Counselling in Exeter

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Photo of Liz Benson, Psychologist in Exeter, England
Liz Benson
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Exeter EX1  (Online Only)
For all of us there are times when we need the support, understanding and guidance of others.  Knowing there is someone you can trust, that will listen and try their best to help using all their knowledge and experience can be a powerful and transformative experience. I am passionate about guiding people on their journey to recovery and a meaningful life. Throughout my career I have specialised in helping people with eating disorders, and have over 10 years experience in NHS ED services. I am also experienced in working with people to overcome many other difficulties including low self-esteem, depression and anxiety disorders.
For all of us there are times when we need the support, understanding and guidance of others.  Knowing there is someone you can trust, that will listen and try their best to help using all their knowledge and experience can be a powerful and transformative experience. I am passionate about guiding people on their journey to recovery and a meaningful life. Throughout my career I have specialised in helping people with eating disorders, and have over 10 years experience in NHS ED services. I am also experienced in working with people to overcome many other difficulties including low self-esteem, depression and anxiety disorders.
01392 321417 View 01392 321417
Photo of Charlotte Mizen, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Charlotte Mizen
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified
Exeter EX4
We all experience difficult and painful times in life which sometimes feel too hard or overwhelming to manage alone. I have trained and worked as a counsellor and latterly as a psychotherapist with over ten years of clinical experience in private practice, a local therapeutic institution, and as an honorary psychotherapist in the NHS. Depression, anxiety, stress, loss and separation are some of the more difficult issues we come up against in life which can seriously impact the way we live our lives. My approach is psychoanalytically oriented with a focus on increasing self understanding and deepening insight into emotional issues
We all experience difficult and painful times in life which sometimes feel too hard or overwhelming to manage alone. I have trained and worked as a counsellor and latterly as a psychotherapist with over ten years of clinical experience in private practice, a local therapeutic institution, and as an honorary psychotherapist in the NHS. Depression, anxiety, stress, loss and separation are some of the more difficult issues we come up against in life which can seriously impact the way we live our lives. My approach is psychoanalytically oriented with a focus on increasing self understanding and deepening insight into emotional issues
01392 573820 View 01392 573820
Photo of Jenny Liggins, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Jenny Liggins
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX1  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
All of us need to find resilience at times of stress, or just to deal with day to day issues that may cause us anxiety and impact on the quality of our lives. Life events such as bereavement or change affect us in different ways with no simple, correct way to respond. I offer a way to share issues and find solutions beyond family and friendship groups, within a therapeutic relationship.
All of us need to find resilience at times of stress, or just to deal with day to day issues that may cause us anxiety and impact on the quality of our lives. Life events such as bereavement or change affect us in different ways with no simple, correct way to respond. I offer a way to share issues and find solutions beyond family and friendship groups, within a therapeutic relationship.
01392 537148 View 01392 537148
Photo of Jade Howe, Psychotherapist in Exeter, England
Jade Howe
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified
Exeter EX4
Hello, I'm Jade. I'm a UKCP (United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapists) Therapist in Training. I offer a warm space where we can explore, together, your reasons for accessing Psychotherapy. I like to think about the benefits of Psychotherapy a little bit like building a house extension, but needing to lay a foundation first. Our original foundation might need some stronger materials or extra scaffolding. Psychotherapy can help to provide that scaffolding, through processing your feelings in a supportive environment. This allows for an exploration of who you are so that you can build your extension, with materials that you choose.
Hello, I'm Jade. I'm a UKCP (United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapists) Therapist in Training. I offer a warm space where we can explore, together, your reasons for accessing Psychotherapy. I like to think about the benefits of Psychotherapy a little bit like building a house extension, but needing to lay a foundation first. Our original foundation might need some stronger materials or extra scaffolding. Psychotherapy can help to provide that scaffolding, through processing your feelings in a supportive environment. This allows for an exploration of who you are so that you can build your extension, with materials that you choose.
