Counselling in Greater London

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Photo of John Mackessy, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
John Mackessy
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London N1  (Online Only)
Many clients have said that they find me approachable and warm, which is important to me, as counselling and therapy have to offer a base of trust and security. This is especially so where a client may need to explore and work through sensitive aspects of their own history, circumstances, relationships and sense-of-self. As an Integrative and diversity-affirmative practitioner I adapt my work to my individual clients and their needs, often helping them to develop the skills, resilience and confidence to face not only life’s challenges but to deal with their own moods, fears and anxieties.
Many clients have said that they find me approachable and warm, which is important to me, as counselling and therapy have to offer a base of trust and security. This is especially so where a client may need to explore and work through sensitive aspects of their own history, circumstances, relationships and sense-of-self. As an Integrative and diversity-affirmative practitioner I adapt my work to my individual clients and their needs, often helping them to develop the skills, resilience and confidence to face not only life’s challenges but to deal with their own moods, fears and anxieties.
020 4538 4356 View 020 4538 4356
Photo of Moments for your Mind, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Moments for your Mind
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SW16
Therapeutic Counselling with a holistic approach & coaching structure, to facilitate real change & personal growth, and get you back to yourself.
Therapeutic Counselling with a holistic approach & coaching structure, to facilitate real change & personal growth, and get you back to yourself.
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Amal Mental Health
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London EC2R
I am a psychotherapist with over ten years of experience in the USA, UAE and UK. I strongly believe in a client’s ability to heal and the power of the therapeutic alliance. I believe that clients can heal from life’s traumas and struggles in a safe and warm therapeutic environment. I also incorporate techniques of trauma-focused therapy, psychodynamic, mindfulness, and CBT.My approach is collaborative and focuses on providing a safe and non-judgmental space for you to begin your healing journey.
I am a psychotherapist with over ten years of experience in the USA, UAE and UK. I strongly believe in a client’s ability to heal and the power of the therapeutic alliance. I believe that clients can heal from life’s traumas and struggles in a safe and warm therapeutic environment. I also incorporate techniques of trauma-focused therapy, psychodynamic, mindfulness, and CBT.My approach is collaborative and focuses on providing a safe and non-judgmental space for you to begin your healing journey.
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Photo of Inês Paula, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Inês Paula
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified Verified
London SE22  (Online Only)
Each of us deserves a happy life. However, life can be difficult to navigate at times and working with a professional can help you overcome challenges more effectively. Whether you're going through a major life change or are facing a situation that interferes with your sense of security, it's important to know that you don't have to cope alone. Maybe you feel stuck in self-limiting beliefs, feel trapped in a relationship or career that no longer fulfils you or feel low without understanding why. Therapy can help you achieve a greater understanding of yourself and others, boost your resilience and improve your emotional wellbeing.
Each of us deserves a happy life. However, life can be difficult to navigate at times and working with a professional can help you overcome challenges more effectively. Whether you're going through a major life change or are facing a situation that interferes with your sense of security, it's important to know that you don't have to cope alone. Maybe you feel stuck in self-limiting beliefs, feel trapped in a relationship or career that no longer fulfils you or feel low without understanding why. Therapy can help you achieve a greater understanding of yourself and others, boost your resilience and improve your emotional wellbeing.
020 3974 2631 View 020 3974 2631
Photo of Miranda Kate Jackson, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Miranda Kate Jackson
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
I offer you a safe place to explore your emotions and the issues that trouble you and will work with you to find solutions which will improve your life. Therapy with me is about preparing to make changes. I will help you release the thoughts that trouble you, your fears and despair and help you contain those most intense feelings so we can look deeper into the reasons why you are not functioning as you would like to. We can't always change the way those around us behave, but we can change our attitude to life and to others.
I offer you a safe place to explore your emotions and the issues that trouble you and will work with you to find solutions which will improve your life. Therapy with me is about preparing to make changes. I will help you release the thoughts that trouble you, your fears and despair and help you contain those most intense feelings so we can look deeper into the reasons why you are not functioning as you would like to. We can't always change the way those around us behave, but we can change our attitude to life and to others.
01985 801986 View 01985 801986
Photo of Shinette Brown, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Shinette Brown
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W6  (Online Only)
Hi, I’m Shinette. Beyond my titles, qualifications and expertise, I’m just Shinette. Having been a client myself, I am passionate about and committed to providing a confidential, non-judgemental space for people to just be themselves too. As a qualified Psychotherapist and Health and Wellbeing coach; I have extensive experience supporting individuals with their mental, physical and sexual health. Working in a calm, client-led way means that I extend empathy and patience; acknowledging and allowing you to journey at your own pace.
