Counselling in Chippenham

Photo of Rebecca Worsley, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Rebecca Worsley
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Chippenham SN15
Are you struggling with low self esteem, depression or anxiety? Perhaps life feels overwhelming and that everyone else is coping but you aren't? This is often the experience if you have ADHD. Or are you struggling to come to terms with a breakdown within your family or something life-altering, like losing your job, a friend, or perhaps an illness or a death? Whatever your challenge, please know that help is available.
Are you struggling with low self esteem, depression or anxiety? Perhaps life feels overwhelming and that everyone else is coping but you aren't? This is often the experience if you have ADHD. Or are you struggling to come to terms with a breakdown within your family or something life-altering, like losing your job, a friend, or perhaps an illness or a death? Whatever your challenge, please know that help is available.
07768 125451 View 07768 125451
Photo of Open Couch Counselling, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Open Couch Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN15  (Online Only)
Do things feel tough right now? Maybe they've felt tough for a while? It's not always clear why how we feel starts to change over time but that uncertainty can get in the way of how we live, work and enjoy life. And then there are times when we do know and all we want is for someone to listen. Whether you're feeling anxious, depressed, grieving or questioning your own identity or sense of self you don't have to do it alone. I'm here to help you work things through, at a pace that suits you, and always with you're best interests in mind.
Do things feel tough right now? Maybe they've felt tough for a while? It's not always clear why how we feel starts to change over time but that uncertainty can get in the way of how we live, work and enjoy life. And then there are times when we do know and all we want is for someone to listen. Whether you're feeling anxious, depressed, grieving or questioning your own identity or sense of self you don't have to do it alone. I'm here to help you work things through, at a pace that suits you, and always with you're best interests in mind.
01249 470138 View 01249 470138
Photo of Dr Flora Wilson - Wilson Psychology Ltd, Psychologist in Chippenham, England
Dr Flora Wilson - Wilson Psychology Ltd
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I specialise in working with adults who are living with the impact of long-term physical health conditions. I have many years' experience of working in specialist health services for a range difficulties, including chronic pain, chronic fatigue (ME/CFS and Long Covid), respiratory conditions, neurological conditions, and diabetes. When you are diagnosed with a long-term health condition, this can often lead to significant life changes. I am experienced in supporting people to process the feelings of loss, low mood, or anxiety that can accompany these changes, and to better manage their physical and psychological wellbeing.
I specialise in working with adults who are living with the impact of long-term physical health conditions. I have many years' experience of working in specialist health services for a range difficulties, including chronic pain, chronic fatigue (ME/CFS and Long Covid), respiratory conditions, neurological conditions, and diabetes. When you are diagnosed with a long-term health condition, this can often lead to significant life changes. I am experienced in supporting people to process the feelings of loss, low mood, or anxiety that can accompany these changes, and to better manage their physical and psychological wellbeing.
01249 479431 View 01249 479431
Photo of Byron Harris, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Byron Harris
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Chippenham SN14
As a trauma informed, pluralistic counselor and Supervisor, I'm honored to be able to offer my support and guidance as you navigate through life's challenges. With over 6 years of experience as a counselor and counseling trainer, I understand the importance of building a trusting and safe relationship with my clients. I approach each session with a warm and logical mindset, providing a space where you can feel comfortable sharing your thoughts and emotions. Whether it be through online, phone or in-person consultations, I offer the support and assistance you need to work through any issue you may be facing.
As a trauma informed, pluralistic counselor and Supervisor, I'm honored to be able to offer my support and guidance as you navigate through life's challenges. With over 6 years of experience as a counselor and counseling trainer, I understand the importance of building a trusting and safe relationship with my clients. I approach each session with a warm and logical mindset, providing a space where you can feel comfortable sharing your thoughts and emotions. Whether it be through online, phone or in-person consultations, I offer the support and assistance you need to work through any issue you may be facing.
01249 477775 View 01249 477775
Photo of Dr Sharon Harvey in Chippenham, England
Dr Sharon Harvey
PsychD
Chippenham SN15
I am a Clinical Psychologist with 22 years’ experience in the NHS in secondary care adult mental health services in Wiltshire and in private practice. I am experienced in providing psychological therapy to individuals across a wide range of distress, including anxiety/mood problems, relational difficulties and the impact of childhood trauma. I have a particular interest in trauma, shame-base difficulties and perinatal issues. I have professional registration with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC), the regulatory body for Practitioner Psychologists.
I am a Clinical Psychologist with 22 years’ experience in the NHS in secondary care adult mental health services in Wiltshire and in private practice. I am experienced in providing psychological therapy to individuals across a wide range of distress, including anxiety/mood problems, relational difficulties and the impact of childhood trauma. I have a particular interest in trauma, shame-base difficulties and perinatal issues. I have professional registration with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC), the regulatory body for Practitioner Psychologists.