01392 321693 View 01392 321693
Photo of Nicola Dunn, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Nicola Dunn
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX4
I’m a calm, empathic, and non-judgemental counsellor providing a safe, confidential space for you to explore your thoughts and feelings. My role is to support you through this process; I won’t be making judgements, giving you advice, or solving problems. Counselling can help you to understand yourself, accept yourself, and find a way to move forwards. I have experience of working with people with a variety of mental health challenges who’ve accessed counselling for anxiety, depression, bereavement, trauma, stress including work related stress, family issues, relationship break-ups, abuse, and low self-esteem.
I’m a calm, empathic, and non-judgemental counsellor providing a safe, confidential space for you to explore your thoughts and feelings. My role is to support you through this process; I won’t be making judgements, giving you advice, or solving problems. Counselling can help you to understand yourself, accept yourself, and find a way to move forwards. I have experience of working with people with a variety of mental health challenges who’ve accessed counselling for anxiety, depression, bereavement, trauma, stress including work related stress, family issues, relationship break-ups, abuse, and low self-esteem.
01392 321633 View 01392 321633
Photo of Kate Haskell, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Kate Haskell
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX4
Why have counselling? Well, maybe you want to talk to someone but feel unable to share with family or friends. Perhaps you want to make sense of the feelings you are experiencing. People start to heal when they feel truly heard and I offer a safe and confidential space where you talk, I listen and together we can challenge unhelpful thoughts and perspectives to explore a new way of being.
Why have counselling? Well, maybe you want to talk to someone but feel unable to share with family or friends. Perhaps you want to make sense of the feelings you are experiencing. People start to heal when they feel truly heard and I offer a safe and confidential space where you talk, I listen and together we can challenge unhelpful thoughts and perspectives to explore a new way of being.
01392 321635 View 01392 321635
Photo of Paul Brennan, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Paul Brennan
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX2
I offer both in person and online support for people experiencing grief, loss or struggling with change. This can be bereavement, loss of a job, end of a relationship or simply feeling a bit lost in life itself. I also work with men's issues as well as LGBT concerns. I offer a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to unpack issues, explore your feelings and better understand what is going on for you. You may be feeling lost, anxious, uncertain or scared. That's understandable. That's okay. Considering counselling is a brave step. Well done for coming this far. Let's work together to try and find a way forward for you.
I offer both in person and online support for people experiencing grief, loss or struggling with change. This can be bereavement, loss of a job, end of a relationship or simply feeling a bit lost in life itself. I also work with men's issues as well as LGBT concerns. I offer a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to unpack issues, explore your feelings and better understand what is going on for you. You may be feeling lost, anxious, uncertain or scared. That's understandable. That's okay. Considering counselling is a brave step. Well done for coming this far. Let's work together to try and find a way forward for you.
07710 299651 View 07710 299651
Photo of Two's-Talking Counselling & Supervision Service, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Two's-Talking Counselling & Supervision Service
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX2
My name is Debbie and I am a registered therapist with BACP and NCS. I offer counselling face to face, online or via a telephone service. I work with person/s over the age of eight years old. I can help you with stress, anxiety/depression, anger, bereavement, relationships, abuse and couple's therapy. I understand you want to see a therapist as soon as you make that decision to do so. I will validate your feelings and i will acknowledge how distressing you are experiencing your life right now. I want to help you and I aim to see you within 7 working days. My goal is to get you to where you want to be.
My name is Debbie and I am a registered therapist with BACP and NCS. I offer counselling face to face, online or via a telephone service. I work with person/s over the age of eight years old. I can help you with stress, anxiety/depression, anger, bereavement, relationships, abuse and couple's therapy. I understand you want to see a therapist as soon as you make that decision to do so. I will validate your feelings and i will acknowledge how distressing you are experiencing your life right now. I want to help you and I aim to see you within 7 working days. My goal is to get you to where you want to be.
