Counselling in Otley

Photo of Hazel Gilmartin, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Hazel Gilmartin
Psychotherapist, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
Online counselling £35 / Face to Face £45 Feeling stressed? Anxious? Overwhelmed? Confused about your direction in life? Having problems with others? I am a professionally qualified & trained counsellor, offering a confidential, empathic, non judgemental space that encourages & allows you to explore your thoughts, feelings & behaviours, in support of you developing a greater understanding of 'you', & of your interconnecting world, helping you feeling confident & empowered in coming to your own resolve of any challenges that you may be facing.
Online counselling £35 / Face to Face £45 Feeling stressed? Anxious? Overwhelmed? Confused about your direction in life? Having problems with others? I am a professionally qualified & trained counsellor, offering a confidential, empathic, non judgemental space that encourages & allows you to explore your thoughts, feelings & behaviours, in support of you developing a greater understanding of 'you', & of your interconnecting world, helping you feeling confident & empowered in coming to your own resolve of any challenges that you may be facing.
07511 890040 View 07511 890040
Photo of Bo Bloomfield, Counsellor in Otley, England
Bo Bloomfield
Counsellor, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified
Otley LS21  (Online Only)
I am a senior accredited Relational and EMDR Therapist with 26 years unbroken practice. I have worked for 10 years in the NHS and for 23 years in private practice. I am interested in and have experience of working with trauma. I completed the EMDR Europe Standard Accredited Training and work with a wide range of mental health issues and with post-traumatic stress. EMDR can help with recovery from distressing life events as well as flashbacks, upsetting thoughts or images, depression or anxiety. The number and length of sessions needed will depend on the type and severity of trauma which has been experienced.
I am a senior accredited Relational and EMDR Therapist with 26 years unbroken practice. I have worked for 10 years in the NHS and for 23 years in private practice. I am interested in and have experience of working with trauma. I completed the EMDR Europe Standard Accredited Training and work with a wide range of mental health issues and with post-traumatic stress. EMDR can help with recovery from distressing life events as well as flashbacks, upsetting thoughts or images, depression or anxiety. The number and length of sessions needed will depend on the type and severity of trauma which has been experienced.
01484 627103 View 01484 627103
Photo of Selah Counselling Services, Counsellor in Otley, England
Selah Counselling Services
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Otley LS21  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Lindsay & I am passionate about people changing & improving aspects of their lives. I work with an integrative approach which will be tailored to my client’s individual needs. I create a safe non-judgmental place for you to explore not only the problems you are facing but also the causes behind the issues. I will help you begin to process your experiences, become more self-aware & help empower you to bring positive change to your life & thinking patterns, all at a pace that suites you.
Hello, my name is Lindsay & I am passionate about people changing & improving aspects of their lives. I work with an integrative approach which will be tailored to my client’s individual needs. I create a safe non-judgmental place for you to explore not only the problems you are facing but also the causes behind the issues. I will help you begin to process your experiences, become more self-aware & help empower you to bring positive change to your life & thinking patterns, all at a pace that suites you.
01473 943364 View 01473 943364
Photo of Victoria Gilder, Psychologist in Otley, England
Victoria Gilder
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Otley LS21
Hello, I'm Victoria. Making that first step towards getting support can be daunting- it can be difficult to know what you need. The most important factor is finding a therapist who you can build a trusting and safe relationship with and that will be an important part of our work together. I'm an HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist with over 15 years experience. I offer a safe and confidential service to adults experiencing a wide variety of mental health difficulties. I'm interested in understanding the ways your experiences in life have influenced how you've learned to navigate your relationships and the world.
Hello, I'm Victoria. Making that first step towards getting support can be daunting- it can be difficult to know what you need. The most important factor is finding a therapist who you can build a trusting and safe relationship with and that will be an important part of our work together. I'm an HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist with over 15 years experience. I offer a safe and confidential service to adults experiencing a wide variety of mental health difficulties. I'm interested in understanding the ways your experiences in life have influenced how you've learned to navigate your relationships and the world.
