Obsessive-Compulsive (OCD) Counselling in Maghull

Photo of Diane Feeney - Counsellor And C B T Therapist, MBACP, Counsellor
Diane Feeney - Counsellor And C B T Therapist
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Maghull L31
FACE2FACE, online or phone OPEN 7 DAYS -Adults,Couples,Young People 4-18 & Families. Anxious,depressed,afraid,worried? Experienced CAMHS & IAPT Counsellor. WEBSITE: https:/www.diane-feeney-elements-in-counselling.com Here to listen Mob07494 120291 Small niggles growing or a big worry; Relationships? Bereaved? Issues causing anxieties leading to depression? Appt’s: Day,Eve, zoom/phone Short/long term. Providing Mindfulness/calming techniques, Play/Crafts/Art Therapy, Parenting Guidance/Support MBACP Reg no:299337 So...Do you Need to Talk? Perhaps just 1 Session or 1 Session At A Time Therapy! ADHD, OCD Asperger's.
FACE2FACE, online or phone OPEN 7 DAYS -Adults,Couples,Young People 4-18 & Families. Anxious,depressed,afraid,worried? Experienced CAMHS & IAPT Counsellor. WEBSITE: https:/www.diane-feeney-elements-in-counselling.com Here to listen Mob07494 120291 Small niggles growing or a big worry; Relationships? Bereaved? Issues causing anxieties leading to depression? Appt’s: Day,Eve, zoom/phone Short/long term. Providing Mindfulness/calming techniques, Play/Crafts/Art Therapy, Parenting Guidance/Support MBACP Reg no:299337 So...Do you Need to Talk? Perhaps just 1 Session or 1 Session At A Time Therapy! ADHD, OCD Asperger's.
01695 668292 View 01695 668292
Photo of Charles Bradshaw - charles bradshaw, PsychD, BACP, Psychotherapist
charles bradshaw
Psychotherapist, PsychD, BACP
Verified Verified
Maghull L31
My practice as a therapist covers Person centred counseling and CBT. PCC helps you to look at how your feeling, may impact on your day today experiences. CBT helps you to track your thoughts, emotions and behaviours. Both models help you to gain control and learn new skills to reinforce change. They Futher help you to set goals and with the help of mindfulness, helps you to forge new pathways. Mindfulness helps you to make changes in the present moment, addiction, phobias, anxiety and depression, OCD. Therapy is always about what you would like to change in the future. PCC and CBT help you to see your new change and what fits.
My practice as a therapist covers Person centred counseling and CBT. PCC helps you to look at how your feeling, may impact on your day today experiences. CBT helps you to track your thoughts, emotions and behaviours. Both models help you to gain control and learn new skills to reinforce change. They Futher help you to set goals and with the help of mindfulness, helps you to forge new pathways. Mindfulness helps you to make changes in the present moment, addiction, phobias, anxiety and depression, OCD. Therapy is always about what you would like to change in the future. PCC and CBT help you to see your new change and what fits.
0161 524 6746 View 0161 524 6746
Photo of Brian Jones, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Brian Jones
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Maghull L31
HI my name is Brian I am an integrative Counsellor based in Maghull, Liverpool. As a counsellor I support individuals to develop and grow whilst providing clients with a safe, relaxed and confidential space in which they can explore present or past issues. I offer a professional warm confidential counselling service to Adults, Young people and Children. on an individual basis or couples/families. "When you can't look on the bright side, I will sit with you in the dark"
HI my name is Brian I am an integrative Counsellor based in Maghull, Liverpool. As a counsellor I support individuals to develop and grow whilst providing clients with a safe, relaxed and confidential space in which they can explore present or past issues. I offer a professional warm confidential counselling service to Adults, Young people and Children. on an individual basis or couples/families. "When you can't look on the bright side, I will sit with you in the dark"
0151 317 5021 View 0151 317 5021
Photo of Denise Hare, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Denise Hare
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Maghull L31
I offer talking therapy in a confidential, safe and relaxing environment. It may be easier to talk about personal issues, in an alternative place, with someone who is not involved and is totally non-judgemental. Counselling is my passion! I believe we were born to be real...not perfect. My belief in the process, how it works and in particular how the working alliance can help you to move forward never stops.
I offer talking therapy in a confidential, safe and relaxing environment. It may be easier to talk about personal issues, in an alternative place, with someone who is not involved and is totally non-judgemental. Counselling is my passion! I believe we were born to be real...not perfect. My belief in the process, how it works and in particular how the working alliance can help you to move forward never stops.
01695 302058 View 01695 302058