01392 690620 View 01392 690620
Photo of Nicola Grieveson, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Nicola Grieveson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX4
If you are looking for someone with many years of professional experience qualified and professional with a kind, compassionate manner I can help. I have experience with diagnosed mental health issues and everyday struggles with relationships, feeling sad, depressed, anxious and pre occupied with worries. Confidential and private in a relaxed atmosphere.
If you are looking for someone with many years of professional experience qualified and professional with a kind, compassionate manner I can help. I have experience with diagnosed mental health issues and everyday struggles with relationships, feeling sad, depressed, anxious and pre occupied with worries. Confidential and private in a relaxed atmosphere.
01392 573743 View 01392 573743
Photo of Karen Hedges, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Karen Hedges
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX4
I aim to assist you to make positive changes and move forward with your life. I am experienced in working with people who have struggled with feelings such as anxiety, anger, fear and loss. I will help you to understand your thoughts and feelings so that you can identify what needs to change, and work with you to find ways to overcome your difficulties using methods of working that suit you.
I aim to assist you to make positive changes and move forward with your life. I am experienced in working with people who have struggled with feelings such as anxiety, anger, fear and loss. I will help you to understand your thoughts and feelings so that you can identify what needs to change, and work with you to find ways to overcome your difficulties using methods of working that suit you.
01392 690594 View 01392 690594
Photo of Catia Cosme Counselling & Psychotherapy, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Catia Cosme Counselling & Psychotherapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX1
Hello, my name is Catia. I offer counselling sessions to adults, children and young people as well as couples/marriage therapy. Counselling can bring clarity where there is confusion, resolve past issues, change behaviours and improve relationships. I will provide you a confidential, safe and supportive space for you to talk and work thought the difficulties you are facing. For some people having a safe space to speak and reflect about their issues it is enough to help them move forward, while others may benefit from the use of more creative interventions
Hello, my name is Catia. I offer counselling sessions to adults, children and young people as well as couples/marriage therapy. Counselling can bring clarity where there is confusion, resolve past issues, change behaviours and improve relationships. I will provide you a confidential, safe and supportive space for you to talk and work thought the difficulties you are facing. For some people having a safe space to speak and reflect about their issues it is enough to help them move forward, while others may benefit from the use of more creative interventions
01392 549734 View 01392 549734
Photo of Claire Jones Counselling & Psychotherapy, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Claire Jones Counselling & Psychotherapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX4
When one of life’s problems becomes overwhelming, you may be feeling anxious or distraught, it can make a real difference prioritising your needs and talking to a counsellor who can listen to you with compassion and without judgement. Life can feel challenging at times, stressful and full of uncertainty; are you struggling to cope with work or family life? Has life set you back? Or are you looking for some peace and calm in your life? Whatever you are struggling with or want to focus on, then I am here to help you.
When one of life’s problems becomes overwhelming, you may be feeling anxious or distraught, it can make a real difference prioritising your needs and talking to a counsellor who can listen to you with compassion and without judgement. Life can feel challenging at times, stressful and full of uncertainty; are you struggling to cope with work or family life? Has life set you back? Or are you looking for some peace and calm in your life? Whatever you are struggling with or want to focus on, then I am here to help you.
01392 719735 View 01392 719735
Photo of Dr Rebecca Evans, Psychologist in Exeter, England
Dr Rebecca Evans
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Health Psych.
Verified
Exeter EX2
Hello, I am Becky a HCPC registered Applied Health Psychologist. I am trained in person-centred care, CBT, CFT, ACT, DBT, systemic and narrative therapy. I have supported people with chronic pain, neurodiversity, weight management, trauma, relationship difficulties and memory difficulties. I am an integrative psychologist, thus I use a range of different models and skills to meet the needs of each individual. I have worked with young children up to older adults. I have seen people individually, in couples or as a family. I have helped clients explore their struggles with anxiety, self-esteem, low-mood, bullying, bereavement, & loss.