Hi, I’m Shinette. Beyond my titles, qualifications and expertise, I’m just Shinette. Having been a client myself, I am passionate about and committed to providing a confidential, non-judgemental space for people to just be themselves too. As a qualified Psychotherapist and Health and Wellbeing coach; I have extensive experience supporting individuals with their mental, physical and sexual health. Working in a calm, client-led way means that I extend empathy and patience; acknowledging and allowing you to journey at your own pace.
020 3828 7730 View 020 3828 7730
Photo of Ina Spellings, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Ina Spellings
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Purley CR8  (Online Only)
Hello- I’m Ina -an experienced and accredited Integrative Therapeutic Counsellor. .I have experience of providing short term-solution focused counselling-within the NHS- as well as working with young people for a wide range of mental health matters.I am able to work multilingualy-providing therapy in English, Romanian,Spanish. It is my personal belief that spending time with an empathic, non-judgemental therapist, offers you the opportunity to feel truly seen and heard, perhaps for the first time, gaining insight into the matters that brought you here.
Hello- I’m Ina -an experienced and accredited Integrative Therapeutic Counsellor. .I have experience of providing short term-solution focused counselling-within the NHS- as well as working with young people for a wide range of mental health matters.I am able to work multilingualy-providing therapy in English, Romanian,Spanish. It is my personal belief that spending time with an empathic, non-judgemental therapist, offers you the opportunity to feel truly seen and heard, perhaps for the first time, gaining insight into the matters that brought you here.
020 4538 0219 View 020 4538 0219
Stephanie Mattioni
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
I am an intergrative arts psychotherapist working in private practice with adults and young people in London. Languages available: English, French and Italian. I provide both long and short term therapy, depending on the needs of each individual client. I work with individuals who are struggling with a variety of emotional, relational and identity difficulties. If you are finding life a struggle for any number of reasons, from a major life change to a loss or separation, or an issue you cannot seem to resolve, I hope you will find psychotherapy a very useful tool in removing the blocks preventing you to have a more satisfiying life.
I am an intergrative arts psychotherapist working in private practice with adults and young people in London. Languages available: English, French and Italian. I provide both long and short term therapy, depending on the needs of each individual client. I work with individuals who are struggling with a variety of emotional, relational and identity difficulties. If you are finding life a struggle for any number of reasons, from a major life change to a loss or separation, or an issue you cannot seem to resolve, I hope you will find psychotherapy a very useful tool in removing the blocks preventing you to have a more satisfiying life.
020 3838 0660 View 020 3838 0660
Photo of Michael Carrington, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Michael Carrington
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE12
Do you find it difficult to talk to those closest to you about your issues and concerns? Perhaps you don’t want to burden them or feel worried that they might judge or not understand what you are going through? I provide a safe, confidential, and non-judgemental space in which you can explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to understand more about yourself and your relationships with others. As an integrative counsellor, I work with a variety of therapeutic approaches and methods, and combine them to suit the needs of each individual client.
Do you find it difficult to talk to those closest to you about your issues and concerns? Perhaps you don’t want to burden them or feel worried that they might judge or not understand what you are going through? I provide a safe, confidential, and non-judgemental space in which you can explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to understand more about yourself and your relationships with others. As an integrative counsellor, I work with a variety of therapeutic approaches and methods, and combine them to suit the needs of each individual client.
020 3962 1727 View 020 3962 1727
Photo of Florian-Jack Stewart, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Florian-Jack Stewart
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE16
I am a qualified person-centred therapist. I work with individuals who are straight, gay, queer, bi, asexual, questioning and all genders including cis, trans, intersex, non-binary, genderqueer and gender questioning people. There are no issues I cannot support you with. I have experience of a wide variety of different problems such as; anxiety, low mood, end of life, chronic illness, disability, parenting, break up, trauma, sexual abuse, addictions, low self esteem and relationship issues. The people I have helped have had feelings that range from mild upset or worry, through intense levels of distress and despair. 
I am a qualified person-centred therapist. I work with individuals who are straight, gay, queer, bi, asexual, questioning and all genders including cis, trans, intersex, non-binary, genderqueer and gender questioning people. There are no issues I cannot support you with. I have experience of a wide variety of different problems such as; anxiety, low mood, end of life, chronic illness, disability, parenting, break up, trauma, sexual abuse, addictions, low self esteem and relationship issues. The people I have helped have had feelings that range from mild upset or worry, through intense levels of distress and despair. 
020 8059 2257 View 020 8059 2257
Photo of Charlene Edwards, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Charlene Edwards
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
There may be many reasons why you are finding life more difficult at the moment. This could be longstanding problems or perhaps something you've noticed more recently. You may want to understand why this is happening to you and what has contributed to this in order to be able to make differences in how you feel or the things that you may be doing or not doing. Each person is unique and whatever may be going on, I can support you in understanding the root of these difficulties and then help to make life long changes in order for you to make the most out of your life moving forward.