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Jessica Hayes, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Jessica Hayes
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Helens WA10
I am here to help you in a way that is collaborative and gives you control. I am a CBT and EMDR Therapist with special interests in OCD and perinatal mental health, helping people all over the country who have had unsuccessful therapy before. I also work with self-esteem and many other difficulties. Think about what you are finding tough right now, because we will make this our priority; we can explore any thoughts and emotions contributing to your difficulties and focus on reaching the goals you have. We will work with openness and honesty, gaining insight and making lasting positive changes to your emotional wellbeing together.
I am here to help you in a way that is collaborative and gives you control. I am a CBT and EMDR Therapist with special interests in OCD and perinatal mental health, helping people all over the country who have had unsuccessful therapy before. I also work with self-esteem and many other difficulties. Think about what you are finding tough right now, because we will make this our priority; we can explore any thoughts and emotions contributing to your difficulties and focus on reaching the goals you have. We will work with openness and honesty, gaining insight and making lasting positive changes to your emotional wellbeing together.
01925 906930 View 01925 906930
Photo of George Maxwell, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
George Maxwell
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Liverpool L1
I offer evidence-based CBT, EMDR and Positive Psychology Coaching to support clients across the full range of the wellbeing spectrum. As an accredited CBT Therapist, I will help you to overcome your anxiety and depression problems using active, effective treatments that will change your life. I specialise in OCD (and its many subtypes), PTSD and Social Anxiety. As a Coaching Psychologist, I can teach you how to flourish, achieve your life goals, and live a life full of meaning and value. I work with clients internationally via Zoom and offer in-person therapy at my office in Rodney Street in Liverpool.
I offer evidence-based CBT, EMDR and Positive Psychology Coaching to support clients across the full range of the wellbeing spectrum. As an accredited CBT Therapist, I will help you to overcome your anxiety and depression problems using active, effective treatments that will change your life. I specialise in OCD (and its many subtypes), PTSD and Social Anxiety. As a Coaching Psychologist, I can teach you how to flourish, achieve your life goals, and live a life full of meaning and value. I work with clients internationally via Zoom and offer in-person therapy at my office in Rodney Street in Liverpool.
0151 318 0866 View 0151 318 0866
Photo of Lynsey Corner - The Therapy Corner, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
The Therapy Corner
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L36  (Online Only)
I offer Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for disorder specific intervention such as OCD, social anxiety, low mood, GAD, phobia, trauma.
Hi my name is Lynsey and I am a Registered Mental Health Nurse in which I specialise in child and adolescent mental health. I am BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing) Therapist. I have completed the specialised EMDR training for children which enables me to work with children and young people from the age of 2 years old.
I offer Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for disorder specific intervention such as OCD, social anxiety, low mood, GAD, phobia, trauma.
Hi my name is Lynsey and I am a Registered Mental Health Nurse in which I specialise in child and adolescent mental health. I am BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing) Therapist. I have completed the specialised EMDR training for children which enables me to work with children and young people from the age of 2 years old.
0151 453 4604 View 0151 453 4604
Photo of Michael Donald - Virtual CBT Clinic, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Virtual CBT Clinic
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Skelmersdale WN8  (Online Only)
As a Psychotherapist, I support clients with common mental health difficulties, including: Major Depressive Disorder; Perfectionism; Low Self-Esteem; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Hoarding Disorder; Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD); Social Anxiety Disorder; Health Anxiety Disorder; Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD); Panic Disorder; Specific Phobia; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); and more. So, if you are feeling low, lacking in motivation, are self-critical, engage in ritualistic behaviours, struggle with social interactions, have a lot of worries, or relive traumatic experiences, I can help you.
As a Psychotherapist, I support clients with common mental health difficulties, including: Major Depressive Disorder; Perfectionism; Low Self-Esteem; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Hoarding Disorder; Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD); Social Anxiety Disorder; Health Anxiety Disorder; Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD); Panic Disorder; Specific Phobia; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); and more. So, if you are feeling low, lacking in motivation, are self-critical, engage in ritualistic behaviours, struggle with social interactions, have a lot of worries, or relive traumatic experiences, I can help you.
01257 440987 View 01257 440987
Photo of Patrick (Paddy) Conroy, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Patrick (Paddy) Conroy
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L17
Waitlist for new clients
Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with BABCP, also trained in EMDR and Dialetical Behaviour Therapy (DBT). I treat a range of disorders from Obsessive compulsive disorder helping to alleviate intrusive anxiety provoking thoughts, anxiety and distress resulting from trauma. I work with people who self harm perhaps through deliberate acts or addictive behaviours depending on current level of risk. 25 years experience having trained at the Maudsley Hospital/Institute of Psychiatry 1993 to 1996. Intrusive distressing thoughts a specialty offering 2 intensive sessions which can make a difference. Currently no waiting list.
Accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with BABCP, also trained in EMDR and Dialetical Behaviour Therapy (DBT). I treat a range of disorders from Obsessive compulsive disorder helping to alleviate intrusive anxiety provoking thoughts, anxiety and distress resulting from trauma. I work with people who self harm perhaps through deliberate acts or addictive behaviours depending on current level of risk. 25 years experience having trained at the Maudsley Hospital/Institute of Psychiatry 1993 to 1996. Intrusive distressing thoughts a specialty offering 2 intensive sessions which can make a difference. Currently no waiting list.
01923 961469 View 01923 961469
Photo of Victoria Lacey - GetCBT (Victoria Lacey, CBT Therapist Wirral), MBABCP, Psychotherapist
GetCBT (Victoria Lacey, CBT Therapist Wirral)
