Counselling in Cringleford

Photo of Shane Lutkin, MA, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Shane Lutkin
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Cringleford NR4
I have studied focusing, CBT, mindfulness, couples and group facilitation, coaching and creative thinking. At Emotionalskills we offer a straightforward therapeutic skills course designed specifically to help each unique client individually. I am a member of the British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy (BACP) and work with: adults, young people (15 plus), older people who thought they were too old to change, couples who want to stop arguing, struggling family units and people who want to realise a fulfilling life.
I have studied focusing, CBT, mindfulness, couples and group facilitation, coaching and creative thinking. At Emotionalskills we offer a straightforward therapeutic skills course designed specifically to help each unique client individually. I am a member of the British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy (BACP) and work with: adults, young people (15 plus), older people who thought they were too old to change, couples who want to stop arguing, struggling family units and people who want to realise a fulfilling life.
01603 980295 View 01603 980295
Photo of Lucy Ellen Ashby, MUKCP, Counsellor
Lucy Ellen Ashby
Counsellor, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cringleford NR4
What would it be like to feel less anxious? What would it be like to be supported in recovering from trauma? What if you could develop healthy boundaries and improve your relationships? Life can be a challenge and finding a counsellor can be hard. I am a warm, non-judgemental, down to earth counsellor. I work with adults who are struggling with different aspects of their lives. I have a particular interest and experience in working with anxiety, childhood trauma and identity.
What would it be like to feel less anxious? What would it be like to be supported in recovering from trauma? What if you could develop healthy boundaries and improve your relationships? Life can be a challenge and finding a counsellor can be hard. I am a warm, non-judgemental, down to earth counsellor. I work with adults who are struggling with different aspects of their lives. I have a particular interest and experience in working with anxiety, childhood trauma and identity.
01603 361278 View 01603 361278
Photo of James Collier, MA, MBACP, Psychotherapist
James Collier
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Cringleford NR4
Asking for help can be a monumental decision that requires a lot of courage. Finding the right therapist can be an equally difficult task. A therapeutic relationship needs to feel safe and collaborative, as it can serve as a foundation for healing.
Asking for help can be a monumental decision that requires a lot of courage. Finding the right therapist can be an equally difficult task. A therapeutic relationship needs to feel safe and collaborative, as it can serve as a foundation for healing.
01603 340472 View 01603 340472