0113 467 8408 View 0113 467 8408
Photo of Zoe Lamming, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Zoe Lamming
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Otley LS21
I work with a diverse range of clients, with different struggles and needs. I can help with abuse, anxiety, bereavement, depression, health related issues, loss, personal development, trauma, parental mental health, redundancy, relationships, self esteem, self harm, stress, work related issues. Whatever it is that brings you to therapy, I will give you space to feel heard, seen and understood. My wish is that you will develop a greater sense of hope and sense of empowerment.
I work with a diverse range of clients, with different struggles and needs. I can help with abuse, anxiety, bereavement, depression, health related issues, loss, personal development, trauma, parental mental health, redundancy, relationships, self esteem, self harm, stress, work related issues. Whatever it is that brings you to therapy, I will give you space to feel heard, seen and understood. My wish is that you will develop a greater sense of hope and sense of empowerment.
01943 661595 View 01943 661595
Photo of Rachel Spence, Counsellor in Otley, England
Rachel Spence
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
I am a Relate trained counsellor experienced at working with both couples and individuals. I offer a down-to-earth, forward thinking, non-directive approach. I endeavour to create a warm, non-judgemental therapeutic relationship where we can focus on you and your situation. I will work with you to understand your concerns, your deeper needs and how they are affecting your life and relationships.I see my role as supportive of your change, offering change to explore feelings and experiences in a safe, confidential space. I have worked with clients from the LGBT community and from diverse backgrounds.
I am a Relate trained counsellor experienced at working with both couples and individuals. I offer a down-to-earth, forward thinking, non-directive approach. I endeavour to create a warm, non-judgemental therapeutic relationship where we can focus on you and your situation. I will work with you to understand your concerns, your deeper needs and how they are affecting your life and relationships.I see my role as supportive of your change, offering change to explore feelings and experiences in a safe, confidential space. I have worked with clients from the LGBT community and from diverse backgrounds.
0113 467 9116 View 0113 467 9116
Photo of Fiona Wilby, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Fiona Wilby
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
Are you feeling fed up and are ready to make a change in your life, or with the way you feel? I can help with anxiety, stress, low mood and depression by working on emotional regulation through both talking to work out why you are feeling the way you are and through practical techniques. We can work together through any areas of your life, from childhood through to the present day. I can also help with support for grief, loss or bereavement, or relationship issues, decision making and planning skills.
Are you feeling fed up and are ready to make a change in your life, or with the way you feel? I can help with anxiety, stress, low mood and depression by working on emotional regulation through both talking to work out why you are feeling the way you are and through practical techniques. We can work together through any areas of your life, from childhood through to the present day. I can also help with support for grief, loss or bereavement, or relationship issues, decision making and planning skills.
0113 467 8526 View 0113 467 8526
Photo of Anna Liuba, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Anna Liuba
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified
Otley LS21
Clients who can use art psychotherapy may have a wide range of difficulties, disabilities or diagnoses. These include, for example emotional, behavioural or mental health problems, PTSD, relationship issues, difficult experiences such as historical abuse or bereavement, life-limiting conditions and physical illness. It is not a recreational activity or an art lesson, although the sessions can be enjoyable. Clients do not need to have any previous experience or expertise in art so please don't be put off by the word 'art'. There is no pressure to use the art materials, sometimes just talking is enough.
Clients who can use art psychotherapy may have a wide range of difficulties, disabilities or diagnoses. These include, for example emotional, behavioural or mental health problems, PTSD, relationship issues, difficult experiences such as historical abuse or bereavement, life-limiting conditions and physical illness. It is not a recreational activity or an art lesson, although the sessions can be enjoyable. Clients do not need to have any previous experience or expertise in art so please don't be put off by the word 'art'. There is no pressure to use the art materials, sometimes just talking is enough.
07427 701087 View 07427 701087
Photo of Tracy Sapier, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Tracy Sapier