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Liverpool L2
Looking for an Anxiety Specialist? Therapy should be a partnership, that capitalises on your knowledge of your history and self, and your therapists knowledge of how go apply gold standard evidence based interventions and treatments to make you feel better. I started GetCBT to provide you with a First Class Psychotherapy experience working with Depression & Low self-esteem & specialising in Anxiety & Panic Attacks, Worry, OCD, PTSD, Phobia's, Social Anxiety & Health Anxiety. Check out our Google and Trustpilot reviews to hear about others’ experience of working with me.
Looking for an Anxiety Specialist? Therapy should be a partnership, that capitalises on your knowledge of your history and self, and your therapists knowledge of how go apply gold standard evidence based interventions and treatments to make you feel better. I started GetCBT to provide you with a First Class Psychotherapy experience working with Depression & Low self-esteem & specialising in Anxiety & Panic Attacks, Worry, OCD, PTSD, Phobia's, Social Anxiety & Health Anxiety. Check out our Google and Trustpilot reviews to hear about others’ experience of working with me.
0151 453 3877 View 0151 453 3877
Photo of Luke Cahill - Luke Cahill - in-person and online, MBACP, Counsellor
Luke Cahill - in-person and online
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L8
Waitlist for new clients
TLDR - I mostly work with people dealing with anxiety, depression, and/or OCD stuff/intrusive thoughts, to better understand what's happening and find ways to improve things. I continue to learn to better support the people I work with, particularly around gender, sexuality and relationship diversity, and neurodiversity.
TLDR - I mostly work with people dealing with anxiety, depression, and/or OCD stuff/intrusive thoughts, to better understand what's happening and find ways to improve things. I continue to learn to better support the people I work with, particularly around gender, sexuality and relationship diversity, and neurodiversity.
0161 524 1128 View 0161 524 1128
Photo of Vanessa Mount, DCounsPsych, BACP, Counsellor
Vanessa Mount
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ormskirk L40
Maybe you have a phobia, OCD or lost a loved one or pet.
Ex military, now multi skilled therapist. The military provided me with valuable insights and experiences. Vast exposure, witnessing various traumas and mental health impacts highlighted the importance of mental health suport and the benefit of it to others. Having supported others for years through issues such as suicide, abuse, sexual vilence, domestic violence, depression, anxiety, selfharm, neglect, relational conflict, PTSD and the impacts of bereavement I wanted to continue similar support throughy therapy.
Maybe you have a phobia, OCD or lost a loved one or pet.
Ex military, now multi skilled therapist. The military provided me with valuable insights and experiences. Vast exposure, witnessing various traumas and mental health impacts highlighted the importance of mental health suport and the benefit of it to others. Having supported others for years through issues such as suicide, abuse, sexual vilence, domestic violence, depression, anxiety, selfharm, neglect, relational conflict, PTSD and the impacts of bereavement I wanted to continue similar support throughy therapy.
01704 338319 View 01704 338319
Photo of Andrea Connell, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Andrea Connell
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Liverpool L17
I've worked with a diverse range of clients for issues such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, self-harm, eating disorders, OCD, PTSD, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, addiction, panic attacks, stress, bereavement and relationship problems.
We all have times when we feel lost, alone or misunderstood. We want things to change but we don’t know how. Unsure of what we want we may talk to family or friends, but all they do is offer opinions. Sometimes we have no one to talk to and remain trapped in isolation unsure of own truth. This is where counselling can help.
I've worked with a diverse range of clients for issues such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, self-harm, eating disorders, OCD, PTSD, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, addiction, panic attacks, stress, bereavement and relationship problems.
We all have times when we feel lost, alone or misunderstood. We want things to change but we don’t know how. Unsure of what we want we may talk to family or friends, but all they do is offer opinions. Sometimes we have no one to talk to and remain trapped in isolation unsure of own truth. This is where counselling can help.
0151 541 4057 View 0151 541 4057
Photo of Dr Joanne Lacey, PhD, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Dr Joanne Lacey
Psychotherapist, PhD, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Liverpool L3
I specialise in anxiety treatment, including OCD and intrusive thoughts.
I offer leading edge psychotherapies and neuro-cognitive therapies for mind, mood and body. Working holistically with the physical affect of life experiences, emotions and thoughts is the future of therapy. Working in a holistic integrated way works at a deeper level to drive lasting change, whether we are working through anxiety, depression, trauma, self- esteem issues, relationship, family or work stresses. I am an integrated therapist, which means that I am highly trained in different approaches, enabling us to work flexibly and select the best treatment plan for you.
I specialise in anxiety treatment, including OCD and intrusive thoughts.
I offer leading edge psychotherapies and neuro-cognitive therapies for mind, mood and body. Working holistically with the physical affect of life experiences, emotions and thoughts is the future of therapy. Working in a holistic integrated way works at a deeper level to drive lasting change, whether we are working through anxiety, depression, trauma, self- esteem issues, relationship, family or work stresses. I am an integrated therapist, which means that I am highly trained in different approaches, enabling us to work flexibly and select the best treatment plan for you.
0151 318 0502 View 0151 318 0502
Photo of Barry Ray Carruthers Accred - Beautiful Minds Talking Therapy Services, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Beautiful Minds Talking Therapy Services
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L1
I also have a good working of OCD, ADHD and Asperger's and how negative patterns of behaviours and Childhood traumas and PTSD.
Beautiful Minds Talking Therapy Service has been providing counselling for many years. I understand that taking the first step can be scary and overwhelming. But if you can find the courage to take that first step, it can be life changing. Let me help you explore, understand, and unpick the things that are causing your difficulties in your life. I will help you to take back control of your life and take action to find solutions and resolutions that will empower you. I will help you gain a better understanding of your difficulties and develop your knowledge and awareness of your internal constructs. let me help you.