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Philippa Katharine Pease, MSc, MUKCP, Counsellor
Philippa Katharine Pease
Counsellor, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR2
I believe that every person is unique, and I hope to empower you to develop resilience, navigate life’s transitions, and overcome issues such as anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulties and self-esteem challenges. Central to my work lies a profound desire to understand you and to help you gain an understanding of yourself and enable you to seek the change you are looking for.
I believe that every person is unique, and I hope to empower you to develop resilience, navigate life’s transitions, and overcome issues such as anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulties and self-esteem challenges. Central to my work lies a profound desire to understand you and to help you gain an understanding of yourself and enable you to seek the change you are looking for.
01603 937248 View 01603 937248
Photo of undefined - Eastern Therapy Works, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Eastern Therapy Works
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR3
Are you finding it difficult to cope with everyday life? Are you fed up with feeling the same way? Maybe you have experienced a life changing event, that has left you feeling anxious, overwhelmed or alone. What ever your needs are, I can offer a safe, non - judgemental space to help you understand what's going on and together, we will come up with a plan to help you manage the current situation and work towards your individual goals and ultimately, live the life you want. It takes a lot to take that next step but once you do, it can give you hope for the future YOU! If you feel ready to make a change, please do get in touch.
Are you finding it difficult to cope with everyday life? Are you fed up with feeling the same way? Maybe you have experienced a life changing event, that has left you feeling anxious, overwhelmed or alone. What ever your needs are, I can offer a safe, non - judgemental space to help you understand what's going on and together, we will come up with a plan to help you manage the current situation and work towards your individual goals and ultimately, live the life you want. It takes a lot to take that next step but once you do, it can give you hope for the future YOU! If you feel ready to make a change, please do get in touch.
01603 340546 View 01603 340546
Photo of Dr Peter Cairns, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Peter Cairns
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Norwich NR2
I have longstanding experience working with adults and older children over 13-years, who are experiencing mood problems, stress, low self-esteem, anger difficulties, relationship issues, or the impact of traumatic events.
I have longstanding experience working with adults and older children over 13-years, who are experiencing mood problems, stress, low self-esteem, anger difficulties, relationship issues, or the impact of traumatic events.
01493 807229 View 01493 807229
Photo of Katherine Warburton, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Katherine Warburton
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Norwich NR1  (Online Only)
Like the lotus flower, we too have the ability to rise from the mud, bloom out of darkness and radiate into the world'. If you're looking to manage anxiety, improve self esteem or find a way through a difficult trauma, I can support you and will work at a pace that suits you. I value each persons individual experience. I have 12 years experience of supporting people in a wide range of settings. I am passionate about providing a compassionate, safe space to talk to explore your issues and work collaboratively to gain a shared understanding of your experience and support you in developing healthier, alternative coping strategies.
Like the lotus flower, we too have the ability to rise from the mud, bloom out of darkness and radiate into the world'. If you're looking to manage anxiety, improve self esteem or find a way through a difficult trauma, I can support you and will work at a pace that suits you. I value each persons individual experience. I have 12 years experience of supporting people in a wide range of settings. I am passionate about providing a compassionate, safe space to talk to explore your issues and work collaboratively to gain a shared understanding of your experience and support you in developing healthier, alternative coping strategies.
01603 361208 View 01603 361208
Photo of undefined - Dr Tamara Scully - Stress and Anxiety Specialist , PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Tamara Scully - Stress and Anxiety Specialist
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Norwich NR1
Everyone faces challenges from time to time. This is important and helps us to grow and develop our resilience and wellbeing. However, sometimes life can feel tricky for prolonged periods of time and can leave us feeling overwhelmed and worried that things may never get any better. A clinical psychologist can support us to better understand the social, emotional and/or behavioural difficulties we are experiencing. They can help us to develop our own resilience by introducing new ways of thinking about and managing situations that leaves us feeling less troubled and more content.
Everyone faces challenges from time to time. This is important and helps us to grow and develop our resilience and wellbeing. However, sometimes life can feel tricky for prolonged periods of time and can leave us feeling overwhelmed and worried that things may never get any better. A clinical psychologist can support us to better understand the social, emotional and/or behavioural difficulties we are experiencing. They can help us to develop our own resilience by introducing new ways of thinking about and managing situations that leaves us feeling less troubled and more content.
