Counselling in Trowbridge

Photo of Karen Tate, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Karen Tate
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14  (Online Only)
I am a qualified and BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist, experienced in treating anxiety, depression and PTSD. If you want to find ways to think and do things differently to feel better, then CBT could be right for you. Together, in a safe and structured way, we will make sense of what may be keeping you stuck and empower you to learn strategies to work towards your own goals. This could involve learning new coping techniques, challenging negative thoughts and beliefs, or experimenting with different ways of doing things. By the end of therapy you should have new tools to be able to live your life differently.
I am a qualified and BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist, experienced in treating anxiety, depression and PTSD. If you want to find ways to think and do things differently to feel better, then CBT could be right for you. Together, in a safe and structured way, we will make sense of what may be keeping you stuck and empower you to learn strategies to work towards your own goals. This could involve learning new coping techniques, challenging negative thoughts and beliefs, or experimenting with different ways of doing things. By the end of therapy you should have new tools to be able to live your life differently.
07498 554517 View 07498 554517
Photo of Craig Lilburn, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Craig Lilburn
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
The decision to look for a counsellor is a huge step and one which I feel should be commended.I provide a safe space in which you are listened to, understood and not judged. My aim is to encourage self-understanding and hope.  There are of course various reasons for choosing to go to counselling. In my sessions, I respect the uniqueness of each individual. Our focus will be on the areas that matter to you and what you would like to achieve. I believe that therapeutic change comes from having our feelings validated and explored in a friendly, safe and empathetic environment.
The decision to look for a counsellor is a huge step and one which I feel should be commended.I provide a safe space in which you are listened to, understood and not judged. My aim is to encourage self-understanding and hope.  There are of course various reasons for choosing to go to counselling. In my sessions, I respect the uniqueness of each individual. Our focus will be on the areas that matter to you and what you would like to achieve. I believe that therapeutic change comes from having our feelings validated and explored in a friendly, safe and empathetic environment.
01225 434518 View 01225 434518
Photo of Vanessa de Macedo Ellis, BACP, Counsellor
Vanessa de Macedo Ellis
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
I offer a safe and confidential space where you will have the chance to share your problems, your difficult feelings, your pain and your life story. Talking about our life honestly and openly, with an empathic and non-judgemental therapist can be a deeply healing process. Having a space where we can be fully ourselves, where we’re invited to slow down, breathe and investigate our inner world and our emotions is necessary, today, more than ever. We live busy lives and for many, it is difficult to stop and notice, most of the time, what is going on inside us. As we reconnect to our feelings and our essence there is an immediate sense
I offer a safe and confidential space where you will have the chance to share your problems, your difficult feelings, your pain and your life story. Talking about our life honestly and openly, with an empathic and non-judgemental therapist can be a deeply healing process. Having a space where we can be fully ourselves, where we’re invited to slow down, breathe and investigate our inner world and our emotions is necessary, today, more than ever. We live busy lives and for many, it is difficult to stop and notice, most of the time, what is going on inside us. As we reconnect to our feelings and our essence there is an immediate sense
01225 435174 View 01225 435174
Photo of Haydn Mark Derek Wilkins - Emergence Counselling, ACC Reg, Counsellor
Emergence Counselling
Counsellor, ACC Reg
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
What do you need? It is sometimes helpful to ask yourself - "What are my main goals as I go for counselling? What is important to me right now? How would I like to change?" Often all someone needs is some quality time and space to be able to be themselves, and be heard - not feeling judged no matter what they say, and feel some compassion from somebody who cares. In the busy and sometimes harsh world in which we live, I provide that space for you to come as you are, work with your expressed goals, rediscover a new way forward, and deal with the problems you are experiencing. Often people find a positive change in this scenario.
What do you need? It is sometimes helpful to ask yourself - "What are my main goals as I go for counselling? What is important to me right now? How would I like to change?" Often all someone needs is some quality time and space to be able to be themselves, and be heard - not feeling judged no matter what they say, and feel some compassion from somebody who cares. In the busy and sometimes harsh world in which we live, I provide that space for you to come as you are, work with your expressed goals, rediscover a new way forward, and deal with the problems you are experiencing. Often people find a positive change in this scenario.
01225 530248 View 01225 530248
Photo of Jennifer Parsons - JP Counselling , MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
JP Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
My ideal client is someone who is ready to start the journey of self discovery in a safe and non judgmentaI space. I enjoy working with clients who are not really sure why they feel the way they do, but know that something is not quite right and feel the need to investigate this further. I have a particular interest and expertise in working with clients who have anxiety, depression, lack of self confidence and body image issues along with relationship difficulties. I work with clients to identify their needs and goals to create a unique personal treatment plan in order for them to reach their goals within a sensible time frame.