Hello, I am Becky a HCPC registered Applied Health Psychologist. I am trained in person-centred care, CBT, CFT, ACT, DBT, systemic and narrative therapy. I have supported people with chronic pain, neurodiversity, weight management, trauma, relationship difficulties and memory difficulties. I am an integrative psychologist, thus I use a range of different models and skills to meet the needs of each individual. I have worked with young children up to older adults. I have seen people individually, in couples or as a family. I have helped clients explore their struggles with anxiety, self-esteem, low-mood, bullying, bereavement, & loss.
01392 321410 View 01392 321410
Photo of David Trussler, Psychotherapist in Exeter, England
David Trussler
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX6
In my work as a Psychodynamic Psychotherapist, I help adults who are experiencing considerable difficulties with their thoughts and feelings about themselves and in their relationships with others - particularly with partners, family and at work. These difficulties are often associated with a variety of psychological problems and negatively affect mental health, sometimes severely. The origin of psychological problems is often rooted in problems with caregiving experienced as an infant, child and teenager.
In my work as a Psychodynamic Psychotherapist, I help adults who are experiencing considerable difficulties with their thoughts and feelings about themselves and in their relationships with others - particularly with partners, family and at work. These difficulties are often associated with a variety of psychological problems and negatively affect mental health, sometimes severely. The origin of psychological problems is often rooted in problems with caregiving experienced as an infant, child and teenager.
01392 321871 View 01392 321871
Photo of James Yates, Psychotherapist in Exeter, England
James Yates
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX4
What does it mean to be yourself in a society that discourages self-expression? To live in a world that disconnects us from each other and from ourselves. A world that distracts us from what’s important and meaningful. The messages we receive from people is not ‘be who you are’, but instead ‘be what I need’. In such a place, being ourselves is a revolutionary act. In what ways are people telling us to be what they need? I’m glad you asked. It can be as simple as a raised eyebrow, or a disparaging look. Or more obvious do’s and don’ts. We get the message.
What does it mean to be yourself in a society that discourages self-expression? To live in a world that disconnects us from each other and from ourselves. A world that distracts us from what’s important and meaningful. The messages we receive from people is not ‘be who you are’, but instead ‘be what I need’. In such a place, being ourselves is a revolutionary act. In what ways are people telling us to be what they need? I’m glad you asked. It can be as simple as a raised eyebrow, or a disparaging look. Or more obvious do’s and don’ts. We get the message.
01392 321330 View 01392 321330
Photo of Liz Spencer, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Liz Spencer
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX1
Feeling stuck? At a crossroads in your career or emotional life? We can all feel lost, unsure, anxious or unhappy sometimes. Do you want to move forward with your life? Feel more connected and confident in yourself? Counselling can help you to understand yourself, build resilience and challenge you to identify painful beliefs and patterns that might be holding you back. ​ I can help with a range of different issues; low self-esteem, anxiety & depression, attachment issues, relationship struggles, pre and post divorce, stress, personal growth, bereavement and more. Please get in touch to arrange an initial assessment session.
Feeling stuck? At a crossroads in your career or emotional life? We can all feel lost, unsure, anxious or unhappy sometimes. Do you want to move forward with your life? Feel more connected and confident in yourself? Counselling can help you to understand yourself, build resilience and challenge you to identify painful beliefs and patterns that might be holding you back. ​ I can help with a range of different issues; low self-esteem, anxiety & depression, attachment issues, relationship struggles, pre and post divorce, stress, personal growth, bereavement and more. Please get in touch to arrange an initial assessment session.
01392 321474 View 01392 321474
Photo of Jodie Cook, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Jodie Cook
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Exeter EX4
You may be feeling overwhelmed, and I am here to listen and support you to ‘unpack’ the thoughts, feelings and emotions that may have become painful, ignored, too heavy to carry, or silenced. Together we can work towards a better understanding of what has brought you here, and to enable the comfort and relief necessary to move forward. I welcome you to share what is going on for you in a calm, safe and confidential space. This is your space and your time to be heard.