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified
Otley LS21
I trained as a person-centred counsellor, which simply means our sessions are all about you. I’d like to welcome you to a confidential and non-judgemental safe space where you can talk freely to explore your inner-self. Together, we can discover any underlying issues behind the difficulties you are experiencing and by overcoming the ghosts of your past, you will be in a better place to move forward with your life.Having counselling enables you to rediscover yourself in a safe place, where you can go at your own pace and allow yourself to release your true emotions that you may have locked away.
I trained as a person-centred counsellor, which simply means our sessions are all about you. I’d like to welcome you to a confidential and non-judgemental safe space where you can talk freely to explore your inner-self. Together, we can discover any underlying issues behind the difficulties you are experiencing and by overcoming the ghosts of your past, you will be in a better place to move forward with your life.Having counselling enables you to rediscover yourself in a safe place, where you can go at your own pace and allow yourself to release your true emotions that you may have locked away.
0113 487 2769 View 0113 487 2769
Photo of Millie McLean, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Millie McLean
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
I understand that the decision to start therapy is rarely made lightly, and taking that first step can feel overwhelming. You may be feeling apprehensive, anxious, and sceptical about sharing your innermost thoughts and emotions with a stranger. It takes immense courage to be vulnerable and talk about the difficulties you are experiencing, and I want you to know that I fully appreciate and respect your decision to seek help. You might be facing a specific problem that you want to address, such as relationship issues, anxiety. Alternatively, you may have a sense that something in your life is not quite right, but cannot identify it.
I understand that the decision to start therapy is rarely made lightly, and taking that first step can feel overwhelming. You may be feeling apprehensive, anxious, and sceptical about sharing your innermost thoughts and emotions with a stranger. It takes immense courage to be vulnerable and talk about the difficulties you are experiencing, and I want you to know that I fully appreciate and respect your decision to seek help. You might be facing a specific problem that you want to address, such as relationship issues, anxiety. Alternatively, you may have a sense that something in your life is not quite right, but cannot identify it.
01943 661329 View 01943 661329
Photo of Julia de los Rios, Counsellor in Otley, England
Julia de los Rios
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
Reaching out for help takes courage, particularly if your self-esteem and confidence are low. But, if you want to make changes in your life then you may need support. People come to counselling for all sorts of reasons; anxiety, relationship issues, depression, bereavement, trauma etc. Perhaps you feel inhibited, have unhealthy patterns of behaviour or your emotions may be hijacking your ability to respond and keep perspective. Whatever the reason, the chances are you are feeling deeply distressed. You don’t have to keep struggling alone. Together we can work out what is causing you to feel threatened, overwhelmed or empty.
Reaching out for help takes courage, particularly if your self-esteem and confidence are low. But, if you want to make changes in your life then you may need support. People come to counselling for all sorts of reasons; anxiety, relationship issues, depression, bereavement, trauma etc. Perhaps you feel inhibited, have unhealthy patterns of behaviour or your emotions may be hijacking your ability to respond and keep perspective. Whatever the reason, the chances are you are feeling deeply distressed. You don’t have to keep struggling alone. Together we can work out what is causing you to feel threatened, overwhelmed or empty.
0113 320 6027 View 0113 320 6027
Photo of Adele McGovern, Psychologist in Otley, England
Adele McGovern
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Otley LS21
Welcome. I work with people who want to gain a deeper understanding of their relationships, their own patterns, or of their difficulties. I work with people who want something to be different in their life, even if they're not sure what that is yet. Maybe you have an anxiety that takes hold and limits you in ways you're sick of. Maybe you feel a deep dissatisfaction or you're living with depression. Perhaps you find yourself in relationships that hurt you in similar ways and you're wondering how that keeps happening, and how you could gain the power to change it.
Welcome. I work with people who want to gain a deeper understanding of their relationships, their own patterns, or of their difficulties. I work with people who want something to be different in their life, even if they're not sure what that is yet. Maybe you have an anxiety that takes hold and limits you in ways you're sick of. Maybe you feel a deep dissatisfaction or you're living with depression. Perhaps you find yourself in relationships that hurt you in similar ways and you're wondering how that keeps happening, and how you could gain the power to change it.
