Depression Counselling in Poole

Photo of Janis Dreosti - Calm Harbour Counselling, MBACP, Counsellor
Calm Harbour Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Get in touch if you are currently troubled by anxiety, depression, relationship challenges or a feeling of 'not quite right'.
Hello my name is Janis, with experience in working with trauma, anxiety, stress, PTSD and neurodiversity. Having worked with a number of adults and young people when life stresses have become overwhelming, this can be at home, school, work or non specific. Working together to explore, understand and to work-through your difficulties is a healing process that can help you reframe the way you relate to yourself, your personal history and your personal relationships.
Get in touch if you are currently troubled by anxiety, depression, relationship challenges or a feeling of 'not quite right'.
Hello my name is Janis, with experience in working with trauma, anxiety, stress, PTSD and neurodiversity. Having worked with a number of adults and young people when life stresses have become overwhelming, this can be at home, school, work or non specific. Working together to explore, understand and to work-through your difficulties is a healing process that can help you reframe the way you relate to yourself, your personal history and your personal relationships.
01202 125554 View 01202 125554
Photo of Sophia Chambers - Dr Sophia Chambers, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Sophia Chambers
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Poole BH15
Waitlist for new clients
I am a friendly and passionate Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist, experienced in helping with a range of difficulties including: anxiety, panic, stress, trauma/PTSD, depression, and low self-esteem. I draw on principles from a range of evidence-based psychological therapies including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). This means I can be flexible and adapt sessions to suit you.
I am a friendly and passionate Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist, experienced in helping with a range of difficulties including: anxiety, panic, stress, trauma/PTSD, depression, and low self-esteem. I draw on principles from a range of evidence-based psychological therapies including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). This means I can be flexible and adapt sessions to suit you.
01202 149082 View 01202 149082
Photo of Rob Abbott, MBACP Snr. Accred, Counsellor
Rob Abbott
Counsellor, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Poole BH15
Not accepting new clients
I am also interested in depression and the way in which it is treated.
I am interested in the impact our childhood has on how we have developed as adults. I help people explore their lives now; how they may change who they are; and how they may learn to love and accept what they cannot change. I have over 30 years experience as a counsellor. I have expereince working with people who are neurodiverse.
I am also interested in depression and the way in which it is treated.
I am interested in the impact our childhood has on how we have developed as adults. I help people explore their lives now; how they may change who they are; and how they may learn to love and accept what they cannot change. I have over 30 years experience as a counsellor. I have expereince working with people who are neurodiverse.
01202 125369 View 01202 125369
Photo of Mandy Heath, BACP, Counsellor
Mandy Heath
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Poole BH12
Are you telling people you are 'fine' even though you know you are not? Maybe you are going through a bereavement, a life transition, a difficult period of your life and need some emotional support? Maybe you have already experienced difficulties in your life and are struggling with the way you feel on the other side of it. Perhaps you are struggling with anxiety, low self-esteem or depression?
Are you telling people you are 'fine' even though you know you are not? Maybe you are going through a bereavement, a life transition, a difficult period of your life and need some emotional support? Maybe you have already experienced difficulties in your life and are struggling with the way you feel on the other side of it. Perhaps you are struggling with anxiety, low self-esteem or depression?
01202 835464 View 01202 835464
Photo of Nicky Vallance, MBACP, Counsellor
Nicky Vallance
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Hi, I'm Nicky. I can help if you are struggling with anxiety, stress, depression, relationship issues, or coming to terms with long-term health issues. If you find yourself fitting around everyone else's needs at the expense of your own or have not been able to move on from past experiences, or are overloaded then I can help you to turn things around. I offer a warm, safe, confidential space to talk and overcome the challenges you are facing, tune into your emotions, so they become your guide rather than overwhelm you. Most importantly build a new relationship with yourself and feel more confident and in control of your life.
Hi, I'm Nicky. I can help if you are struggling with anxiety, stress, depression, relationship issues, or coming to terms with long-term health issues. If you find yourself fitting around everyone else's needs at the expense of your own or have not been able to move on from past experiences, or are overloaded then I can help you to turn things around. I offer a warm, safe, confidential space to talk and overcome the challenges you are facing, tune into your emotions, so they become your guide rather than overwhelm you. Most importantly build a new relationship with yourself and feel more confident and in control of your life.
