Counselling in Hathersage

Photo of Chloe Goddard Mcloughlin, PsychD, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Chloe Goddard Mcloughlin
Psychotherapist, PsychD, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hathersage S32
Whether you're are feeling stuck in life, experiencing anxiety or depression or perhaps struggling with relationship issues that can't be resolved, the good news is that these are common issues that counselling can help with. I use the three main proven approaches used within counselling - psychodynamic, person-centred (sometimes referred to as humanistic) and cognitive-behavioural as well as EMDR therapy to treat trauma. This gives you more choice and, in turn, creates the flexibility to move towards your personal goals.
Whether you're are feeling stuck in life, experiencing anxiety or depression or perhaps struggling with relationship issues that can't be resolved, the good news is that these are common issues that counselling can help with. I use the three main proven approaches used within counselling - psychodynamic, person-centred (sometimes referred to as humanistic) and cognitive-behavioural as well as EMDR therapy to treat trauma. This gives you more choice and, in turn, creates the flexibility to move towards your personal goals.
0114 697 3280 View 0114 697 3280
Dr Kim Campbell
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Hathersage S32
I run a small private practice alongside my NHS work, offering longer term weekly psychotherapy. There is no specific list of difficulties people come with. Distress can express itself in our lives many ways, through our bodies, minds, feelings, relationships (or lack of) or in illness. I work with people who feel they would benefit from developing a better understanding of their patterns of relating to themselves and others.
I run a small private practice alongside my NHS work, offering longer term weekly psychotherapy. There is no specific list of difficulties people come with. Distress can express itself in our lives many ways, through our bodies, minds, feelings, relationships (or lack of) or in illness. I work with people who feel they would benefit from developing a better understanding of their patterns of relating to themselves and others.
0114 697 2931 View 0114 697 2931
Photo of undefined - Hope Therapy Hub, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Hope Therapy Hub
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Hathersage S32
Hi, my name is Dawn. My background is as a registered mental health nurse and I have worked with children, young people, and families for over 25 years. I am also a dual-qualified psychotherapist and I work privately helping people from all age groups to overcome a wide range of mental health challenges which include: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, trauma work including PTSD, relationship difficulties, autism, and attention deficit disorders to mention a few. I love my job and I am passionate about helping people achieve their goals and getting their lives back on track.
Hi, my name is Dawn. My background is as a registered mental health nurse and I have worked with children, young people, and families for over 25 years. I am also a dual-qualified psychotherapist and I work privately helping people from all age groups to overcome a wide range of mental health challenges which include: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, trauma work including PTSD, relationship difficulties, autism, and attention deficit disorders to mention a few. I love my job and I am passionate about helping people achieve their goals and getting their lives back on track.
01433 447544 View 01433 447544
Photo of Francis Schoeman, MA, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Francis Schoeman
Psychologist, MA, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Hathersage S32
At Pawsitive Psychology, I don't just listen, I connect. I strongly believe the most impactful healing comes from within the therapeutic relationship.
At Pawsitive Psychology, I don't just listen, I connect. I strongly believe the most impactful healing comes from within the therapeutic relationship.
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More Therapists Nearby

Photo of undefined - Day Psychology , HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Day Psychology
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Sheffield S10
Hello I’m Hayley, Clinical Psychologist based in Derbyshire and South Yorkshire with over 16 years of experience working in the NHS, independent health settings and the voluntary sector. Seeking help and beginning therapy can be a big step and can feel daunting. My goal is to offer you a supportive and understanding environment where you can freely explore and address your psychological concerns. I value the therapeutic relationship as being the key to therapeutic change and enjoy working collaboratively.
Hello I’m Hayley, Clinical Psychologist based in Derbyshire and South Yorkshire with over 16 years of experience working in the NHS, independent health settings and the voluntary sector. Seeking help and beginning therapy can be a big step and can feel daunting. My goal is to offer you a supportive and understanding environment where you can freely explore and address your psychological concerns. I value the therapeutic relationship as being the key to therapeutic change and enjoy working collaboratively.