01249 479157 View 01249 479157
Photo of Donna Linden, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Donna Linden
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Welcome. I am guessing this may have been a difficult step for you but I hope it is the first on working through whatever is on your mind at this time. I am an Integrative Counsellor with strong foundations in Person Centred therapy - I believe you know YOU better than anyone. I would be privileged to support you whilst you explore the things on your mind. The strength of our therapeutic relationship is paramount so we can have an initial 30 minute session to make sure you feel comfortable that I am the right counsellor for you. We would also look at any goals you would like to achieve.
Welcome. I am guessing this may have been a difficult step for you but I hope it is the first on working through whatever is on your mind at this time. I am an Integrative Counsellor with strong foundations in Person Centred therapy - I believe you know YOU better than anyone. I would be privileged to support you whilst you explore the things on your mind. The strength of our therapeutic relationship is paramount so we can have an initial 30 minute session to make sure you feel comfortable that I am the right counsellor for you. We would also look at any goals you would like to achieve.
01249 911042 View 01249 911042
Photo of Helen Sanderson-Davies, Psychotherapist in Chippenham, England
Helen Sanderson-Davies
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN15  (Online Only)
If you are like most people, you are probably considering therapy because you want to change something. This might be the way you feel or behave; it might be how you believe other people see you, or how you see yourself. It might be things you think about or dwell upon, or the way you get on (or don’t) with others. Whatever it is, individual therapy provides a space to talk about what it is you want to change and to learn how to bring that change about. A space that is safe, confidential and non-judgemental. As your therapist I see myself as someone who can support you on all aspects of your life journey.
If you are like most people, you are probably considering therapy because you want to change something. This might be the way you feel or behave; it might be how you believe other people see you, or how you see yourself. It might be things you think about or dwell upon, or the way you get on (or don’t) with others. Whatever it is, individual therapy provides a space to talk about what it is you want to change and to learn how to bring that change about. A space that is safe, confidential and non-judgemental. As your therapist I see myself as someone who can support you on all aspects of your life journey.
01225 434432 View 01225 434432
Photo of Ricky Brown, Psychotherapist in Chippenham, England
Ricky Brown
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I trained as a psychotherapist later in life following a previous career working with vulnerable individuals. Coupled with my now extensive psychotherapeutic training, I am a knowledgeable, conscientious and empathetic individual whom is well respected within the field.
I trained as a psychotherapist later in life following a previous career working with vulnerable individuals. Coupled with my now extensive psychotherapeutic training, I am a knowledgeable, conscientious and empathetic individual whom is well respected within the field.
01748 901333 View 01748 901333
Photo of Healing Steps Counselling, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Healing Steps Counselling
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I am a warm hearted, open-minded individual who understands how difficult taking the first steps into counselling can sometimes be. Many people have 'life events' that bring them to counselling such as relationship breakdown, bereavement, or redundancy. Often feelings that accompany these life events can lead to depression and anxiety. Or it may be that suppressed or undesired feelings keep recurring, leading to painful repeating patterns of behavior or outcomes in your life. My role in your therapeutic journey is to facilitate your awareness, to gently challenge perspective where appropriate and to walk alongside you at your pace.
I am a warm hearted, open-minded individual who understands how difficult taking the first steps into counselling can sometimes be. Many people have 'life events' that bring them to counselling such as relationship breakdown, bereavement, or redundancy. Often feelings that accompany these life events can lead to depression and anxiety. Or it may be that suppressed or undesired feelings keep recurring, leading to painful repeating patterns of behavior or outcomes in your life. My role in your therapeutic journey is to facilitate your awareness, to gently challenge perspective where appropriate and to walk alongside you at your pace.
01225 541124 View 01225 541124
Photo of Kathryn Dugdale, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Kathryn Dugdale
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I provide counselling from my private practice at my home in Melksham, Wiltshire. This is a private room providing a safe and confidential space for our work together. I can offer various daytime and evening appointments throughout the week. My training helps me to provide you with a reliable, regular, non-judgmental space where you can begin to talk about whatever is on your mind. I work in what is called an integrative way, using a wide range of therapeutic models, but primarily focusing on humanistic counselling.
I provide counselling from my private practice at my home in Melksham, Wiltshire. This is a private room providing a safe and confidential space for our work together. I can offer various daytime and evening appointments throughout the week. My training helps me to provide you with a reliable, regular, non-judgmental space where you can begin to talk about whatever is on your mind. I work in what is called an integrative way, using a wide range of therapeutic models, but primarily focusing on humanistic counselling.