01202 125197 View 01202 125197
Photo of Mark Draper, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Mark Draper
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Poole BH15
Not accepting new clients
Life can be so full of pressure and stress, is it any wonder we sometimes need help navigating these challenges? Many of the people I work with feel trapped by their past, overwhelmed in the present, or scared of the future. I have supported people through some of the worst moments in their life and seen them turn their lives around. I can help you make sense of what has happened in your life, overcome the things that are holding you back, and help you to change things for the better. As a Clinical Psychologist, I am experienced at treating anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, relationship issues, and a range of other problems.
Life can be so full of pressure and stress, is it any wonder we sometimes need help navigating these challenges? Many of the people I work with feel trapped by their past, overwhelmed in the present, or scared of the future. I have supported people through some of the worst moments in their life and seen them turn their lives around. I can help you make sense of what has happened in your life, overcome the things that are holding you back, and help you to change things for the better. As a Clinical Psychologist, I am experienced at treating anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, relationship issues, and a range of other problems.
01865 638581 View 01865 638581
Photo of Richard Dolan - Richard Dolan Check Your Head Counselling, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Richard Dolan Check Your Head Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Poole BH13
Are you depressed, anxious, or troubled by unwanted thoughts or feelings? Do you feel overcome with anxiety, think that your problems are too big to manage, or that nobody hears you? As a fully qualifed and experienced professional therapist, I've helped hundreds of people, over thousands of hours, to change their lives, overcome challenges, resolve traumas, and I can help you too. I offer online, face-to-face, and outdoor walk & talk counselling, with a flexible and affordable pricing structure to help you get what you need in a way that works for you.
Are you depressed, anxious, or troubled by unwanted thoughts or feelings? Do you feel overcome with anxiety, think that your problems are too big to manage, or that nobody hears you? As a fully qualifed and experienced professional therapist, I've helped hundreds of people, over thousands of hours, to change their lives, overcome challenges, resolve traumas, and I can help you too. I offer online, face-to-face, and outdoor walk & talk counselling, with a flexible and affordable pricing structure to help you get what you need in a way that works for you.
01354 700745 View 01354 700745
Photo of Zoe Silk, PNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Zoe Silk
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
I am very passionate about my work and what I love most is seeing my clients progress. Observing their changes and seeing how good they feel within themselves is a wonderful journey to share. I offer support with all kinds of issues. You may be suffering with an anxiety disorder, depression perhaps, an issue within a relationship, an addiction or something else. Whatever your issue is, my aim is to spend time getting to know you, finding the root cause to your problem and any other factors that may have to be taken into consideration. Then, together we can work towards a solid plan for you to more you forward as an individual.
I am very passionate about my work and what I love most is seeing my clients progress. Observing their changes and seeing how good they feel within themselves is a wonderful journey to share. I offer support with all kinds of issues. You may be suffering with an anxiety disorder, depression perhaps, an issue within a relationship, an addiction or something else. Whatever your issue is, my aim is to spend time getting to know you, finding the root cause to your problem and any other factors that may have to be taken into consideration. Then, together we can work towards a solid plan for you to more you forward as an individual.
01202 117054 View 01202 117054
Photo of Abby Orchard, MBACP, Counsellor
Abby Orchard
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Do you feel you could develop your potential further? Do you feel anxious or depressed or suffer from PTSD? Is your relationship suffering? Are you finding difficult to manage stressors? Is this getting in the way of you achieving your goals and the quality of life and relationship you desire? I can help!
Do you feel you could develop your potential further? Do you feel anxious or depressed or suffer from PTSD? Is your relationship suffering? Are you finding difficult to manage stressors? Is this getting in the way of you achieving your goals and the quality of life and relationship you desire? I can help!
01202 125945 View 01202 125945
Photo of Dr Jessica Matcham, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Jessica Matcham
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Poole BH14
As a Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist I have experience working with adults with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression and low mood, trauma and low self-esteem. Everybody experiences psychological distress but sometimes this can get in the way of us living our lives. When this happens, talking therapy can help us to reflect on how we got to where we are and explore ways of moving forward. I can help you to identify goals for therapy, offer emotional support, increase understanding and acceptance of self and provide practical strategies to help you make long lasting, meaningful change in your life.