There may be many reasons why you are finding life more difficult at the moment. This could be longstanding problems or perhaps something you've noticed more recently. You may want to understand why this is happening to you and what has contributed to this in order to be able to make differences in how you feel or the things that you may be doing or not doing. Each person is unique and whatever may be going on, I can support you in understanding the root of these difficulties and then help to make life long changes in order for you to make the most out of your life moving forward.
020 3322 2386 View 020 3322 2386
Photo of The Body Image Treatment Clinic, London., Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
The Body Image Treatment Clinic, London.
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Our team of Psychologists and additional clinicians are all HCPC registered, representing the gold standard in evidence-based interventions. Our highly experienced team are proficient in treating most psychological conditions but we have a special interest in presentations which impact both mind and body. Such as: Eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, low body confidence, intimacy issues & sexual dysfunction, self-criticism, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, adult and childhood trauma (physical, emotional and sexual), addictions, neurodiversity, gender dysphoria, LGBTQ+, skin/sweat conditions as well as physical injury.
Our team of Psychologists and additional clinicians are all HCPC registered, representing the gold standard in evidence-based interventions. Our highly experienced team are proficient in treating most psychological conditions but we have a special interest in presentations which impact both mind and body. Such as: Eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, low body confidence, intimacy issues & sexual dysfunction, self-criticism, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, adult and childhood trauma (physical, emotional and sexual), addictions, neurodiversity, gender dysphoria, LGBTQ+, skin/sweat conditions as well as physical injury.
020 3835 2757 View 020 3835 2757
Photo of Amanda Katharine Dalsan, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Amanda Katharine Dalsan
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Do you need space and time to talk? If so, I am here to offer you the time and space to explore your worries and concerns in a confidential and safe environment. In a busy world full of judgements and rules, I can offer you a space where your thoughts and worries will be heard, acknowledged and respected. I can provide you with a place where you will not feel judged and where you can feel free to express your deepest concerns. I can appreciate that making the first step can be incredibly challenging. If you have not experienced any counselling or psychotherapy before it is understandable that you may be nervous about what to expect.
Do you need space and time to talk? If so, I am here to offer you the time and space to explore your worries and concerns in a confidential and safe environment. In a busy world full of judgements and rules, I can offer you a space where your thoughts and worries will be heard, acknowledged and respected. I can provide you with a place where you will not feel judged and where you can feel free to express your deepest concerns. I can appreciate that making the first step can be incredibly challenging. If you have not experienced any counselling or psychotherapy before it is understandable that you may be nervous about what to expect.
07411 278341 View 07411 278341
Photo of Robert Preda, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Robert Preda
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
London EC4Y
The counselling journey is never the same but in most cases, it starts with helping the client pinpoint their current challenges and struggles and get clarity on their patterns of thinking and behaving. We will also try to envision what the term “better life” looks like. We will then move into understanding how these patterns came to be. We will explore how these patterns are impacting the client's life. Finally, I help the client decide what changes must take place for their life to improve.
The counselling journey is never the same but in most cases, it starts with helping the client pinpoint their current challenges and struggles and get clarity on their patterns of thinking and behaving. We will also try to envision what the term “better life” looks like. We will then move into understanding how these patterns came to be. We will explore how these patterns are impacting the client's life. Finally, I help the client decide what changes must take place for their life to improve.
020 3835 3673 View 020 3835 3673
Photo of Sarah Khan, Counsellor in Greater London, England
Sarah Khan
Counsellor, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Sometimes life can feel difficult and speaking to friends or family is not enough. My aim is to create a safe therapeutic space that respects and embraces your individuality, enabling you to talk, feel and be yourself, without judgement. With my knowledge, skills and experience, I can help you process your feelings and gain a clearer understanding of your issues and deeper self-awareness. We can explore how your past experiences may be influencing your present. Whether it is navigating relationships, managing stress, or exploring identity, I will support you on your journey towards self-discovery, positive change and resilience.
Sometimes life can feel difficult and speaking to friends or family is not enough. My aim is to create a safe therapeutic space that respects and embraces your individuality, enabling you to talk, feel and be yourself, without judgement. With my knowledge, skills and experience, I can help you process your feelings and gain a clearer understanding of your issues and deeper self-awareness. We can explore how your past experiences may be influencing your present. Whether it is navigating relationships, managing stress, or exploring identity, I will support you on your journey towards self-discovery, positive change and resilience.
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Photo of Dr Lauren Rockliffe, Psychologist in Greater London, England
Dr Lauren Rockliffe
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Health Psych.
Verified Verified
London EC2A  (Online Only)
You might be looking to lose weight to help improve your overall health and wellbeing. Perhaps you’ve been struggling with your weight for a while, and you're looking to address the underlying emotional, behavioural, or psychological factors that contribute to your relationship with food and body image. Whatever your reasons are for wanting to lose weight, my aim is to support you to better understand your behaviour and to help you make healthy, long-lasting changes.