07480 801064 View 07480 801064
Photo of Jo Clarke, MBACP, Counsellor
Jo Clarke
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR2
Are you fed up of waking up in the morning with a feeling of dread, a churning in your stomach or a tightness in your chest? Are you frustrated from having thoughts going around in your mind, feeling like you're out of control? Are you finding yourself feeling sad and crying more than usual? Do you feel confused and often find yourself asking "what's wrong with me?" Maybe you are experiencing anxiety when faced with challenging situations and people? Counselling can help to support you through this distress and to help you to move forwards with your life.
Are you fed up of waking up in the morning with a feeling of dread, a churning in your stomach or a tightness in your chest? Are you frustrated from having thoughts going around in your mind, feeling like you're out of control? Are you finding yourself feeling sad and crying more than usual? Do you feel confused and often find yourself asking "what's wrong with me?" Maybe you are experiencing anxiety when faced with challenging situations and people? Counselling can help to support you through this distress and to help you to move forwards with your life.
01603 361758 View 01603 361758
Photo of Tina Wright, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Tina Wright
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR1  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with IBS? Always worrying about where the nearest loo is? Or what is safe to eat? You are not alone! Approximately 10% of the world does too. Unfortunately, we aren't always fully informed about all our treatment options. If you notice your gut symptoms are often worse when you are stressed, busy, or worrying, then a psychological approach can help. Did you know that IBS is now recognised as a Gut-Brain Axis condition, rather than a functional gut problem? This means it's necessary to address the mind, body, and the connection between them to enable you to take control of your stress, your bowels, and your life.
Are you struggling with IBS? Always worrying about where the nearest loo is? Or what is safe to eat? You are not alone! Approximately 10% of the world does too. Unfortunately, we aren't always fully informed about all our treatment options. If you notice your gut symptoms are often worse when you are stressed, busy, or worrying, then a psychological approach can help. Did you know that IBS is now recognised as a Gut-Brain Axis condition, rather than a functional gut problem? This means it's necessary to address the mind, body, and the connection between them to enable you to take control of your stress, your bowels, and your life.
01493 807174 View 01493 807174
Photo of Lucy Harber, BACP, Counsellor
Lucy Harber
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Norwich NR2
A warm hello and thank you for taking a look at my profile. I'm a qualified integrative counsellor, who offers a safe, professional, and caring space where I sit with my clients to explore what hurts. Experiences such as anxiety, loneliness, depression, loss, injury, trauma, abuse, identity, life direction and meaning, family issues, low self-esteem are often painful. They can also be seen as our internal system telling us to take a closer look at what's going on inside. Experience has shown me that taking the time to gently explore life events and related thoughts, feelings and behaviours with curiosity can be life-changing.
A warm hello and thank you for taking a look at my profile. I'm a qualified integrative counsellor, who offers a safe, professional, and caring space where I sit with my clients to explore what hurts. Experiences such as anxiety, loneliness, depression, loss, injury, trauma, abuse, identity, life direction and meaning, family issues, low self-esteem are often painful. They can also be seen as our internal system telling us to take a closer look at what's going on inside. Experience has shown me that taking the time to gently explore life events and related thoughts, feelings and behaviours with curiosity can be life-changing.
01603 959720 View 01603 959720
Photo of P. Damien Shann, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
P. Damien Shann
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Norwich NR3
Welcome! If you have arrived here at my page I imagine it is because you have been experiencing distress or personal difficulties, and that you are therefore seeking some help. It may also be that you are seeking a deeper understanding of your relationships, or of your life as a whole. People come to me for many reasons. You may be experiencing anxiety, stress, bereavement, relationship problems, depression, addiction, low self-esteem or something you can’t quite grasp but that is troubling you. I have a wide and deep experience of working successfully with people with differing issues and from differing backgrounds.
Welcome! If you have arrived here at my page I imagine it is because you have been experiencing distress or personal difficulties, and that you are therefore seeking some help. It may also be that you are seeking a deeper understanding of your relationships, or of your life as a whole. People come to me for many reasons. You may be experiencing anxiety, stress, bereavement, relationship problems, depression, addiction, low self-esteem or something you can’t quite grasp but that is troubling you. I have a wide and deep experience of working successfully with people with differing issues and from differing backgrounds.