I also have a good working of OCD, ADHD and Asperger's and how negative patterns of behaviours and Childhood traumas and PTSD.
Beautiful Minds Talking Therapy Service has been providing counselling for many years. I understand that taking the first step can be scary and overwhelming. But if you can find the courage to take that first step, it can be life changing. Let me help you explore, understand, and unpick the things that are causing your difficulties in your life. I will help you to take back control of your life and take action to find solutions and resolutions that will empower you. I will help you gain a better understanding of your difficulties and develop your knowledge and awareness of your internal constructs. let me help you.
07403 250051 View 07403 250051
Photo of Dr Carol Sadler, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Carol Sadler
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Liverpool L1
I have extensive experience in supporting families, adults, children and young people with a variety of difficulties, including low mood and depression, low self-esteem, stress, anxiety, loss and bereavement, trauma, obsessive-compulsive disorder, relationship problems and issues around identity and belonging.
I have extensive experience in supporting families, adults, children and young people with a variety of difficulties, including low mood and depression, low self-esteem, stress, anxiety, loss and bereavement, trauma, obsessive-compulsive disorder, relationship problems and issues around identity and belonging.
07446 045884 View 07446 045884
Photo of Dr Gemma Parry, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Gemma Parry
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Liverpool L1  (Online Only)
I am here to help if you are looking to improve your life and the way you feel. This might be managing emotions, symptoms or difficulties – like stress, low mood, anxiety, OCD and trauma / PTSD, working through life challenges which are holding you back, improving relationships or feeling better about yourself. If you have been through a difficult or traumatic time and need validation, support and guidance feel free to get in touch. I offer therapy online and would be happy to meet with you for a free 20 minute video or phone call before committing, to help you to choose a therapist who feels right for you.
I am here to help if you are looking to improve your life and the way you feel. This might be managing emotions, symptoms or difficulties – like stress, low mood, anxiety, OCD and trauma / PTSD, working through life challenges which are holding you back, improving relationships or feeling better about yourself. If you have been through a difficult or traumatic time and need validation, support and guidance feel free to get in touch. I offer therapy online and would be happy to meet with you for a free 20 minute video or phone call before committing, to help you to choose a therapist who feels right for you.
01638 598220 View 01638 598220
Photo of Erin Regan, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Erin Regan
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L1
I work with individuals who are dealing with depression or common anxiety problems. These anxiety problems can be Generalised Anxiety, PTSD, OCD, Social Anxiety or Health Anxiety. Often individuals are aware of the difficulties but are not sure where to start. Having motivation and an open curiousness about the process supports the gains individuals can make in therapy. With my extensive skills I assess to find out what the main problems are, taking the view that the individual is an expert in what they are experiencing. I work in a collaborative way to find a solution to reduce the impact of the symptoms on their life.
I work with individuals who are dealing with depression or common anxiety problems. These anxiety problems can be Generalised Anxiety, PTSD, OCD, Social Anxiety or Health Anxiety. Often individuals are aware of the difficulties but are not sure where to start. Having motivation and an open curiousness about the process supports the gains individuals can make in therapy. With my extensive skills I assess to find out what the main problems are, taking the view that the individual is an expert in what they are experiencing. I work in a collaborative way to find a solution to reduce the impact of the symptoms on their life.
0151 453 5546 View 0151 453 5546
Photo of James Richard Ward - James Ward Counselling, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Counsellor
James Ward Counselling
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Liverpool L7
I work with all presenting issues such as OCD all forms, depression, anxiety all forms such as health anxiety, gad , etc , relationship issues , loss and grief, addictions, anger issues/management, etc .
Hello,my name is James Ward and I offer immediate and accessible face to face counselling and phone and zoom sessions due to my level of flexibility for appointment times each week. I am an integrative Counsellor based in the city centre area of Liverpool behind the pen factory and the Everyman Theatre on Hope Street Integrating both person centered counselling and cognitive behavioural therapy ( CBT ) I Offer Monday to Friday 9am-7pm
I work with all presenting issues such as OCD all forms, depression, anxiety all forms such as health anxiety, gad , etc , relationship issues , loss and grief, addictions, anger issues/management, etc .
Hello,my name is James Ward and I offer immediate and accessible face to face counselling and phone and zoom sessions due to my level of flexibility for appointment times each week. I am an integrative Counsellor based in the city centre area of Liverpool behind the pen factory and the Everyman Theatre on Hope Street Integrating both person centered counselling and cognitive behavioural therapy ( CBT ) I Offer Monday to Friday 9am-7pm
0151 541 3741 View 0151 541 3741
Photo of Sonya Maria Warscher, MBACP, Counsellor
Sonya Maria Warscher
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Southport PR8
anxiety, depression, OCD, panic, self-harm.
I have over 18 years of experience working with children, young people and adults. I work in person, in my own therapeutic space in the North-West, and anywhere by Video. Whilst my training in the Person-centred approach underpins all my work, I am also trained in CBT. I started working with children as a primary school teacher and now as a therapist, I work in one of the leading centres for counselling children and young adults in the North-West. Alongside my therapeutic work, I am a college lecturer helping enable trainee counsellors to achieve their first professional qualification.
anxiety, depression, OCD, panic, self-harm.
I have over 18 years of experience working with children, young people and adults. I work in person, in my own therapeutic space in the North-West, and anywhere by Video. Whilst my training in the Person-centred approach underpins all my work, I am also trained in CBT. I started working with children as a primary school teacher and now as a therapist, I work in one of the leading centres for counselling children and young adults in the North-West. Alongside my therapeutic work, I am a college lecturer helping enable trainee counsellors to achieve their first professional qualification.
01704 334223 View 01704 334223
Obsessive-Compulsive (OCD) Counsellors

