Depression Counselling in Ripley

Photo of Diane Webb, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Diane Webb
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Ripley HG3  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Curious by nature and committed to keeping astride with the developments in research in Psychotherapy, I enjoy adding new skills to my work as a Psychotherapist and today can accompany a wide variety of needs: Anxiety and/or Depression, Trauma, Stress and Abuse, Relationship issues , Managing Emotions, and many other issues that we might have to face in life.
As a Supervisor & Psychotherapist ( bilingual English-French), over 35 years of my adult life have been dedicated to working with others in their quest for well-being.
Curious by nature and committed to keeping astride with the developments in research in Psychotherapy, I enjoy adding new skills to my work as a Psychotherapist and today can accompany a wide variety of needs: Anxiety and/or Depression, Trauma, Stress and Abuse, Relationship issues , Managing Emotions, and many other issues that we might have to face in life.
As a Supervisor & Psychotherapist ( bilingual English-French), over 35 years of my adult life have been dedicated to working with others in their quest for well-being.
01423 449166 View 01423 449166
Photo of Paul Robert Brown, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Paul Robert Brown
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5
I can help you with Addiction, Anxiety, Depression, Domestic, & Sexual Abuse, Loss of self-esteem, Loss of Meaning and Purpose in Life, Neurodiversity (ADHD, Autism, Aspergers, Dyspraxia), Relational Trauma, Stress and Social Anxiety.
If you are reading this, then you have already taken the first step, well done you. My goal is always to understand you and to know how it feels to walk in your shoes. Using a dynamic approach, tailored to you and your needs, we will explore your experience together. I practice how I live, authentically and with honesty. My approach to therapy is relational. Healing occurs within the therapeutic relationship and through effective strategies that address whatever is holding you back.
I can help you with Addiction, Anxiety, Depression, Domestic, & Sexual Abuse, Loss of self-esteem, Loss of Meaning and Purpose in Life, Neurodiversity (ADHD, Autism, Aspergers, Dyspraxia), Relational Trauma, Stress and Social Anxiety.
If you are reading this, then you have already taken the first step, well done you. My goal is always to understand you and to know how it feels to walk in your shoes. Using a dynamic approach, tailored to you and your needs, we will explore your experience together. I practice how I live, authentically and with honesty. My approach to therapy is relational. Healing occurs within the therapeutic relationship and through effective strategies that address whatever is holding you back.
01777 801280 View 01777 801280
Photo of David Everett, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
David Everett
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5
I have worked with clients with a wide range of difficulties including, but not limited to, depression, anxiety, PTSD, domestic abuse and low self-esteem.
If you, or someone you care about, is experiencing difficulties in life, it can be helpful to talk with a highly-skilled and experienced professional who can help to navigate through these moments. As a psychotherapist registered with the BACP, I provide a compassionate and safe space for you to explore these issues in a non-judgmental manner, and can work with both individuals and couples.
I have worked with clients with a wide range of difficulties including, but not limited to, depression, anxiety, PTSD, domestic abuse and low self-esteem.
If you, or someone you care about, is experiencing difficulties in life, it can be helpful to talk with a highly-skilled and experienced professional who can help to navigate through these moments. As a psychotherapist registered with the BACP, I provide a compassionate and safe space for you to explore these issues in a non-judgmental manner, and can work with both individuals and couples.
07891 391351 View 07891 391351
Photo of Jeanette Barratt, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Jeanette Barratt
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5  (Online Only)
I specialise in relationship difficulties, adverse childhood experiences, anxiety and depression.
If you have found your way here I appreciate you are reaching out for support. Taking the first step to reaching out to someone; especially a stranger takes courage. Maybe you are feeling stuck, overwhelmed, experiencing a life transition: divorce, grief, becoming a parent, children leaving home. Unable to find the strength to cope with change and difficult decisions. Counselling can be a life changing experience; our present struggles and feelings can be a turning point towards a new direction. Counselling is a collaborative task and it is my endeavour to travel alongside you on your journey as you discover new ways to move forward
I specialise in relationship difficulties, adverse childhood experiences, anxiety and depression.