My ideal client is someone who is ready to start the journey of self discovery in a safe and non judgmentaI space. I enjoy working with clients who are not really sure why they feel the way they do, but know that something is not quite right and feel the need to investigate this further. I have a particular interest and expertise in working with clients who have anxiety, depression, lack of self confidence and body image issues along with relationship difficulties. I work with clients to identify their needs and goals to create a unique personal treatment plan in order for them to reach their goals within a sensible time frame.
07723 486462 View 07723 486462
Photo of Gemma Mason, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Gemma Mason
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
Not accepting new clients
I approach working with clients as meeting the individual within their current situation. I hold a non-judgemental position and offer unconditional acceptance. I work with a diverse population but I am unable to offer access to my practice room for wheelchairs
I approach working with clients as meeting the individual within their current situation. I hold a non-judgemental position and offer unconditional acceptance. I work with a diverse population but I am unable to offer access to my practice room for wheelchairs
07723 492916 View 07723 492916
Photo of Simon Christopher Parrett, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Simon Christopher Parrett
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
If you are repeating patterns of relating, thinking, feeling and behaving that are confusing, distressing or difficult, I aim to build a therapeutic relationship with you that is safe enough to give voice to how those patterns may be complicating your life and sense of identity. And thus, help you identify any changes you may choose to make in your everyday life.
If you are repeating patterns of relating, thinking, feeling and behaving that are confusing, distressing or difficult, I aim to build a therapeutic relationship with you that is safe enough to give voice to how those patterns may be complicating your life and sense of identity. And thus, help you identify any changes you may choose to make in your everyday life.
01327 228575 View 01327 228575
Photo of Kerry Hampton. Mbacp.dip.couns., MBACP, Counsellor
Kerry Hampton. Mbacp.dip.couns.
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
Waitlist for new clients
Let me introduce myself. I am Kerry, local to Wiltshire. Working as a Qualified Integrative Counsellor, I take account of the whole person, emotional, physical and mental. I am trained in many theoretical approaches and a certificated registered Member of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. (MBACP). I work with a range of issues including trauma, abuse, depression, anxiety and relationships. I am a certified mental health first aider, a trauma informed practitioner and hold a L2 EY neuroscience certificate. I have partaken in my own therapy, and this allows me to know what it feels like to be in that chair.
Let me introduce myself. I am Kerry, local to Wiltshire. Working as a Qualified Integrative Counsellor, I take account of the whole person, emotional, physical and mental. I am trained in many theoretical approaches and a certificated registered Member of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. (MBACP). I work with a range of issues including trauma, abuse, depression, anxiety and relationships. I am a certified mental health first aider, a trauma informed practitioner and hold a L2 EY neuroscience certificate. I have partaken in my own therapy, and this allows me to know what it feels like to be in that chair.
01373 482951 View 01373 482951
Photo of Allen Daniels, BACP, Counsellor
Allen Daniels
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
I work in a professional, friendly and straightforward way. Life isn’t always easy. Things change, or end, or go wrong. Sometimes you can feel overwhelmed, hurt or confused. Sometimes you can get stuck or just not like yourself…Sometimes you might think that you're broken. Whether you’re feeling anxious, depressed or sad; missing someone you loved; are worried by a family issue or you feel your self-esteem or your confidence is not all it could be... Whatever it is, you can talk to me in confidence.
I work in a professional, friendly and straightforward way. Life isn’t always easy. Things change, or end, or go wrong. Sometimes you can feel overwhelmed, hurt or confused. Sometimes you can get stuck or just not like yourself…Sometimes you might think that you're broken. Whether you’re feeling anxious, depressed or sad; missing someone you loved; are worried by a family issue or you feel your self-esteem or your confidence is not all it could be... Whatever it is, you can talk to me in confidence.
01225 530092 View 01225 530092
Photo of Kathryn Dugdale, MBACP, Counsellor
Kathryn Dugdale
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
I provide counselling from my private practice at my home in Melksham, Wiltshire. This is a private room providing a safe and confidential space for our work together. I can offer various daytime and evening appointments throughout the week. My training helps me to provide you with a reliable, regular, non-judgmental space where you can begin to talk about whatever is on your mind. I work in what is called an integrative way, using a wide range of therapeutic models, but primarily focusing on humanistic counselling.
I provide counselling from my private practice at my home in Melksham, Wiltshire. This is a private room providing a safe and confidential space for our work together. I can offer various daytime and evening appointments throughout the week. My training helps me to provide you with a reliable, regular, non-judgmental space where you can begin to talk about whatever is on your mind. I work in what is called an integrative way, using a wide range of therapeutic models, but primarily focusing on humanistic counselling.
07403 940315 View 07403 940315
Photo of James Middleton, PhD, MNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
James Middleton
Psychotherapist, PhD, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
Not accepting new clients