01629 701540 View 01629 701540
Photo of Beverli Andrea Taylor, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Beverli Andrea Taylor
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Sheffield S1
There are occasions when difficult life experiences can create barriers to moving forward even though this may be your greatest desire. When difficult feelings seem overwhelming and begin to impact on personal development therapy can provide a supportive non-judgemental space which can help in moving towards growth and change. I offer a supportive caring service, a confidential space where it is possible to gain personal insight and awareness which support conditions for creating balance.
There are occasions when difficult life experiences can create barriers to moving forward even though this may be your greatest desire. When difficult feelings seem overwhelming and begin to impact on personal development therapy can provide a supportive non-judgemental space which can help in moving towards growth and change. I offer a supportive caring service, a confidential space where it is possible to gain personal insight and awareness which support conditions for creating balance.
0115 697 1844 View 0115 697 1844
Photo of Tanya Dobrovolskis, MBACP, Counsellor
Tanya Dobrovolskis
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Sheffield S8  (Online Only)
Hi I am Tanya, working on line or phone, I am a neurodivergent psychotherapist. Experienced in working with trauma, PTSD, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, low self-esteem, negative internal dialogue and ADHD. I use person centred and inner child therapy. This means looking back at your past to understand and challenge the unwanted behaviours you are dealing with today. I can offer you a safe environment to help you to change negative internal dialogue and low self-esteem and through self-compassion and empathy help you to build your self worth and feel stronger and more confident moving forward. I offer long and short term therapy.
Hi I am Tanya, working on line or phone, I am a neurodivergent psychotherapist. Experienced in working with trauma, PTSD, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, low self-esteem, negative internal dialogue and ADHD. I use person centred and inner child therapy. This means looking back at your past to understand and challenge the unwanted behaviours you are dealing with today. I can offer you a safe environment to help you to change negative internal dialogue and low self-esteem and through self-compassion and empathy help you to build your self worth and feel stronger and more confident moving forward. I offer long and short term therapy.
01226 664679 View 01226 664679
Photo of undefined - Julia Slek Counselling, MBACP, Counsellor
Julia Slek Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Sheffield S7
Welcome! Are you looking for someone to listen and support you as you navigate through your feelings and challenges? I'm here to help. My name is Julia, and I am a qualified counsellor with a special focus on bereavement counselling. I have spent many years helping clients and their families cope with loss, palliative care, and life-limiting illness. I am also trained to work with clients who are struggling with anxiety, depression, and other challenges.
Welcome! Are you looking for someone to listen and support you as you navigate through your feelings and challenges? I'm here to help. My name is Julia, and I am a qualified counsellor with a special focus on bereavement counselling. I have spent many years helping clients and their families cope with loss, palliative care, and life-limiting illness. I am also trained to work with clients who are struggling with anxiety, depression, and other challenges.
0114 697 6660 View 0114 697 6660
Photo of Zoe Hilbert, MNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
Zoe Hilbert
Psychotherapist, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Crosspool S10
Feeling doubtful about your worth, questioning if you're good enough and battling with critical thoughts can be a daily struggle. It can take great courage to push past negative self-talk, to seek counselling and prioritise your own well-being. Whether you would like to explore a specific issue or understand yourself better, I offer a welcoming space where you can explore the difficulties you're experiencing at your own pace. Everyone that I work with is seen as unique, each possessing their own inner resources and an inbuilt ability to thrive and grow. I will meet you with warmth and listen with genuine care.
Feeling doubtful about your worth, questioning if you're good enough and battling with critical thoughts can be a daily struggle. It can take great courage to push past negative self-talk, to seek counselling and prioritise your own well-being. Whether you would like to explore a specific issue or understand yourself better, I offer a welcoming space where you can explore the difficulties you're experiencing at your own pace. Everyone that I work with is seen as unique, each possessing their own inner resources and an inbuilt ability to thrive and grow. I will meet you with warmth and listen with genuine care.