As a Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist I have experience working with adults with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression and low mood, trauma and low self-esteem. Everybody experiences psychological distress but sometimes this can get in the way of us living our lives. When this happens, talking therapy can help us to reflect on how we got to where we are and explore ways of moving forward. I can help you to identify goals for therapy, offer emotional support, increase understanding and acceptance of self and provide practical strategies to help you make long lasting, meaningful change in your life.
01202 125887 View 01202 125887
Photo of Besarta Zogaj, MSc, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Besarta Zogaj
Psychologist, MSc, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Poole BH13
You are not broken. You may be experiencing emotional injury, and/or psychological distress, but this does not communicate brokenness. On the contrary, this communicates an emotional BUILD. You might be struggling with symptoms of anxiety, depression, women's issues, trauma, grief, loss, low self-esteem, low self-worth, etc. It may even be likely that you have learned how to live in a way that attempts to guard you from any additional emotional injuries. Essentially, your life experiential may have taught you how to build a wall of emotional defense, but that is not your truest self
You are not broken. You may be experiencing emotional injury, and/or psychological distress, but this does not communicate brokenness. On the contrary, this communicates an emotional BUILD. You might be struggling with symptoms of anxiety, depression, women's issues, trauma, grief, loss, low self-esteem, low self-worth, etc. It may even be likely that you have learned how to live in a way that attempts to guard you from any additional emotional injuries. Essentially, your life experiential may have taught you how to build a wall of emotional defense, but that is not your truest self
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Photo of Claire Alexandra Ingram, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Counsellor
Claire Alexandra Ingram
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
My work over the years has been wide ranging including: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, addiction, bereavement, self harm, low self -esteem and trauma.
Hello, I'm Claire. I am an experienced counsellor, working on-line and face to face from my therapy rooms in Southbourne. There are many different reasons why you may be looking for change in your life. For example, you may be suffering from day-to-day anxiety, or perhaps you have experienced traumatic life events leading to depression, addictive behaviours or problems in your relationships. You may not even be sure why you feel this way. At times like these it can help to talk to a professional who can work alongside you to help you achieve understanding and clarity, enabling you to make the changes you want in your life.
My work over the years has been wide ranging including: anxiety, depression, relationship issues, addiction, bereavement, self harm, low self -esteem and trauma.
Hello, I'm Claire. I am an experienced counsellor, working on-line and face to face from my therapy rooms in Southbourne. There are many different reasons why you may be looking for change in your life. For example, you may be suffering from day-to-day anxiety, or perhaps you have experienced traumatic life events leading to depression, addictive behaviours or problems in your relationships. You may not even be sure why you feel this way. At times like these it can help to talk to a professional who can work alongside you to help you achieve understanding and clarity, enabling you to make the changes you want in your life.
01725 538784 View 01725 538784
Photo of Gill Patricia de Sylva, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Gill Patricia de Sylva
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
We all struggle at times to manage the pressures of everyday life. It maybe feelings of stress, anxiety, depression, recent or past trauma, anger or relationship difficulties. I am integratively trained meaning I value your individuality and can tailor my approach to your own unique needs. I am non-judgemental and offer empathy and warmth. We will work together to achieve your goals. I believe each client has the healing potential within to overcome life problems. The relationship we build together provides support and facilitates awareness, insight and personal growth thus allowing a more empowered happier life.
We all struggle at times to manage the pressures of everyday life. It maybe feelings of stress, anxiety, depression, recent or past trauma, anger or relationship difficulties. I am integratively trained meaning I value your individuality and can tailor my approach to your own unique needs. I am non-judgemental and offer empathy and warmth. We will work together to achieve your goals. I believe each client has the healing potential within to overcome life problems. The relationship we build together provides support and facilitates awareness, insight and personal growth thus allowing a more empowered happier life.