We all are subject to emotions like low moods, worries and frustrations; it’s all part of being human, the brain we inherit and the effect of our environment. However, when these emotions turn chronic, exaggerated and persistent, we suffer from situations like depression, anxiety and anger, which impact on our lives and well-being. These emotions spill over, adversely affecting our goals and relationships at home and at work
We all are subject to emotions like low moods, worries and frustrations; it’s all part of being human, the brain we inherit and the effect of our environment. However, when these emotions turn chronic, exaggerated and persistent, we suffer from situations like depression, anxiety and anger, which impact on our lives and well-being. These emotions spill over, adversely affecting our goals and relationships at home and at work
01225 985707 View 01225 985707
Photo of Louise Earle, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Louise Earle
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
Finding a therapist can feel like a minefield. Ultimately you probably want to find someone to talk to that you feel comfortable with, and who can of course help. I understand how confusing and nerve-wracking it can be to consider therapy and take the first step. I provide clients with a supportive space in which to unpack their challenges. I will help you to get a better handle on what is happening for you. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, significant loss and bereavement, childhood and midlife trauma, as well as difficulty understanding feelings.
Finding a therapist can feel like a minefield. Ultimately you probably want to find someone to talk to that you feel comfortable with, and who can of course help. I understand how confusing and nerve-wracking it can be to consider therapy and take the first step. I provide clients with a supportive space in which to unpack their challenges. I will help you to get a better handle on what is happening for you. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, significant loss and bereavement, childhood and midlife trauma, as well as difficulty understanding feelings.
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Photo of Julie Pearl Snelgrove - JPSCounselling, MBACP, Counsellor
JPSCounselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
I offer individual counselling in Frome - Somerset. ​You might be experiencing some kind of emotional distress, whether through a life experience, or maybe you are experiencing low self-esteem. You might be having issues such as anxiety or depression, or you might be struggling to come to terms with the impact of them from the past. It might be that you would like to change things in your life, or you may find yourself generally feeling unhappy or uncomfortable and aren't quite sure why. These feelings and experiences can become very overwhelming and difficult to deal with on your own.
I offer individual counselling in Frome - Somerset. ​You might be experiencing some kind of emotional distress, whether through a life experience, or maybe you are experiencing low self-esteem. You might be having issues such as anxiety or depression, or you might be struggling to come to terms with the impact of them from the past. It might be that you would like to change things in your life, or you may find yourself generally feeling unhappy or uncomfortable and aren't quite sure why. These feelings and experiences can become very overwhelming and difficult to deal with on your own.
01373 482566 View 01373 482566
Photo of Tessa Strickland, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Tessa Strickland
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
Are you struggling with a relationship or juggling the competing demands of your private and professional life? Are you feeling stuck and uncertain about how to fulfil your potential? Have you recently lost someone close to you? I first sought help as a young mother and the benefits were so enormous, I chose to train as a psychotherapist myself. I work one-to-one and with couples, helping you to identify patterns in your relationship with others, and with yourself, and establishing ways of changing those patterns that do not serve you.
Are you struggling with a relationship or juggling the competing demands of your private and professional life? Are you feeling stuck and uncertain about how to fulfil your potential? Have you recently lost someone close to you? I first sought help as a young mother and the benefits were so enormous, I chose to train as a psychotherapist myself. I work one-to-one and with couples, helping you to identify patterns in your relationship with others, and with yourself, and establishing ways of changing those patterns that do not serve you.
01225 530240 View 01225 530240
Photo of Naomi Greenwood, UKCP Trainee, Psychotherapist
Naomi Greenwood
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
Our true nature is free, flowing, wild and energetic. Childhood traumas create defences, because our survival instinct was so strong it protected us at all costs. The cost is our experience now, disconnection from our-self, our body, others, life. Resulting in difficult relationships, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and self harming behaviors. The decision to come to therapy is a brave one, it is a statement to yourself and the Universe that you no longer want to just survive, but to live with more ease, connection and aliveness. The therapeutic relationship encourages this life force energy, giving space for wholeness to grow.
Our true nature is free, flowing, wild and energetic. Childhood traumas create defences, because our survival instinct was so strong it protected us at all costs. The cost is our experience now, disconnection from our-self, our body, others, life. Resulting in difficult relationships, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and self harming behaviors. The decision to come to therapy is a brave one, it is a statement to yourself and the Universe that you no longer want to just survive, but to live with more ease, connection and aliveness. The therapeutic relationship encourages this life force energy, giving space for wholeness to grow.
01225 435184 View 01225 435184
Photo of Aimee Elizabeth Rosalie Joslin - Aimee Joslin, MBACP, Counsellor
Aimee Joslin
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