0114 697 1925 View 0114 697 1925
Photo of Lisa Hammond, BACP, Psychotherapist
Lisa Hammond
Psychotherapist, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chesterfield S40
Hi, I'm Lisa, an integrative psychotherapist (PGDip), and an individual member of the BACP. I appreciate that starting your therapeutic journey is not easy. With this in mind, I strive to create a safe space that is confidential and professional, but also comfortable, compassionate, and empowering to facilitate your journey to improved well-being, mental health, and quality of life. As difficult as it can be to reach out for support, it can be just as difficult to stay where we are, especially if we are suffering. I hope that today you feel able to reach out and begin rebuilding your story.
Hi, I'm Lisa, an integrative psychotherapist (PGDip), and an individual member of the BACP. I appreciate that starting your therapeutic journey is not easy. With this in mind, I strive to create a safe space that is confidential and professional, but also comfortable, compassionate, and empowering to facilitate your journey to improved well-being, mental health, and quality of life. As difficult as it can be to reach out for support, it can be just as difficult to stay where we are, especially if we are suffering. I hope that today you feel able to reach out and begin rebuilding your story.
01246 948660 View 01246 948660
Photo of undefined - Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Sheffield S2
We at Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice are committed to helping people to overcome difficult and distressing times. We provide a safe and personalised service offering solutions for people experiencing a range of difficulties from anxiety, depression, panic attacks, worrying, social phobia, low self esteem, public speaking, OCD, & PTSD. At the center of Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice is an approach that supports clients to reach psychological and personal well-being,
We at Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice are committed to helping people to overcome difficult and distressing times. We provide a safe and personalised service offering solutions for people experiencing a range of difficulties from anxiety, depression, panic attacks, worrying, social phobia, low self esteem, public speaking, OCD, & PTSD. At the center of Sheffield CBT & Counselling Practice is an approach that supports clients to reach psychological and personal well-being,
0114 478 2065 View 0114 478 2065
Photo of Terri Niakian, MBACP, Counsellor
Terri Niakian
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chesterfield S40
I am here to listen to you, empathise, support and not judge you, our counselling relationship will help you to clarify issue in your life and you will be enabled to reach your full potential, and clarify and discover your strengths, find your solutions and together we will find a way to right decisions .
I am here to listen to you, empathise, support and not judge you, our counselling relationship will help you to clarify issue in your life and you will be enabled to reach your full potential, and clarify and discover your strengths, find your solutions and together we will find a way to right decisions .
0114 303 1366 View 0114 303 1366
Photo of Tracey Adams, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Tracey Adams
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Chesterfield S40
Hi I am a UKCP accredited psychotherapist and clinical supervisor working in the Derby area. I have over 30 years experience working within Forensic and Mental Health Services both within the public and voluntary sector including Civil Service and the NHS. I hold an MSc in Integrative Psychotherapy however I have extensive CPD training, which I integrate within my practice including Hypnotherapy, EMDR, Group Analysis and in more recent years with the expansion in neuroscience research I have trained in Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM).
Hi I am a UKCP accredited psychotherapist and clinical supervisor working in the Derby area. I have over 30 years experience working within Forensic and Mental Health Services both within the public and voluntary sector including Civil Service and the NHS. I hold an MSc in Integrative Psychotherapy however I have extensive CPD training, which I integrate within my practice including Hypnotherapy, EMDR, Group Analysis and in more recent years with the expansion in neuroscience research I have trained in Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM).