If you have found your way here I appreciate you are reaching out for support. Taking the first step to reaching out to someone; especially a stranger takes courage. Maybe you are feeling stuck, overwhelmed, experiencing a life transition: divorce, grief, becoming a parent, children leaving home. Unable to find the strength to cope with change and difficult decisions. Counselling can be a life changing experience; our present struggles and feelings can be a turning point towards a new direction. Counselling is a collaborative task and it is my endeavour to travel alongside you on your journey as you discover new ways to move forward
01332 215070 View 01332 215070
Photo of James Palfreyman, MBACP, Psychotherapist
James Palfreyman
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5
Do you ever feel like a spectator in your own life? Maybe you feel stuck in a pattern of behaviour and don't know how to change it? Do you feel less deserving of the life you desire than everybody else? If this sounds like you and you are ready to explore it further, then get in touch. I have a keen interest in identity, how we see ourselves, and how we see ourselves in relation to others. I provide a safe, non-judgemental environment where we can work through your issues or concerns at your own pace, focussing on your own personal goals. This is your time!
Do you ever feel like a spectator in your own life? Maybe you feel stuck in a pattern of behaviour and don't know how to change it? Do you feel less deserving of the life you desire than everybody else? If this sounds like you and you are ready to explore it further, then get in touch. I have a keen interest in identity, how we see ourselves, and how we see ourselves in relation to others. I provide a safe, non-judgemental environment where we can work through your issues or concerns at your own pace, focussing on your own personal goals. This is your time!
01773 305002 View 01773 305002
Photo of Molly Kavanagh, BACP, Psychotherapist
Molly Kavanagh
Psychotherapist, BACP
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5
Choosing a therapist is an incredibly personal decision that involves connection, empathy, and trust. In order to support you in overcoming obstacles in life and promoting personal development, I provide a unique combination of compassion, experience, and evidence-based techniques to help with various mental and emotional issues. My therapeutic approach is based on a strong sense of sensitivity and understanding, and I work hard to provide a secure, accepting environment where you can explore your thoughts, emotions, and experiences without fear of being judged or rejected.
Choosing a therapist is an incredibly personal decision that involves connection, empathy, and trust. In order to support you in overcoming obstacles in life and promoting personal development, I provide a unique combination of compassion, experience, and evidence-based techniques to help with various mental and emotional issues. My therapeutic approach is based on a strong sense of sensitivity and understanding, and I work hard to provide a secure, accepting environment where you can explore your thoughts, emotions, and experiences without fear of being judged or rejected.
020 3962 0854 View 020 3962 0854
Photo of Nicola Moore, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Nicola Moore
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ripley DE5
Hello, I understand how hard it can be to take the first step and seek counselling and it is imperative you choose the right therapist for you. You may have an idea around what you want to talk about, or you might just know you want things to be different, and are unsure how to change this. Counselling can help you work out the direction you want to go, and how to start heading there.
Hello, I understand how hard it can be to take the first step and seek counselling and it is imperative you choose the right therapist for you. You may have an idea around what you want to talk about, or you might just know you want things to be different, and are unsure how to change this. Counselling can help you work out the direction you want to go, and how to start heading there.
07447 401975 View 07447 401975
Photo of Simon Lowe, MSc, UKCP Trainee, Counsellor
Simon Lowe
Counsellor, MSc, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Ripley DE5
Hi I’m Simon, I support others through the challenges and difficulties that life can bring. I understand the thought of starting therapy can feel uncomfortable, having experienced this myself, I have trodden the path of personal therapy too. I wish to make the counselling experience as inviting, safe and comfortable as I can for you. I offer a confidential space for you to explore personal challenges, a space where you will be valued, not judged, and listened to, creating a foundation for growth and change.
Hi I’m Simon, I support others through the challenges and difficulties that life can bring. I understand the thought of starting therapy can feel uncomfortable, having experienced this myself, I have trodden the path of personal therapy too. I wish to make the counselling experience as inviting, safe and comfortable as I can for you. I offer a confidential space for you to explore personal challenges, a space where you will be valued, not judged, and listened to, creating a foundation for growth and change.