01473 943374 View 01473 943374
Photo of Dr Fiona Bentley, Psychologist in Otley, England
Dr Fiona Bentley
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Otley LS21  (Online Only)
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist with over 20 years post-qualification experience of working with adults and young people (16 years and over) in the NHS. I am registered with the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC) and the British Psychological Society. I am an accredited practitioner in EMDR. I help people with a range of emotional difficulties, including low mood, anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder), obsessive-compulsive problems, eating issues, PTSD and dealing with the effects of trauma or abuse, low self esteem, relationship difficulties, loss, and adjustment difficulties following stressful life events.
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist with over 20 years post-qualification experience of working with adults and young people (16 years and over) in the NHS. I am registered with the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC) and the British Psychological Society. I am an accredited practitioner in EMDR. I help people with a range of emotional difficulties, including low mood, anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder), obsessive-compulsive problems, eating issues, PTSD and dealing with the effects of trauma or abuse, low self esteem, relationship difficulties, loss, and adjustment difficulties following stressful life events.
07427 596845 View 07427 596845
Photo of Eaton Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Eaton Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, MBABCP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Otley LS21
Are you struggling with anxiety or low mood? Are you having difficult and intrusive thoughts that are interfering with your day to day life and making it hard for you to focus or enjoy things? Have you been through a traumatic experience that is impacting on your life in the here and now that you are struggling to process? I would love to be able to support you to get back to feeling like yourself and the things that are important to you.
Are you struggling with anxiety or low mood? Are you having difficult and intrusive thoughts that are interfering with your day to day life and making it hard for you to focus or enjoy things? Have you been through a traumatic experience that is impacting on your life in the here and now that you are struggling to process? I would love to be able to support you to get back to feeling like yourself and the things that are important to you.
01943 661900 View 01943 661900
Photo of Gillian Parkin, Psychotherapist in Otley, England
Gillian Parkin
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
We all have those times in our life when things get on top of us. We feel overwhelmed and maybe unable to cope. As a qualified counsellor & psychotherapist, I believe that by giving you a genuinely safe, non-judgmental space to explore and talk and unpack what’s troubling, together we can find you new ways of thinking or acting that will help you to feel better. Whether that’s building self-esteem; coping & living with anxiety and depression or dealing with a difficult life event, my intention is to work with you to find the resilience & skills you need to make changes that stick.
We all have those times in our life when things get on top of us. We feel overwhelmed and maybe unable to cope. As a qualified counsellor & psychotherapist, I believe that by giving you a genuinely safe, non-judgmental space to explore and talk and unpack what’s troubling, together we can find you new ways of thinking or acting that will help you to feel better. Whether that’s building self-esteem; coping & living with anxiety and depression or dealing with a difficult life event, my intention is to work with you to find the resilience & skills you need to make changes that stick.
01943 666872 View 01943 666872
Photo of Dr Tom Mountjoy, Psychologist in Otley, England
Dr Tom Mountjoy
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Otley LS21
Dr. Tom Mountjoy is a Registered Clinical Psychologist and Chartered Psychologist with substantial experience within mental health, clinical health psychology, and neuropsychology settings. He provides assessment and therapy input covering a range of psychological issues, including treatment for anxiety and depression, and workplace difficulties. Tom has additional interests in acquired brain injury, neurological conditions, chronic health conditions and adjustment to living with disability.
Dr. Tom Mountjoy is a Registered Clinical Psychologist and Chartered Psychologist with substantial experience within mental health, clinical health psychology, and neuropsychology settings. He provides assessment and therapy input covering a range of psychological issues, including treatment for anxiety and depression, and workplace difficulties. Tom has additional interests in acquired brain injury, neurological conditions, chronic health conditions and adjustment to living with disability.