01202 835203 View 01202 835203
Photo of Cathy Crammer, MBACP, Counsellor
Cathy Crammer
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Hi I’m Cathy. I offer counselling to adults and young people over age 16+. I can provide support in a variety areas including anxiety, depression, stress, anger, self esteem, relationship problems and also specialise in eating disorders, body image issues and grief/loss. Counselling sessions can be in person, by Zoom, phone or Walk and Talk outdoors. I offer a discount to NUS and Counselling Students. I offer a non judgemental environment to help you explore problems. If you are looking for support please get in touch.
Hi I’m Cathy. I offer counselling to adults and young people over age 16+. I can provide support in a variety areas including anxiety, depression, stress, anger, self esteem, relationship problems and also specialise in eating disorders, body image issues and grief/loss. Counselling sessions can be in person, by Zoom, phone or Walk and Talk outdoors. I offer a discount to NUS and Counselling Students. I offer a non judgemental environment to help you explore problems. If you are looking for support please get in touch.
01202 125407 View 01202 125407
Photo of Andrea Thomas, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Andrea Thomas
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Poole BH14
I am a UKCP registered Psychotherapist and certified Transactional Analyst offering psychotherapy, EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and clinical supervisor I have experience working with clients who are struggling with trauma related symptoms such as PTSD, depression and anxiety. I am deeply committed to an ethical non-discriminatory practice with my clients and abide by the principles and ethics of the UKCP and BACP. My private practice is located in Lilliput, Poole within each reach of Bournemouth and surrounding areas.
I am a UKCP registered Psychotherapist and certified Transactional Analyst offering psychotherapy, EMDR Europe Accredited Practitioner and clinical supervisor I have experience working with clients who are struggling with trauma related symptoms such as PTSD, depression and anxiety. I am deeply committed to an ethical non-discriminatory practice with my clients and abide by the principles and ethics of the UKCP and BACP. My private practice is located in Lilliput, Poole within each reach of Bournemouth and surrounding areas.
020 3974 2183 View 020 3974 2183
Photo of Madeleine Mays, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Madeleine Mays
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Poole BH15
Some of these may include: depression, anxiety, separation, bereavement, loss, trauma, relationship conflict.
As an accredited Psychodynamic Psychotherapist, I offer a contained and confidential space in which to explore your thoughts and feelings. We will work in collaboration to explore the patterns and hidden meanings that may shed light on current behaviours or pain you may be experiencing in your life. Our aim will be for you to gain a better understanding and encouraging the acceptance of your authentic self.
Some of these may include: depression, anxiety, separation, bereavement, loss, trauma, relationship conflict.
As an accredited Psychodynamic Psychotherapist, I offer a contained and confidential space in which to explore your thoughts and feelings. We will work in collaboration to explore the patterns and hidden meanings that may shed light on current behaviours or pain you may be experiencing in your life. Our aim will be for you to gain a better understanding and encouraging the acceptance of your authentic self.
01202 037493 View 01202 037493
Photo of Carol Bendinelli, MBACP, Counsellor
Carol Bendinelli
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH15
I can help you work toward healing growth if you are struggling with issues including; anxiety, depression, grief and loss, guilt and shame, isolation / loneliness, life transitions, meaning and purpose, miscarriage, neuro-diversity, not flourishing, feeling stuck, pain / illness, relationship difficulties, self-esteem, termination, trauma.
There are times for everyone when our normal ways of coping don't seem like enough. You don't have to feel alone when life feels challenging or overwhelming. I offer a confidential, warm, non-judgemental space where you will feel heard, valued and accepted for who you are. It takes courage to seek support and I work collaboratively at your pace to help you develop positive changes in your life. I am passionate about working with people to empower them to reach their personal goals, express their individuality, overcome challenges and enjoy life.
I can help you work toward healing growth if you are struggling with issues including; anxiety, depression, grief and loss, guilt and shame, isolation / loneliness, life transitions, meaning and purpose, miscarriage, neuro-diversity, not flourishing, feeling stuck, pain / illness, relationship difficulties, self-esteem, termination, trauma.