01502 442912 View 01502 442912
Photo of Maureen Pettican, MSc, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Maureen Pettican
Counsellor, MSc, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Norwich NR5
Waitlist for new clients
Hi, thank you for stopping on my page. As you search through these listings, I am sure you are trying to find out what brought you here and what kind of support you need. You have taken the first step :) The next step is to take a deep breath and trust yourself to move towards making that first enquiry. It can feel daunting, but I promise it is not as bad as it may seem. If you are looking for a therapist who will listen, understand and walk with you through a difficult time, you have found me. If you need to feel you can trust, share, cry and talk, I will listen and I will help you find your next steps. I encourage you to call.
Hi, thank you for stopping on my page. As you search through these listings, I am sure you are trying to find out what brought you here and what kind of support you need. You have taken the first step :) The next step is to take a deep breath and trust yourself to move towards making that first enquiry. It can feel daunting, but I promise it is not as bad as it may seem. If you are looking for a therapist who will listen, understand and walk with you through a difficult time, you have found me. If you need to feel you can trust, share, cry and talk, I will listen and I will help you find your next steps. I encourage you to call.
01603 361422 View 01603 361422
Photo of Christie Walker, MBACP, Counsellor
Christie Walker
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR1
Hi there, I'm Christie and I'm an Integrative Psychotherapeutic Counsellor! My aim as a Counsellor is to ensure you feel comfortable and at ease whilst starting to explore the challenges and difficulties you’re struggling with. I'll provide you with a safe, compassionate and accepting space for you to understand how you've got to where you are now and support you in creating the changes you want for yourself. You may be having difficulties in relationships, struggling with stress, depression or anxiety, experienced a loss or need a place to talk through painful experiences in a safe place.
Hi there, I'm Christie and I'm an Integrative Psychotherapeutic Counsellor! My aim as a Counsellor is to ensure you feel comfortable and at ease whilst starting to explore the challenges and difficulties you’re struggling with. I'll provide you with a safe, compassionate and accepting space for you to understand how you've got to where you are now and support you in creating the changes you want for yourself. You may be having difficulties in relationships, struggling with stress, depression or anxiety, experienced a loss or need a place to talk through painful experiences in a safe place.
01603 361127 View 01603 361127
Photo of Ian Poole, BACP, Counsellor
Ian Poole
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR1
I am a fully qualified, insured and experienced Psychotherapeutic Counsellor based in the heart of Norwich. But what does it all mean? I’m sure you’ve now scrolled through a sea of faces stating various therapeutic styles and qualifications (it can be like we are talking another language) when all you want is a spot of help. In a nutshell being a Psychotherapeutic Counsellor means the relationship we develop together is key for the work. I am committed to be alongside you on this ride as we use the mind, the body and the bigger than us things of our existence, to explore what is behind you seeking counselling.
I am a fully qualified, insured and experienced Psychotherapeutic Counsellor based in the heart of Norwich. But what does it all mean? I’m sure you’ve now scrolled through a sea of faces stating various therapeutic styles and qualifications (it can be like we are talking another language) when all you want is a spot of help. In a nutshell being a Psychotherapeutic Counsellor means the relationship we develop together is key for the work. I am committed to be alongside you on this ride as we use the mind, the body and the bigger than us things of our existence, to explore what is behind you seeking counselling.
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Photo of Tracey Anne McGee Ba(Hons), MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Tracey Anne McGee Ba(Hons)
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Norwich NR2
Not accepting new clients
Not currently accepting new clients. I am a qualified person-centred counsellor working with adults and young people. I offer in-person only. Whether your issues are related to the past, or are rooted in the present, counselling can help to alleviate the ways these events affect you and your relationships. Exploring our feelings and how these events have affected us can help to improve our self-worth, self-esteem and self-compassion. As we feel better about ourselves we are able to experience improved relationships and make more positive life choices.
Not currently accepting new clients. I am a qualified person-centred counsellor working with adults and young people. I offer in-person only. Whether your issues are related to the past, or are rooted in the present, counselling can help to alleviate the ways these events affect you and your relationships. Exploring our feelings and how these events have affected us can help to improve our self-worth, self-esteem and self-compassion. As we feel better about ourselves we are able to experience improved relationships and make more positive life choices.
01493 807181 View 01493 807181
Photo of Tracy Moore, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Tracy Moore