A very warm welcome. You may be under pressure, angry, confused, anxious, sad, hurt or feeling lost. You may be struggling with many different thoughts and emotions, or simply not sure how you feel about a particular issue or situation either current or historical. Seeking support is a courageous step and finding the right support can be daunting. You will have questions, especially if you have not sought counselling before, and I will do my best to answer them.
A very warm welcome. You may be under pressure, angry, confused, anxious, sad, hurt or feeling lost. You may be struggling with many different thoughts and emotions, or simply not sure how you feel about a particular issue or situation either current or historical. Seeking support is a courageous step and finding the right support can be daunting. You will have questions, especially if you have not sought counselling before, and I will do my best to answer them.
01380 713771 View 01380 713771
Photo of Dr James Kiff, PsychD, CPsychol, Psychologist
Dr James Kiff
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
When we feel stuck, experience difficult emotions, or the challenges we have are distressing, finding a space to work through and move beyond what has led you to experience those difficulties can feel overwhelming in itself. In working together we look to create a space where you can explore, make sense of and manage distress, address challenges and build psychological well-being, while supporting you to build confidence to move forward.
When we feel stuck, experience difficult emotions, or the challenges we have are distressing, finding a space to work through and move beyond what has led you to experience those difficulties can feel overwhelming in itself. In working together we look to create a space where you can explore, make sense of and manage distress, address challenges and build psychological well-being, while supporting you to build confidence to move forward.
01373 482303 View 01373 482303
Photo of Dr Gill Walker, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Gill Walker
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14  (Online Only)
I help those who seek clarity about their situation, through discussion of the challenges. Viewing issues from multiple perspectives, including evidence based models helps you to get things more in perspective, more malleable, and more manageable. I see to your needs & provide resources as you transition, while we face issues together, & grow your capacity to journey beyond me. This may involve an exploration of the past, or practical focus on here & now strategies & approaches, which influence the map of your life journey you are carving.
I help those who seek clarity about their situation, through discussion of the challenges. Viewing issues from multiple perspectives, including evidence based models helps you to get things more in perspective, more malleable, and more manageable. I see to your needs & provide resources as you transition, while we face issues together, & grow your capacity to journey beyond me. This may involve an exploration of the past, or practical focus on here & now strategies & approaches, which influence the map of your life journey you are carving.
01937 229483 View 01937 229483
Photo of Helen Marie Yates, BACP, Counsellor
Helen Marie Yates
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Trowbridge BA14
Hello and welcome, I have experience in many different client issues, to name some- self harm, relationship difficulties, body dysmorphia, gender dysphoria, neuro diversity, relationship difficulties, bereavement, miscarriage, infertility, addiction and trauma. I have a strong grounding in eating disorders, LGBTQ issues and sexual abuse. You may use the space how you wish to and I will be alongside you, supporting you along the way to find your own answers and come to your own solutions, conclusions and understandings. I wouldn't offer you advice but would facilitate what you would like to work on and what you wish to explore.
Hello and welcome, I have experience in many different client issues, to name some- self harm, relationship difficulties, body dysmorphia, gender dysphoria, neuro diversity, relationship difficulties, bereavement, miscarriage, infertility, addiction and trauma. I have a strong grounding in eating disorders, LGBTQ issues and sexual abuse. You may use the space how you wish to and I will be alongside you, supporting you along the way to find your own answers and come to your own solutions, conclusions and understandings. I wouldn't offer you advice but would facilitate what you would like to work on and what you wish to explore.
01373 485190 View 01373 485190
Photo of Rose Persson - Wessex Counselling and Psychotherapy
Wessex Counselling and Psychotherapy
Verified Verified
Trowbridge BA14
Our counselling offers help in addressing the difficult areas of your life. This might involve loss and grief, relationship troubles or problems at work. Equally, there are times when the cause is not clear but you still feel something is wrong. Colleagues, family and friends can be a great source of support but it's not always easy to confide in those closest to you. At times like these, talking to someone who is not personally involved can make a difference. A professional counsellor will listen to you without making judgments and can help you find new resources within yourself.
Our counselling offers help in addressing the difficult areas of your life. This might involve loss and grief, relationship troubles or problems at work. Equally, there are times when the cause is not clear but you still feel something is wrong. Colleagues, family and friends can be a great source of support but it's not always easy to confide in those closest to you. At times like these, talking to someone who is not personally involved can make a difference. A professional counsellor will listen to you without making judgments and can help you find new resources within yourself.
01373 800048 View 01373 800048

See more therapy options for Trowbridge

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Trowbridge

30+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Trowbridge who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
97% Anxiety
90% Relationship Issues
84% Self Esteem
81% Bereavement
81% Stress
77% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% Aviva
50% AXA PPP
50% Bupa

How Counsellors in Trowbridge see their clients

88% In Person and Online
12% Online Only

Gender breakdown

69% Female
31% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Trowbridge?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.