You may be feeling overwhelmed, and I am here to listen and support you to ‘unpack’ the thoughts, feelings and emotions that may have become painful, ignored, too heavy to carry, or silenced. Together we can work towards a better understanding of what has brought you here, and to enable the comfort and relief necessary to move forward. I welcome you to share what is going on for you in a calm, safe and confidential space. This is your space and your time to be heard.
01392 321334 View 01392 321334
Photo of Nikki Frankum, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Nikki Frankum
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Exeter EX1
My name is Nikki, I am a qualified integrative counsellor registered with the NCS. I understand how difficult life can seem, and how stuck we can become. I am a compassionate, caring therapist who will not judge you. Whatever feelings or circumstances bring you to therapy, I offer you a calm, safe and non- judgmental space where I will encourage you to let go of unhelpful ways of being, that may be holding you back. As an integrative counsellor I will draw on different theoretical approaches choosing techniques to suit your individual needs.
My name is Nikki, I am a qualified integrative counsellor registered with the NCS. I understand how difficult life can seem, and how stuck we can become. I am a compassionate, caring therapist who will not judge you. Whatever feelings or circumstances bring you to therapy, I offer you a calm, safe and non- judgmental space where I will encourage you to let go of unhelpful ways of being, that may be holding you back. As an integrative counsellor I will draw on different theoretical approaches choosing techniques to suit your individual needs.
01392 321499 View 01392 321499
Photo of Gram Davies, Psychotherapist in Exeter, England
Gram Davies
Psychotherapist, PNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Exeter EX16
Wherever you find yourself struggling personally, counselling & psychotherapy may be of help. Counselling & psychotherapy are a dialogue, that takes place in a reliable and consistent setting. You may discuss whatever is going on for you, without the assumptions and expectations of daily life getting in the way. Many people find talking, in a thoughtful and receptive place, can lead to greater self-understanding and, ultimately, personal change.
Wherever you find yourself struggling personally, counselling & psychotherapy may be of help. Counselling & psychotherapy are a dialogue, that takes place in a reliable and consistent setting. You may discuss whatever is going on for you, without the assumptions and expectations of daily life getting in the way. Many people find talking, in a thoughtful and receptive place, can lead to greater self-understanding and, ultimately, personal change.
01794 337336 View 01794 337336
Photo of Lauren Elliott Vincent, Counsellor in Exeter, England
Lauren Elliott Vincent
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
2 Endorsed
Exeter EX1
I have a lot of life experience and understanding of the importance of life and the struggles we all face, through my own trials and professional workings. ​ ​I am an Integrative Counsellor, which means I'm able to draw on a variety of methods and techniques to best assist you maintaining very relaxed, patient led sessions giving you the opportunity to grow and develop as best you can, helping you to help yourself. I work in a variety of ways to help you feel comfortable and open up in a safe space. My approach is based on working in the here and now looking at whats going on for you whilst also paying attention to unfinished cycles
I have a lot of life experience and understanding of the importance of life and the struggles we all face, through my own trials and professional workings. ​ ​I am an Integrative Counsellor, which means I'm able to draw on a variety of methods and techniques to best assist you maintaining very relaxed, patient led sessions giving you the opportunity to grow and develop as best you can, helping you to help yourself. I work in a variety of ways to help you feel comfortable and open up in a safe space. My approach is based on working in the here and now looking at whats going on for you whilst also paying attention to unfinished cycles
01392 573768 View 01392 573768

See more therapy options for Exeter

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Exeter

200+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Exeter who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
90% Depression
88% Self Esteem
85% Stress
81% Relationship Issues
72% Bereavement
69% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

7 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% AXA PPP
48% Aviva
42% Bupa

How Counsellors in Exeter see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Exeter?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.