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR1
I offer high quality, Psychotherapy for individual therapy and couples, for relationship counselling and have many years experience working with mental health. My commitment is to unconditionally respect values, lifestyle, background and beliefs, offering a discreet and professional service tailored to your needs. ​Whatever you are experiencing, you don't have to face it alone​. I believe in on-going training, academic learning and supervision and keep myself up-to-date with best practice, innovation and developments in the industry. I am a member of, am registered with and work to the strict ethics and regulations.
I offer high quality, Psychotherapy for individual therapy and couples, for relationship counselling and have many years experience working with mental health. My commitment is to unconditionally respect values, lifestyle, background and beliefs, offering a discreet and professional service tailored to your needs. ​Whatever you are experiencing, you don't have to face it alone​. I believe in on-going training, academic learning and supervision and keep myself up-to-date with best practice, innovation and developments in the industry. I am a member of, am registered with and work to the strict ethics and regulations.
01508 505551 View 01508 505551
Photo of Ian Hollis, MBACP, Counsellor
Ian Hollis
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Norwich NR1
I specialise in helping YOU find a way through the many feelings of loss you may be experiencing, whether that’s through bereavement, relationships difficulties, or the overwhelm of just feeling lost. Together we can find a way forward. Perhaps you are struggling with things that seem out of your control, or feelings of isolation. Maybe you have become used to giving the ‘I’m OK’ image but really struggling to carry on that persona right now? Has life for you been taking its toll, leaving you feeling sad, anxious, frustrated, angry or worthless?
I specialise in helping YOU find a way through the many feelings of loss you may be experiencing, whether that’s through bereavement, relationships difficulties, or the overwhelm of just feeling lost. Together we can find a way forward. Perhaps you are struggling with things that seem out of your control, or feelings of isolation. Maybe you have become used to giving the ‘I’m OK’ image but really struggling to carry on that persona right now? Has life for you been taking its toll, leaving you feeling sad, anxious, frustrated, angry or worthless?
01603 361984 View 01603 361984
Photo of undefined - Sam Tawn, MBACP, Counsellor
Sam Tawn
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Norwich NR2  (Online Only)
Working and being trained in the Person-Centred approach (PCA), means offering and holding a space of understanding, acceptance and authenticity, that is ultimately led by you. It's an approach that I feel attuned to due to it’s philosophy, its attempts to address power and how it can facilitate people in their process and journey of change, whatever that may be. My counselling is based on a relationship where we work together but you decide what we talk about and the direction of the therapy.
Working and being trained in the Person-Centred approach (PCA), means offering and holding a space of understanding, acceptance and authenticity, that is ultimately led by you. It's an approach that I feel attuned to due to it’s philosophy, its attempts to address power and how it can facilitate people in their process and journey of change, whatever that may be. My counselling is based on a relationship where we work together but you decide what we talk about and the direction of the therapy.
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Photo of undefined - Broadland Counselling Practice
Broadland Counselling Practice
Verified Verified
Norwich NR2
Hi, my name is Julie and I am a person-centred counsellor. I work from both Beccles and Norwich Whether  you are suffering from anxiety, nerves or depression, trauma or abuse, I can help you look at these issues.   You may have an important life decision to make, that you need to find the answers for. I offer a compassionate, confidential and empathic approach whether working with adults, children and all genders and sexualities facilitating you in making positive life changes.  As a person-centred therapist, I work alongside you as my client, going at your pace, whilst gaining an empathic and authentic understanding of your life.
Hi, my name is Julie and I am a person-centred counsellor. I work from both Beccles and Norwich Whether  you are suffering from anxiety, nerves or depression, trauma or abuse, I can help you look at these issues.   You may have an important life decision to make, that you need to find the answers for. I offer a compassionate, confidential and empathic approach whether working with adults, children and all genders and sexualities facilitating you in making positive life changes.  As a person-centred therapist, I work alongside you as my client, going at your pace, whilst gaining an empathic and authentic understanding of your life.
01502 449450 View 01502 449450

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Cringleford

< 10

Counsellors in Cringleford who prioritize treating:

100% Relationship Issues
100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Anger Management
100% Behavioural Issues
100% Emotional Disturbance
100% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

6 Years

Gender breakdown

66% Male
34% Female

How Counsellors in Cringleford see their clients

100% In Person and Online
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Cringleford?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.