0113 519 4557 View 0113 519 4557
Photo of Beth Madeley Counselling, Counsellor in Otley, England
Beth Madeley Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
Taking the first step to seeing a Counsellor can feel really hard. Perhaps you are wondering how it could help, feeling like maybe your problems don’t qualify, or maybe they feel so big that you don’t know where to start. Have you have been trying to talk to friends or family about it but feel like they are not really listening? Or do people just want to give you advice? Being truly listened to can make the world of difference; being really heard. I know from experience that this can give us the courage to work through the things we haven’t been able to face on our own.
Taking the first step to seeing a Counsellor can feel really hard. Perhaps you are wondering how it could help, feeling like maybe your problems don’t qualify, or maybe they feel so big that you don’t know where to start. Have you have been trying to talk to friends or family about it but feel like they are not really listening? Or do people just want to give you advice? Being truly listened to can make the world of difference; being really heard. I know from experience that this can give us the courage to work through the things we haven’t been able to face on our own.
0113 733 7418 View 0113 733 7418
Photo of Phil McQuillan, Counsellor in Otley, England
Phil McQuillan
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
I am a qualified integrative psychotherapist with previous experience of working an NHS and a university setting. I work with adults and young people 17+, who come to see me about anxiety, panic attacks, stress, trauma, relationship issues, difficulties at work, identity, low confidence, bereavement, depression, issues stemming from neurodiversity and people seeking personal development.
I am a qualified integrative psychotherapist with previous experience of working an NHS and a university setting. I work with adults and young people 17+, who come to see me about anxiety, panic attacks, stress, trauma, relationship issues, difficulties at work, identity, low confidence, bereavement, depression, issues stemming from neurodiversity and people seeking personal development.
01943 661246 View 01943 661246
Photo of Mark Christopher Dove, Counsellor in Otley, England
Mark Christopher Dove
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hello, my name is Mark. Thank you for looking at my profile. As you're here, there is a chance that you are going through difficult times in your life. Rest assured that you do not have to go through it alone. I am here to support you, so let me tell you a bit about my approach to counselling. I use a person centred, integrative approach. This is a non-directive method whereby the therapist is guided by you, the client, as to what issues you wish to discuss. it also enables me to tailor my service to your specific needs, using a variety of therapies, such as CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and (CFT) Compassion Focused Therapy
Hello, my name is Mark. Thank you for looking at my profile. As you're here, there is a chance that you are going through difficult times in your life. Rest assured that you do not have to go through it alone. I am here to support you, so let me tell you a bit about my approach to counselling. I use a person centred, integrative approach. This is a non-directive method whereby the therapist is guided by you, the client, as to what issues you wish to discuss. it also enables me to tailor my service to your specific needs, using a variety of therapies, such as CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and (CFT) Compassion Focused Therapy
01756 630578 View 01756 630578
Photo of Jim Adamson, Counsellor in Otley, England
Jim Adamson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Otley LS21
HI I'm Jim. I work with clients with various mental health issues, but especially those involving anxiety, depression and major life changes. Whether you're just looking for an empathetic ear or want a better understanding of feelings and what you can do with them, we can work together in a way that suits your needs in a private office 10 minutes' walk from Guiseley train station (or online).
HI I'm Jim. I work with clients with various mental health issues, but especially those involving anxiety, depression and major life changes. Whether you're just looking for an empathetic ear or want a better understanding of feelings and what you can do with them, we can work together in a way that suits your needs in a private office 10 minutes' walk from Guiseley train station (or online).
01943 660552 View 01943 660552

See more therapy options for Otley

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Otley

20+

Average cost per session

£55

Counsellors in Otley who prioritize treating:

89% Depression
85% Anxiety
85% Stress
78% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
74% Bereavement
74% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

86% Aviva
86% AXA PPP
71% Bupa

How Counsellors in Otley see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
26% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Otley?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.