020 8138 8635 View 020 8138 8635
Photo of Deborah Elizabeth Short, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Deborah Elizabeth Short
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ripley DE5
I believe that people are endlessly creative... Despite damaging childhoods, difficult life experiences, the most painful losses and challenges we face living in an increasingly complex world, we are all capable of turning our lives around for the better. With courage and the right kind of help, our natural inborn capacity for growth is brought to light. The process of making life better is just as worthwhile as the outcome. Somehow the whole process of confronting and solving the apparently insurmountable problems that bring us to therapy can also bring renewed meaning and poignancy into our lives.
I believe that people are endlessly creative... Despite damaging childhoods, difficult life experiences, the most painful losses and challenges we face living in an increasingly complex world, we are all capable of turning our lives around for the better. With courage and the right kind of help, our natural inborn capacity for growth is brought to light. The process of making life better is just as worthwhile as the outcome. Somehow the whole process of confronting and solving the apparently insurmountable problems that bring us to therapy can also bring renewed meaning and poignancy into our lives.
01773 302042 View 01773 302042

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Claire Alexandra Ingram, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Counsellor
Claire Alexandra Ingram
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bournemouth BH7
My work over the years has been wide ranging including: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, addiction, bereavement, self harm, low self -esteem and trauma.
Hello, I'm Claire. I am an experienced counsellor, working on-line and face to face from my therapy rooms in Southbourne. There are many different reasons why you may be looking for change in your life. For example, you may be suffering from day-to-day anxiety, or perhaps you have experienced traumatic life events leading to depression, addictive behaviours or problems in your relationships. You may not even be sure why you feel this way. At times like these it can help to talk to a professional who can work alongside you to help you achieve understanding and clarity, enabling you to make the changes you want in your life.
My work over the years has been wide ranging including: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, addiction, bereavement, self harm, low self -esteem and trauma.
Hello, I'm Claire. I am an experienced counsellor, working on-line and face to face from my therapy rooms in Southbourne. There are many different reasons why you may be looking for change in your life. For example, you may be suffering from day-to-day anxiety, or perhaps you have experienced traumatic life events leading to depression, addictive behaviours or problems in your relationships. You may not even be sure why you feel this way. At times like these it can help to talk to a professional who can work alongside you to help you achieve understanding and clarity, enabling you to make the changes you want in your life.
01725 538784 View 01725 538784
Photo of Richard Dolan - Richard Dolan Check Your Head Counselling, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Richard Dolan Check Your Head Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Christchurch BH23
Are you depressed, anxious, or troubled by unwanted thoughts or feelings? Do you feel overcome with anxiety, think that your problems are too big to manage, or that nobody hears you? As a fully qualifed and experienced professional therapist, I've helped hundreds of people, over thousands of hours, to change their lives, overcome challenges, resolve traumas, and I can help you too. I offer online, face-to-face, and outdoor walk & talk counselling, with a flexible and affordable pricing structure to help you get what you need in a way that works for you.
Are you depressed, anxious, or troubled by unwanted thoughts or feelings? Do you feel overcome with anxiety, think that your problems are too big to manage, or that nobody hears you? As a fully qualifed and experienced professional therapist, I've helped hundreds of people, over thousands of hours, to change their lives, overcome challenges, resolve traumas, and I can help you too. I offer online, face-to-face, and outdoor walk & talk counselling, with a flexible and affordable pricing structure to help you get what you need in a way that works for you.
01354 700745 View 01354 700745
Photo of Mark Draper, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Mark Draper
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bournemouth BH6
Not accepting new clients
Life can be so full of pressure and stress, is it any wonder we sometimes need help navigating these challenges? Many of the people I work with feel trapped by their past, overwhelmed in the present, or scared of the future. I have supported people through some of the worst moments in their life and seen them turn their lives around. I can help you make sense of what has happened in your life, overcome the things that are holding you back, and help you to change things for the better. As a Clinical Psychologist, I am experienced at treating anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, relationship issues, and a range of other problems.