You might be looking to lose weight to help improve your overall health and wellbeing. Perhaps you’ve been struggling with your weight for a while, and you're looking to address the underlying emotional, behavioural, or psychological factors that contribute to your relationship with food and body image. Whatever your reasons are for wanting to lose weight, my aim is to support you to better understand your behaviour and to help you make healthy, long-lasting changes.
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Photo of Juan Michael Gonzalez, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Juan Michael Gonzalez
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
The well-known Jungian Analyst Marion Woodman says, 'the process not the goal is everything.' Similarly, I do not offer quick fixes, goals or solutions. I offer to facilitate a process, your individual process, in resonance with what's true and right for you - as that emerges. As a result, a starting point for therapy is me getting to know you: what events or symptoms have prompted you to reach out; what struggles, fears or hopes do you bring and what do you feel comfortable to begin to share about your life story?
The well-known Jungian Analyst Marion Woodman says, 'the process not the goal is everything.' Similarly, I do not offer quick fixes, goals or solutions. I offer to facilitate a process, your individual process, in resonance with what's true and right for you - as that emerges. As a result, a starting point for therapy is me getting to know you: what events or symptoms have prompted you to reach out; what struggles, fears or hopes do you bring and what do you feel comfortable to begin to share about your life story?
020 3974 2414 View 020 3974 2414
Photo of Conduit Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Conduit Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SW1W
I'm Katya, a BACP-registered integrative psychotherapist based in Central London. I work across a range of modalities, approaches, and techniques to better tailor sessions to my client’s unique personality and needs. My previous experience in finance gave me an insight into the pressures of high-performance workplaces and the stress that comes with striving to be the best version of yourself, as breadwinners, as parents, and as humans. I believe that no client is like any other just like everyone’s life paths are never the same, and, as such, my approach is based on where my clients are in life now and what their aspirations are.
I'm Katya, a BACP-registered integrative psychotherapist based in Central London. I work across a range of modalities, approaches, and techniques to better tailor sessions to my client’s unique personality and needs. My previous experience in finance gave me an insight into the pressures of high-performance workplaces and the stress that comes with striving to be the best version of yourself, as breadwinners, as parents, and as humans. I believe that no client is like any other just like everyone’s life paths are never the same, and, as such, my approach is based on where my clients are in life now and what their aspirations are.
020 3376 7805 View 020 3376 7805
Photo of Dr Jadzia Duncan-Bosu, Psychologist in Greater London, England
Dr Jadzia Duncan-Bosu
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
As a registered clinical psychologist I have a passion for working with a wide range of emotional and behavioural difficulties, such as fear, anxiety, poor self-esteem, low mood, depression, panic attacks, bereavement, stress, difficulties in adjusting to life events and interpersonal difficulties. I know that deciding to seek help can be difficult, yet living with emotional difficulties can be even more challenging and draining. I want to empower you to find new ways of coping and being. This can mean learning new coping strategies, relating differently to your thoughts and emotions, and being more connected to others.
As a registered clinical psychologist I have a passion for working with a wide range of emotional and behavioural difficulties, such as fear, anxiety, poor self-esteem, low mood, depression, panic attacks, bereavement, stress, difficulties in adjusting to life events and interpersonal difficulties. I know that deciding to seek help can be difficult, yet living with emotional difficulties can be even more challenging and draining. I want to empower you to find new ways of coping and being. This can mean learning new coping strategies, relating differently to your thoughts and emotions, and being more connected to others.
01748 901517 View 01748 901517
Photo of Pat Capel, Psychotherapist in Greater London, England
Pat Capel
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified Verified
Are you or your loved ones struggling with difficulties like depression, anxiety or trauma? Do you have difficulties getting to or staying asleep? Tricky relationships or situations at work or at home can cause stress and anxiety. For your children, the difficulties could be about school and university. I enjoy working with adults and young people who are finding life a little tricky. My 30 year career in the classroom means I understand adolescents and their difficulties. My aim is to help you identify the areas that are difficult and then to find strategies and solutions to overcome these.
Are you or your loved ones struggling with difficulties like depression, anxiety or trauma? Do you have difficulties getting to or staying asleep? Tricky relationships or situations at work or at home can cause stress and anxiety. For your children, the difficulties could be about school and university. I enjoy working with adults and young people who are finding life a little tricky. My 30 year career in the classroom means I understand adolescents and their difficulties. My aim is to help you identify the areas that are difficult and then to find strategies and solutions to overcome these.
020 3856 3817 View 020 3856 3817

See more therapy options for Greater London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Greater London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£70

Counsellors in Greater London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
79% Stress
65% Bereavement
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% Aviva
65% AXA PPP
59% Vitality

How Counsellors in Greater London see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
23% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Greater London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.