blame, anger, self-blame, isolation, loneliness, negative coping mechanism and many other symptoms. It is important to know that anyone of us can experience mental distress and there are several reasons why this may happen, including: trauma, difficult life events, early life experiences and biological basis. My job is to people make sense of their concerns, and find balance during these difficult times so that they can get to their optimum level of functioning again.
Distress in life can bring about: confusion, pain, self-blame, anger, self-blame, isolation, loneliness, negative coping mechanism and many other symptoms. It is important to know that anyone of us can experience mental distress and there are several reasons why this may happen, including: trauma, difficult life events, early life experiences and biological basis. My job is to people make sense of their concerns, and find balance during these difficult times so that they can get to their optimum level of functioning again.
0121 827 1237 View 0121 827 1237
Photo of Louise Lalley, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Louise Lalley
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS4
Taking the first step towards counselling can be daunting, but my approach will be compassionate, friendly and supportive. We will work together to identify and resolve your issues in a safe and confidential environment, at a pace that is right for you. Through therapy I can help with a range of issues from anxiety to panic disorder, depression to anger management. As a member of the British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy (BACP), I will always work with you ethically and confidentially. So, if you are looking for a therapist in the Walsall or Wolverhampton (Willenhall) areas in the West Midlands, please get in touch.
Taking the first step towards counselling can be daunting, but my approach will be compassionate, friendly and supportive. We will work together to identify and resolve your issues in a safe and confidential environment, at a pace that is right for you. Through therapy I can help with a range of issues from anxiety to panic disorder, depression to anger management. As a member of the British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy (BACP), I will always work with you ethically and confidentially. So, if you are looking for a therapist in the Walsall or Wolverhampton (Willenhall) areas in the West Midlands, please get in touch.
07403 926054 View 07403 926054
Photo of Janet Linton, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Janet Linton
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS2  (Online Only)
My approach makes it possible for me to provide you with the tools and insights for managing factors, including, but not limited to, mental health problems - including anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. Ultimately, by providing you with these tools your counselling will allow you to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. I promise to show empathy at all times, and trust in you and your ability to achieve change. To maximise your potential and get on the right path to to starting a positive change for your journey, ask me to explore what I believe is already within you.
My approach makes it possible for me to provide you with the tools and insights for managing factors, including, but not limited to, mental health problems - including anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. Ultimately, by providing you with these tools your counselling will allow you to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. I promise to show empathy at all times, and trust in you and your ability to achieve change. To maximise your potential and get on the right path to to starting a positive change for your journey, ask me to explore what I believe is already within you.
01922 927034 View 01922 927034
Photo of Dan Dulleston, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Dan Dulleston
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS4  (Online Only)
I am qualified counsellor that is passionate in providing a space for individuals to open up. I work in a Person-Centre capacity for the individual to feel comfortable and relaxed. So that they can be honest and open about the way they are feeling. I aim to be able hold these difficulties for them so the individual to work through it. I aim to offer and use techniques that build resilience for the person. I have experience in working with young people (14-17 yrs) and as a Muslim myself I offer faith-based informed therapy to help individuals work through their identity and struggles.
I am qualified counsellor that is passionate in providing a space for individuals to open up. I work in a Person-Centre capacity for the individual to feel comfortable and relaxed. So that they can be honest and open about the way they are feeling. I aim to be able hold these difficulties for them so the individual to work through it. I aim to offer and use techniques that build resilience for the person. I have experience in working with young people (14-17 yrs) and as a Muslim myself I offer faith-based informed therapy to help individuals work through their identity and struggles.
01922 663644 View 01922 663644
Photo of Dr Jeff Arnold, Psychologist in Walsall, England
Dr Jeff Arnold
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Walsall WS1
I’m a Registered Clinical Psychologist specialising in persistent mood difficulties and traumatic events (PTSD). With regards to trauma, I have expertise in treating single event and chronic trauma and the impacts of these experiences such as flashbacks, extreme emotional distress, reliving and unpleasant physical sensations. I also have significant experience in treating issues such as anxiety and low mood, feeling stuck and alone, and emptiness. I offer a compassionate and sensitive approach that takes account of your unique life story and provides the basis for meaningful change and resolution of your difficulties.
I’m a Registered Clinical Psychologist specialising in persistent mood difficulties and traumatic events (PTSD). With regards to trauma, I have expertise in treating single event and chronic trauma and the impacts of these experiences such as flashbacks, extreme emotional distress, reliving and unpleasant physical sensations. I also have significant experience in treating issues such as anxiety and low mood, feeling stuck and alone, and emptiness. I offer a compassionate and sensitive approach that takes account of your unique life story and provides the basis for meaningful change and resolution of your difficulties.