Life can be so full of pressure and stress, is it any wonder we sometimes need help navigating these challenges? Many of the people I work with feel trapped by their past, overwhelmed in the present, or scared of the future. I have supported people through some of the worst moments in their life and seen them turn their lives around. I can help you make sense of what has happened in your life, overcome the things that are holding you back, and help you to change things for the better. As a Clinical Psychologist, I am experienced at treating anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, relationship issues, and a range of other problems.
01865 638581 View 01865 638581
Photo of Dr Jessica Matcham, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Jessica Matcham
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Christchurch BH23
As a Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist I have experience working with adults with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression and low mood, trauma and low self-esteem. Everybody experiences psychological distress but sometimes this can get in the way of us living our lives. When this happens, talking therapy can help us to reflect on how we got to where we are and explore ways of moving forward. I can help you to identify goals for therapy, offer emotional support, increase understanding and acceptance of self and provide practical strategies to help you make long lasting, meaningful change in your life.
As a Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist I have experience working with adults with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression and low mood, trauma and low self-esteem. Everybody experiences psychological distress but sometimes this can get in the way of us living our lives. When this happens, talking therapy can help us to reflect on how we got to where we are and explore ways of moving forward. I can help you to identify goals for therapy, offer emotional support, increase understanding and acceptance of self and provide practical strategies to help you make long lasting, meaningful change in your life.
01202 125887 View 01202 125887
Photo of Andrew O’Neill, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Andrew O’Neill
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Christchurch BH23  (Online Only)
I have treated over 1000 clients in PTSD, Anxiety, GAD, OCD, Depression, Health Anxiety, Social Anxiety, Panic, Stress (to name a few).
Are you looking for quality therapy? Not all therapy is the same which is why I pride myself in offering a therapy that is a cut above the rest. I offer a free 30min consultation so that you can experience this personally and decide for yourself. If you like learning through (1) understanding the science and (2) stories and analogies then this is the therapy for you.
I have treated over 1000 clients in PTSD, Anxiety, GAD, OCD, Depression, Health Anxiety, Social Anxiety, Panic, Stress (to name a few).
Are you looking for quality therapy? Not all therapy is the same which is why I pride myself in offering a therapy that is a cut above the rest. I offer a free 30min consultation so that you can experience this personally and decide for yourself. If you like learning through (1) understanding the science and (2) stories and analogies then this is the therapy for you.
01202 031367 View 01202 031367
Photo of Magna Maria Erasmus, MBACP, Counsellor
Magna Maria Erasmus
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Christchurch BH23
I also have extensive experience in infant loss, end of life work and bereavement, depression and anxiety.
I have helped many clients change their thinking and heal emotionally so they can become who they want to be. I offer a compassionate space for clients to work through difficult thoughts and feelings to reclaim their lives and live life to the full. I offer specialist trauma support and work extensively with depression and anxiety.
I also have extensive experience in infant loss, end of life work and bereavement, depression and anxiety.
I have helped many clients change their thinking and heal emotionally so they can become who they want to be. I offer a compassionate space for clients to work through difficult thoughts and feelings to reclaim their lives and live life to the full. I offer specialist trauma support and work extensively with depression and anxiety.
01202 125419 View 01202 125419
Photo of Zoe Silk, PNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Zoe Silk
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bournemouth BH6
I am very passionate about my work and what I love most is seeing my clients progress. Observing their changes and seeing how good they feel within themselves is a wonderful journey to share. I offer support with all kinds of issues. You may be suffering with an anxiety disorder, depression perhaps, an issue within a relationship, an addiction or something else. Whatever your issue is, my aim is to spend time getting to know you, finding the root cause to your problem and any other factors that may have to be taken into consideration. Then, together we can work towards a solid plan for you to more you forward as an individual.
I am very passionate about my work and what I love most is seeing my clients progress. Observing their changes and seeing how good they feel within themselves is a wonderful journey to share. I offer support with all kinds of issues. You may be suffering with an anxiety disorder, depression perhaps, an issue within a relationship, an addiction or something else. Whatever your issue is, my aim is to spend time getting to know you, finding the root cause to your problem and any other factors that may have to be taken into consideration. Then, together we can work towards a solid plan for you to more you forward as an individual.