07889 510099 View 07889 510099
Photo of Katherine Louise Hildyard, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Katherine Louise Hildyard
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sheffield S7
You might have always felt a bit different, like somehow you don’t ‘fit in’. People seeking an assessment might often feel very socially anxious or worry a lot about their social interactions. Maybe you feel more sensitive to your environment than other people and at times overwhelmed, overloaded and exhausted by the demands of everyday life. You might also have noticed strengths that your ‘difference’ brings- being able to ‘hyper’ focus, having dedicated interests and passions or strong values such as a concern for truth and social justice. Do you know or want to discover if you are Autistic or have ADHD?
You might have always felt a bit different, like somehow you don’t ‘fit in’. People seeking an assessment might often feel very socially anxious or worry a lot about their social interactions. Maybe you feel more sensitive to your environment than other people and at times overwhelmed, overloaded and exhausted by the demands of everyday life. You might also have noticed strengths that your ‘difference’ brings- being able to ‘hyper’ focus, having dedicated interests and passions or strong values such as a concern for truth and social justice. Do you know or want to discover if you are Autistic or have ADHD?
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Photo of Sonia Dixon, BACP, Counsellor
Sonia Dixon
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sheffield S8
For the past twenty years, I have worked with various forms of abuse, mainly presenting in relationships; such as physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and have supported individuals to work through experiences of trauma when it intersects with experiences of multiple disadvantages and complex mental health. I have extensive experience also working with anxiety, depression, bereavement and bereavement by suicide, as well as issues such as anger, sadness, shame and relationship issues.
For the past twenty years, I have worked with various forms of abuse, mainly presenting in relationships; such as physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and have supported individuals to work through experiences of trauma when it intersects with experiences of multiple disadvantages and complex mental health. I have extensive experience also working with anxiety, depression, bereavement and bereavement by suicide, as well as issues such as anger, sadness, shame and relationship issues.
01724 514379 View 01724 514379
Photo of Carrie Meadows, BACP, Counsellor
Carrie Meadows
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Sheffield S17
As a counsellor, I help those struggling with mental health concerns, relationship issues, grief, loss, burnout or low self-esteem. I am here to support you in finding a way through, aiming to create greater balance and harmony. I am a registered BACP counsellor with 20 years experience working 1:1 with people in mental health both as a parent coach and in education teaching yoga, mindfulness and emotional & social learning. Training in embodiment and trauma healing modalities has given me insight and a strong belief in the importance of integrating this alongside my person-centred counselling to work with the mind-body connection.
As a counsellor, I help those struggling with mental health concerns, relationship issues, grief, loss, burnout or low self-esteem. I am here to support you in finding a way through, aiming to create greater balance and harmony. I am a registered BACP counsellor with 20 years experience working 1:1 with people in mental health both as a parent coach and in education teaching yoga, mindfulness and emotional & social learning. Training in embodiment and trauma healing modalities has given me insight and a strong belief in the importance of integrating this alongside my person-centred counselling to work with the mind-body connection.
0114 697 3434 View 0114 697 3434
Photo of Christopher Morris, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Christopher Morris
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chesterfield S40
Hello, I'm Christopher, a qualified and experienced Psychotherapist and Counsellor working with, Adults, Children & Young People and Couples in Mansfield and Nottinghamshire. As a Humanistic Psychotherapist and Counsellor, I believe that everyone has the capacity to achieve their fullest potential. Anyone who is struggling with a personal concern can seek counselling. No issue is too big or too small to ask for support. I believe therapy should be accessible to everyone, when they need it. Therefore, I work with clients of all ages, from 4 years old and upwards. I also offer discounted rates in certain circumstances.
Hello, I'm Christopher, a qualified and experienced Psychotherapist and Counsellor working with, Adults, Children & Young People and Couples in Mansfield and Nottinghamshire. As a Humanistic Psychotherapist and Counsellor, I believe that everyone has the capacity to achieve their fullest potential. Anyone who is struggling with a personal concern can seek counselling. No issue is too big or too small to ask for support. I believe therapy should be accessible to everyone, when they need it. Therefore, I work with clients of all ages, from 4 years old and upwards. I also offer discounted rates in certain circumstances.