01922 664947 View 01922 664947
Photo of Richard Majors, Psychologist in Walsall, England
Richard Majors
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Walsall WS1
My Primary mission is to provide services that address the psychological and mental health needs of children, adults and families from both mainstream groups and multicultural communities, who have been historically under-represented in gaining access to mental health or excluded altogether to services because of their race, gender, class, sexual orientation or disability. Dr Majors is a former Clinical Fellow and Post Doctorate at Harvard Medical School. He is also an honorary professor, counselling psychologist and a Fellow for the British Psychological Society (BPS) and a registered counselling psychologist HCPC.
My Primary mission is to provide services that address the psychological and mental health needs of children, adults and families from both mainstream groups and multicultural communities, who have been historically under-represented in gaining access to mental health or excluded altogether to services because of their race, gender, class, sexual orientation or disability. Dr Majors is a former Clinical Fellow and Post Doctorate at Harvard Medical School. He is also an honorary professor, counselling psychologist and a Fellow for the British Psychological Society (BPS) and a registered counselling psychologist HCPC.
07480 486580 View 07480 486580
Photo of Mynd Care Psychotherapies, Psychotherapist in Walsall, England
Mynd Care Psychotherapies
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified
Walsall WS5
Here at Mynd Care Psychotherapies we offer a culturally sensitive and diverse evidence based psychological therapy to adults, young people and families. All our clinicians are registered members of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapists (BABCP) and the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) in the united Kingdom. Our therapy is available in English, Arabic, Urdu, Gujrati and other languages based on the client preference.
Here at Mynd Care Psychotherapies we offer a culturally sensitive and diverse evidence based psychological therapy to adults, young people and families. All our clinicians are registered members of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapists (BABCP) and the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) in the united Kingdom. Our therapy is available in English, Arabic, Urdu, Gujrati and other languages based on the client preference.
0121 661 2813 View 0121 661 2813
Photo of Kolsoma Begum, Psychotherapist in Walsall, England
Kolsoma Begum
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
Walsall WS1
I value individual differences, honesty, integrity, finding your own path, standing out from the crowd, connection and relationship. I strongly believe people can be empowered to find their own answers. I know that i am not a fixer and i don't have all the answers, although I might have a suggestion or two. I know that I am ok to sit with people in chaos. I can tolerate stuckness and I am not afraid to be afraid, nor walk into a dark place. My aim as a therapist is to create a space where you can explore your difficulties, develop an understanding of where and how these difficulties arise to enable you to find ways to make changes.
I value individual differences, honesty, integrity, finding your own path, standing out from the crowd, connection and relationship. I strongly believe people can be empowered to find their own answers. I know that i am not a fixer and i don't have all the answers, although I might have a suggestion or two. I know that I am ok to sit with people in chaos. I can tolerate stuckness and I am not afraid to be afraid, nor walk into a dark place. My aim as a therapist is to create a space where you can explore your difficulties, develop an understanding of where and how these difficulties arise to enable you to find ways to make changes.
07447 245587 View 07447 245587
Photo of BlueRose Psychology , Psychotherapist in Walsall, England
BlueRose Psychology
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
Walsall WS1
Difficult, painful or confusing experience can feel hard to make sense of alone, so having a safe space to explore them in a new ways and perspective can help process and digest what is happening, whether you are feeling anxious, stuck, low or restricted in your current situation. Respect, honesty, safety and empathy are the pillars of my long established confidential psychotherapy counselling practice. I offer a warm, safe non-judgmental therapeutic environment, to support you and in which we can work together through your difficulties.
Difficult, painful or confusing experience can feel hard to make sense of alone, so having a safe space to explore them in a new ways and perspective can help process and digest what is happening, whether you are feeling anxious, stuck, low or restricted in your current situation. Respect, honesty, safety and empathy are the pillars of my long established confidential psychotherapy counselling practice. I offer a warm, safe non-judgmental therapeutic environment, to support you and in which we can work together through your difficulties.
01922 927101 View 01922 927101
Photo of Zanetor Counselling and Psychotherapy , Counsellor in Walsall, England
Zanetor Counselling and Psychotherapy
Counsellor, MUKCP
Verified
Walsall WS5
At Zanetor Counselling and Psychotherapy, it is believed that everyone has the potential to lead a fulfilling and meaningful life. Life may have thrown a lot of challenges your way but with counselling these challenges do not need to define you, my counselling services is designed to help clients unlock their potential and achieve their goals and live a better life.
At Zanetor Counselling and Psychotherapy, it is believed that everyone has the potential to lead a fulfilling and meaningful life. Life may have thrown a lot of challenges your way but with counselling these challenges do not need to define you, my counselling services is designed to help clients unlock their potential and achieve their goals and live a better life.
0121 817 7544 View 0121 817 7544
Photo of Jennifer Elizabeth Mayo, Psychotherapist in Walsall, England
Jennifer Elizabeth Mayo
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS5