01202 117054 View 01202 117054
Photo of Jamie Jeffreys, MBACP, Counsellor
Jamie Jeffreys
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Christchurch BH23  (Online Only)
Please note, I am currently only working online. Do you feel like you have a certain way of understanding yourself and fitting into the world? It could be to work very hard or to make sure everyone else is okay before yourself. Has that way of understanding yourself stopped working? You may be experiencing anxiety, depression or feeling stuck? If so, then talking therapy could help you to make sense of the world and your place in it. I am passionate in my belief that people have an amazing capacity for change and growth. I work by providing an environment that helps people flourish and find their authentic and vital self.
Please note, I am currently only working online. Do you feel like you have a certain way of understanding yourself and fitting into the world? It could be to work very hard or to make sure everyone else is okay before yourself. Has that way of understanding yourself stopped working? You may be experiencing anxiety, depression or feeling stuck? If so, then talking therapy could help you to make sense of the world and your place in it. I am passionate in my belief that people have an amazing capacity for change and growth. I work by providing an environment that helps people flourish and find their authentic and vital self.
0113 519 4694 View 0113 519 4694
Photo of Vicki Pearson, MBACP, Counsellor
Vicki Pearson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Christchurch BH23
I help people manage anxiety, relieve stress, motivate them out of depression and other challenges, including panic attacks, trauma, family issues, attachment disorder, suicidal ideation, bereavement, low self-esteem, and many more.
Hello, thank you for viewing my profile. I am a qualified and experienced adult and young person’s counsellor. I offer a warm, safe, and confidential space where I aim to raise your self-awareness and facilitate change and improvements in your life. During your therapy, I may incorporate techniques from different modalities, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Psychodynamic, and Neuroscience models. The therapy is always tailored and centred around you, and we work at your pace.
I help people manage anxiety, relieve stress, motivate them out of depression and other challenges, including panic attacks, trauma, family issues, attachment disorder, suicidal ideation, bereavement, low self-esteem, and many more.
Hello, thank you for viewing my profile. I am a qualified and experienced adult and young person’s counsellor. I offer a warm, safe, and confidential space where I aim to raise your self-awareness and facilitate change and improvements in your life. During your therapy, I may incorporate techniques from different modalities, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Psychodynamic, and Neuroscience models. The therapy is always tailored and centred around you, and we work at your pace.
01202 125535 View 01202 125535
Photo of Sophia Chambers - Dr Sophia Chambers, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Sophia Chambers
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bournemouth BH6
Waitlist for new clients
I am a friendly and passionate Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist, experienced in helping with a range of difficulties including: anxiety, panic, stress, trauma/PTSD, depression, and low self-esteem. I draw on principles from a range of evidence-based psychological therapies including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). This means I can be flexible and adapt sessions to suit you.
I am a friendly and passionate Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist, experienced in helping with a range of difficulties including: anxiety, panic, stress, trauma/PTSD, depression, and low self-esteem. I draw on principles from a range of evidence-based psychological therapies including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). This means I can be flexible and adapt sessions to suit you.
01202 149082 View 01202 149082
Photo of Aideen Butler - AB Therapy, PhD, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
AB Therapy
Psychotherapist, PhD, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Christchurch BH23
CBT and counselling are simple but effective treatments for common mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
I am a therapeutic counsellor and CBT therapist which means I’m trained to help people work who might be struggling with common mental health problems like anxiety or low mood. I offer non-judgemental support that aims to help you make sense of any difficult feeling, moods or behavioural patterns. We will discuss what want to achieve from therapy and together, we will work towards understanding how these difficult experiences started in the first place before working towards finding meaningful, practical solutions that will help you now and in the future.
CBT and counselling are simple but effective treatments for common mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
I am a therapeutic counsellor and CBT therapist which means I’m trained to help people work who might be struggling with common mental health problems like anxiety or low mood. I offer non-judgemental support that aims to help you make sense of any difficult feeling, moods or behavioural patterns. We will discuss what want to achieve from therapy and together, we will work towards understanding how these difficult experiences started in the first place before working towards finding meaningful, practical solutions that will help you now and in the future.
01865 638947 View 01865 638947
Depression Counsellors

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognise and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioural activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.