How long does OCD treatment take?

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is often treated on a weekly or twice-weekly schedule, depending on symptom severity and the client’s preferences. Some clients may start to see a noticeable improvement in symptoms in as little as six weeks, but it’s also possible, especially in more severe cases, for treatment to take several months to a year before significant progress is made.

What happens if OCD is not treated?

Some people with OCD, especially those with mild symptoms, may find that they are able to adapt reasonably well to life with the condition, even if their symptoms never resolve completely. However, many people, particularly those whose symptoms are severe at the outset, find that their obsessions and compulsions grow more intrusive with time, making it harder to maintain relationships, hold down a job, or navigate the world successfully.

Are there medications for OCD?

Medication can be used to treat OCD. The class of drugs most often prescribed are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, which include fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and sertraline, among others. In cases of treatment-resistant OCD, other classes of medication, such as tricyclic antidepressants or atypical antipsychotics, may be prescribed. Medication is frequently used in conjunction with therapy.

Can OCD come back after treatment?

Yes. Major life transitions, periods of stress, or other factors can cause symptoms to return or, if they were never fully eradicated, to ramp back up in intensity. For some, these relapses are brief and do not require additional treatment; identifying specific triggers and practicing the skills learned in therapy can help speed their course. For others, returning to therapy for a brief period can help address the underlying stress and strengthen coping mechanisms.