01623 392757 View 01623 392757
Photo of Joe Roe
Joe Roe
Verified Verified
Chesterfield S40
Get back your mojo with Joe Roe (she/her) The Mental Health Coach. Shifting you from anxiety and stress to calm, confident and happiness. Using a beautiful blend of coaching & NLP, working together to move you forward to achieve your goals with your mental health wealth, goal clarity, self belief, motivation, work, relationships and life style choices, cleaning up memories and phobias. Over 20 years coaching experience and 7 years in own private practice successfully coaching people just like you to live a calm, confident and happy life, full of purpose.
Get back your mojo with Joe Roe (she/her) The Mental Health Coach. Shifting you from anxiety and stress to calm, confident and happiness. Using a beautiful blend of coaching & NLP, working together to move you forward to achieve your goals with your mental health wealth, goal clarity, self belief, motivation, work, relationships and life style choices, cleaning up memories and phobias. Over 20 years coaching experience and 7 years in own private practice successfully coaching people just like you to live a calm, confident and happy life, full of purpose.
01623 572247 View 01623 572247
Photo of Gabrielle Pitfield, PhD, CPsychol, Psychologist
Gabrielle Pitfield
Psychologist, PhD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Sheffield S10
Not accepting new clients
Hello, I’m Gabrielle. Thank you so much for visiting my profile. I'm a Chartered Psychologist passionate about caring for your mental well-being within a nurturing and empowering therapeutic environment. I understand your bravery in coming forward to find that certain person to support you through difficult and challenging times. My aim is to help you move on from whatever you are struggling with, for example, anxiety, depression, grief, low self-esteem, feeling sad, feelings of personal failure & issues with identity. By shining a light on your stories and resources, we will find together your voice and discover hopeful new paths.
Hello, I’m Gabrielle. Thank you so much for visiting my profile. I'm a Chartered Psychologist passionate about caring for your mental well-being within a nurturing and empowering therapeutic environment. I understand your bravery in coming forward to find that certain person to support you through difficult and challenging times. My aim is to help you move on from whatever you are struggling with, for example, anxiety, depression, grief, low self-esteem, feeling sad, feelings of personal failure & issues with identity. By shining a light on your stories and resources, we will find together your voice and discover hopeful new paths.
0114 697 0182 View 0114 697 0182
Photo of undefined - Therapy & Lifestyle Clinic (TLC), MSc, COSRT General, Psychotherapist
Therapy & Lifestyle Clinic (TLC)
Psychotherapist, MSc, COSRT General
Verified Verified
Chesterfield S40
TLC is a clinic of experienced and highly qualified professionals working towards helping you better yourself. We work with individuals, couples and groups to offer a confidential service where clients can discuss sensitive issues with no judgement. Sian’s (the founder) career has been namely in mental health and sexual health, two areas which she is hugely passionate about. At TLC we work with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression, bereavement, stress, bullying, low self-esteem, relationships and offer Autism assessments, to name a few. All our professionals are registered with COSRT, BABCP, BACP, HCPC or BPS.
TLC is a clinic of experienced and highly qualified professionals working towards helping you better yourself. We work with individuals, couples and groups to offer a confidential service where clients can discuss sensitive issues with no judgement. Sian’s (the founder) career has been namely in mental health and sexual health, two areas which she is hugely passionate about. At TLC we work with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression, bereavement, stress, bullying, low self-esteem, relationships and offer Autism assessments, to name a few. All our professionals are registered with COSRT, BABCP, BACP, HCPC or BPS.
01246 607005 View 01246 607005

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Hathersage

< 10

Counsellors in Hathersage who prioritize treating:

75% Relationship Issues
75% Depression
75% Anxiety
75% Child
75% Trauma and PTSD
75% Emotional Disturbance
75% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% Other
50% AXA PPP
50% Vitality

How Counsellors in Hathersage see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

100% Female
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Hathersage?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.