Sometimes life is really hard, things can get on top of us and we can be overwhelmed by all the demands we have. I provide a safe and confidential space to be heard and seen, validated and understood. As an integrative psychotherapist, trained to Master Degree level 7, I will bring various therapeutic tools and skills in a compassionate way, suited to your individual needs and circumstance. My hope is that you will feel better after each session, and over time you will find ways to heal, grow and flourish. Whatever you are facing in life, whatever issue you are seeking therapy for, it would be my privilege to journey with you.
Sometimes life is really hard, things can get on top of us and we can be overwhelmed by all the demands we have. I provide a safe and confidential space to be heard and seen, validated and understood. As an integrative psychotherapist, trained to Master Degree level 7, I will bring various therapeutic tools and skills in a compassionate way, suited to your individual needs and circumstance. My hope is that you will feel better after each session, and over time you will find ways to heal, grow and flourish. Whatever you are facing in life, whatever issue you are seeking therapy for, it would be my privilege to journey with you.
01922 927060 View 01922 927060
Photo of Kimberley Hackett, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Kimberley Hackett
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS8  (Online Only)
Life can involve upsetting, stressful, or traumatic events that can impact us in so many ways. You may have anxiety and depression, struggle with low self esteem or have suicidal/intrusive thoughts. You may have problems controlling anger, or struggle with neurodiversity in a neurotypical world. Maybe your thoughts or feelings are impacting relationships around you, or vice versa. Whatever the circumstance, I can help you understand yourself and others in a safe and non-judgmental space, for new or long term troubles. I also offer coping techniques to reduce intensity/frequency of negative thoughts, images, and physical sensations
Life can involve upsetting, stressful, or traumatic events that can impact us in so many ways. You may have anxiety and depression, struggle with low self esteem or have suicidal/intrusive thoughts. You may have problems controlling anger, or struggle with neurodiversity in a neurotypical world. Maybe your thoughts or feelings are impacting relationships around you, or vice versa. Whatever the circumstance, I can help you understand yourself and others in a safe and non-judgmental space, for new or long term troubles. I also offer coping techniques to reduce intensity/frequency of negative thoughts, images, and physical sensations
01922 927074 View 01922 927074
Photo of Lets Talk, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Lets Talk
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
Walsall WS5
I am an experienced conscientious and caring counsellor with over 19 years of experience. I am trained in the person-centred approach and over the years have developed a pluralistic approach. This approach recognises that different approaches work for different clients at different times. We can go through difficulties and often struggle to manage our emotions which impacts on our ability to cope and our relationships can be affected. We will work together to understand and clarify your concerns, explore your difficulties and identity any meaningful and lasting changes you would like to make.
I am an experienced conscientious and caring counsellor with over 19 years of experience. I am trained in the person-centred approach and over the years have developed a pluralistic approach. This approach recognises that different approaches work for different clients at different times. We can go through difficulties and often struggle to manage our emotions which impacts on our ability to cope and our relationships can be affected. We will work together to understand and clarify your concerns, explore your difficulties and identity any meaningful and lasting changes you would like to make.
01922 927045 View 01922 927045
Salma Gora
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
Walsall WS5
I am an experienced Psychotherapist/Supervisor working with Adults, young people and their families who have a wide range of difficulties including Anxiety, Depression, Self harm, Anger, Eating Disorders, Bereavement. and many more. I also have experience of working with statutory and voluntary organisations offering consultations for staff teams/Children in the care system. I also have extensive experience working with Adult patients within an IAPT service online.
I am an experienced Psychotherapist/Supervisor working with Adults, young people and their families who have a wide range of difficulties including Anxiety, Depression, Self harm, Anger, Eating Disorders, Bereavement. and many more. I also have experience of working with statutory and voluntary organisations offering consultations for staff teams/Children in the care system. I also have extensive experience working with Adult patients within an IAPT service online.
01922 927076 View 01922 927076
Photo of Hajran Khan, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Hajran Khan
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Walsall WS8  (Online Only)
I have experience in helping clients with stress and anxiety, family conflicts, motivation, self esteem, confidence, & career difficulties. I believe that you are the expert of your story and that you have many strengths that will assist you in overcoming things that challenge you.
I have experience in helping clients with stress and anxiety, family conflicts, motivation, self esteem, confidence, & career difficulties. I believe that you are the expert of your story and that you have many strengths that will assist you in overcoming things that challenge you.
01922 663683 View 01922 663683
Photo of Neil Hall, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Neil Hall
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Walsall WS6  (Online Only)
Anyone can access counselling for any reason, there is no ideal client, someone who is willing to explore their inner world and is committed to making positive changes in their life, might get the most out of working with me. If you struggle with issues, such as anxiety, depression, relationship problems, or self-doubt, feel stuck or overwhelmed and may not know how to move forward or might just be looking to develop as a person.