There are times for everyone when our normal ways of coping don't seem like enough. You don't have to feel alone when life feels challenging or overwhelming. I offer a confidential, warm, non-judgemental space where you will feel heard, valued and accepted for who you are. It takes courage to seek support and I work collaboratively at your pace to help you develop positive changes in your life. I am passionate about working with people to empower them to reach their personal goals, express their individuality, overcome challenges and enjoy life.
01202 031917 View 01202 031917
Photo of Kruti St Helen - Be U Counselling Service, MA, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Be U Counselling Service
Counsellor, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Poole BH15
Hi, my name is Kruti and my aim is to provide you with a safe, non judgemental environment where you can grow and develop. Using an integrative approach I can help you explore yourself so you can find your inner peace and reach your full potential. I understand that seeking help can be a significant and sometimes challenging step, and I am here to support you every step of the way. Whether you are experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or simply navigating life's transitions. I believe that every individual has the innate capacity for healing and growth and my mission is to empower you to tap into your inner strength
Hi, my name is Kruti and my aim is to provide you with a safe, non judgemental environment where you can grow and develop. Using an integrative approach I can help you explore yourself so you can find your inner peace and reach your full potential. I understand that seeking help can be a significant and sometimes challenging step, and I am here to support you every step of the way. Whether you are experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or simply navigating life's transitions. I believe that every individual has the innate capacity for healing and growth and my mission is to empower you to tap into your inner strength
01202 037538 View 01202 037538
Photo of Mandy Jane Nicholson, MBACP, Counsellor
Mandy Jane Nicholson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Waitlist for new clients
I am an empathic, approachable and experienced (5yrs) Humanistic Integrative LGBTQ affirmative counsellor. I also integrate CBT into my practice particularly when working with anxiety. I have facilitated numerous Wellbeing Support Groups for Dorset Mind including 2 LGBTQ peer-support talking groups and an anxiety support group. My private practice was based at Over the Rainbow Sexual Health Clinic in Bournemouth for 5 years where I have had the privilege of working with a variety of LGBTQ people experiencing numerous Wellbeing Challenges including:Post Traumatic Injury, OCD, Depression, Social Anxiety and Emotionally Unstable PD.
I am an empathic, approachable and experienced (5yrs) Humanistic Integrative LGBTQ affirmative counsellor. I also integrate CBT into my practice particularly when working with anxiety. I have facilitated numerous Wellbeing Support Groups for Dorset Mind including 2 LGBTQ peer-support talking groups and an anxiety support group. My private practice was based at Over the Rainbow Sexual Health Clinic in Bournemouth for 5 years where I have had the privilege of working with a variety of LGBTQ people experiencing numerous Wellbeing Challenges including:Post Traumatic Injury, OCD, Depression, Social Anxiety and Emotionally Unstable PD.
01202 286144 View 01202 286144
Photo of Clare Morris - Clare Morris Counselling, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Clare Morris Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Poole BH12
Waitlist for new clients
Additionally, I can also support you with other issues and have experience working with depression, anxiety, addictions, self-harm, family dysfunction and low self-esteem.
Hello and welcome. My name is Clare and I am an NCPS registered, Person-Centred counsellor offering either online or face to face appointments in Branksome, Poole, Dorset. ‘Person-Centred’ means we can work together in a way which suits you best, using a range of methods, tools and approaches to help you reach your therapeutic goals. Counselling offers a secure, safe, confidential relationship in which to uncover, explore and understand experiences which are impacting on your psychological, emotional and physical well-being. It can be long or short term and you choose how far you want or need to go.
Additionally, I can also support you with other issues and have experience working with depression, anxiety, addictions, self-harm, family dysfunction and low self-esteem.
Hello and welcome. My name is Clare and I am an NCPS registered, Person-Centred counsellor offering either online or face to face appointments in Branksome, Poole, Dorset. ‘Person-Centred’ means we can work together in a way which suits you best, using a range of methods, tools and approaches to help you reach your therapeutic goals. Counselling offers a secure, safe, confidential relationship in which to uncover, explore and understand experiences which are impacting on your psychological, emotional and physical well-being. It can be long or short term and you choose how far you want or need to go.
01202 125549 View 01202 125549
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See more therapy options for Poole

Depression Counsellors

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognise and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioural activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.