Anyone can access counselling for any reason, there is no ideal client, someone who is willing to explore their inner world and is committed to making positive changes in their life, might get the most out of working with me. If you struggle with issues, such as anxiety, depression, relationship problems, or self-doubt, feel stuck or overwhelmed and may not know how to move forward or might just be looking to develop as a person.
01922 664907 View 01922 664907
Photo of Neeraj Mall, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Neeraj Mall
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Walsall WS1
My main work consists of Couples counselling as well as trauma focused work, which includes childhood trauma. The work involves psycho education around brain fragments, where clients work to assess when they are operating from the frontal lobe and when they switch to the limbic system where they are reliving old trauma memories. Since Covid there has been an increased demand for couples work. A lot of work is around working with couples in troubled relationships. I work with children and young people who have experienced trauma and sexual abuse as well as bereavement support work.
My main work consists of Couples counselling as well as trauma focused work, which includes childhood trauma. The work involves psycho education around brain fragments, where clients work to assess when they are operating from the frontal lobe and when they switch to the limbic system where they are reliving old trauma memories. Since Covid there has been an increased demand for couples work. A lot of work is around working with couples in troubled relationships. I work with children and young people who have experienced trauma and sexual abuse as well as bereavement support work.
0121 728 6575 View 0121 728 6575
Photo of Bridgewalk Counselling, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Bridgewalk Counselling
Counsellor, BACP
Verified
Walsall WS1
Well done for taking the first step to accessing support, alleviating some of the feelings of distress. This Is the hardest step and a daunting one, but hoping my profile encourages you to start your therapeutic journey. The integrative approach enables me to be responsive to your needs, to tailor the therapy to suit your specific concern. I am experienced in providing therapy to clients - suffering from complex and enduring mental health issues in difficult situations at times. I am well practiced in a wide range of skills, techniques and interventions to facilitate change, growth and to strengthen where there may be distress.
Well done for taking the first step to accessing support, alleviating some of the feelings of distress. This Is the hardest step and a daunting one, but hoping my profile encourages you to start your therapeutic journey. The integrative approach enables me to be responsive to your needs, to tailor the therapy to suit your specific concern. I am experienced in providing therapy to clients - suffering from complex and enduring mental health issues in difficult situations at times. I am well practiced in a wide range of skills, techniques and interventions to facilitate change, growth and to strengthen where there may be distress.
0121 752 2915 View 0121 752 2915
Photo of Dr Liam Grisley, Psychologist in Walsall, England
Dr Liam Grisley
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Walsall WS2
I have worked in the NHS since 2015 across a range of different mental health settings, including both the community and inpatient environments, with a range of different psychological presentations. I have experience of working with individuals from a range of ages and backgrounds. I will aim to help you develop an understanding of the distress which you may be experiencing and look to help you process these difficult thoughts and feelings. Our goal will be to equip you with the tools to help you manage these difficult experiences.
I have worked in the NHS since 2015 across a range of different mental health settings, including both the community and inpatient environments, with a range of different psychological presentations. I have experience of working with individuals from a range of ages and backgrounds. I will aim to help you develop an understanding of the distress which you may be experiencing and look to help you process these difficult thoughts and feelings. Our goal will be to equip you with the tools to help you manage these difficult experiences.
07723 483922 View 07723 483922
Photo of Claire Ashby, Counsellor in Walsall, England
Claire Ashby
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
2 Endorsed
Walsall WS1
Lovely to meet you its Claire. Do you experience anxiety, panic or overwhelm? Do you often feel low and depressed? Do you experience panic attacks? Or are you experiencing insomnia or sleep difficulties? We all go through difficult periods in our life and it can be easy to get stuck in cycles of anxiety and depression. I will work with you to break these negative cycles helping you to overcome the anxiety which is holding you back. I am a experienced and skilled Counsellor and Hypnotherapist, working with you towards creating the life you deserve, a life that is rich and vibrant, where anxiety no longer holds you back.
Lovely to meet you its Claire. Do you experience anxiety, panic or overwhelm? Do you often feel low and depressed? Do you experience panic attacks? Or are you experiencing insomnia or sleep difficulties? We all go through difficult periods in our life and it can be easy to get stuck in cycles of anxiety and depression. I will work with you to break these negative cycles helping you to overcome the anxiety which is holding you back. I am a experienced and skilled Counsellor and Hypnotherapist, working with you towards creating the life you deserve, a life that is rich and vibrant, where anxiety no longer holds you back.
0121 661 7465 View 0121 661 7465

See more therapy options for Walsall

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Walsall

40+

Average cost per session

£55

Counsellors in Walsall who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
85% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
80% Trauma and PTSD
80% Stress
78% Self Esteem
70% Domestic Abuse

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

65% Aviva
59% Bupa
47% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in Walsall see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Walsall?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.