07403 940315 View 07403 940315
Photo of Tina Hoar Counselling Services, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Tina Hoar Counselling Services
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Are you struggling at present? At times we can all experience anxiety, stress, depression, feeling sad, anger or family or relationship issues which make us feel alone. Sometimes we can become trapped by this and feel unable to move forward, whatever age we are! If this is you, you are not alone. The most up to date statistics tell us, 30% people will experience anxiety or depression at some point in their lives especially in wintertime Together we will seek to understand the problem you are facing whether this is caused by current issues or events from your past. We will find new ways and skills to deal with your feelings.
Are you struggling at present? At times we can all experience anxiety, stress, depression, feeling sad, anger or family or relationship issues which make us feel alone. Sometimes we can become trapped by this and feel unable to move forward, whatever age we are! If this is you, you are not alone. The most up to date statistics tell us, 30% people will experience anxiety or depression at some point in their lives especially in wintertime Together we will seek to understand the problem you are facing whether this is caused by current issues or events from your past. We will find new ways and skills to deal with your feelings.
01249 479882 View 01249 479882
Photo of Neil Carrigan, Psychologist in Chippenham, England
Neil Carrigan
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Waitlist for new clients
Depression, fear, and anxiety are some of the most common and uncomfortable emotions that we can experience at points in our lives. Through treatment, I can help you (re)gain motivation, perspective, and joy in your life. I worked in the NHS for many years in both primary and secondary care mental health services with adults over 18yrs. I am a registered Clinical Psychologist with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and a Chartered Clinical Psychologist with the British Psychological Society (BPS). I am also a fully accredited CBT Therapist.
Depression, fear, and anxiety are some of the most common and uncomfortable emotions that we can experience at points in our lives. Through treatment, I can help you (re)gain motivation, perspective, and joy in your life. I worked in the NHS for many years in both primary and secondary care mental health services with adults over 18yrs. I am a registered Clinical Psychologist with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and a Chartered Clinical Psychologist with the British Psychological Society (BPS). I am also a fully accredited CBT Therapist.
01249 477625 View 01249 477625
Photo of Michael Darvill, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Michael Darvill
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Chippenham SN14
If you're reading this, then you're most likely struggling right now. You might be feeling anxious, depressed or low. You may be angry, sad or stressed by a certain situation in your life. Maybe you've lost direction and meaning, and feel stuck as a result. Or lost someone important to you, either through a bereavement or relationship breakdown. Feelings of despair, fear or hurt can be overwhelming. But...you've started the process of addressing these issues by looking for a counsellor. You've taken the first step. Together, in a collaborative effort, we can look at what is bothering you and attempt to find a way through.
If you're reading this, then you're most likely struggling right now. You might be feeling anxious, depressed or low. You may be angry, sad or stressed by a certain situation in your life. Maybe you've lost direction and meaning, and feel stuck as a result. Or lost someone important to you, either through a bereavement or relationship breakdown. Feelings of despair, fear or hurt can be overwhelming. But...you've started the process of addressing these issues by looking for a counsellor. You've taken the first step. Together, in a collaborative effort, we can look at what is bothering you and attempt to find a way through.
01225 697254 View 01225 697254
Photo of Dr Emma Hartley, Psychologist in Chippenham, England
Dr Emma Hartley
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I specialise in EMDR and Trauma Focused Interventions. I have specific expertise in working with people with trauma related mental health conditions such as PTSD, childhood trauma, domestic violence, dissociative difficulties and psychosis. I offer an integrative approach to therapy drawing heavily on attachment and trauma- informed ways of understanding how difficulties in the here and now often have their origins in earlier life experiences. I believe that effective therapy should be empowering, focused and meaningful and built upon the foundation of a strong therapeutic relationship.
I specialise in EMDR and Trauma Focused Interventions. I have specific expertise in working with people with trauma related mental health conditions such as PTSD, childhood trauma, domestic violence, dissociative difficulties and psychosis. I offer an integrative approach to therapy drawing heavily on attachment and trauma- informed ways of understanding how difficulties in the here and now often have their origins in earlier life experiences. I believe that effective therapy should be empowering, focused and meaningful and built upon the foundation of a strong therapeutic relationship.
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Photo of Jakki Doust, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Jakki Doust
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Chippenham SN14
I have been working as a counsellor for the past 17 years and work with clients from age 17 years and above. I have a warm and empathic way of being and my aim is to provide you with a confidential and safe space where you can talk through your problems freely, we can work through your difficulties together and I will support you in finding a way forward. I will adapt the therapy to suit your needs drawing on my training and experience, your therapy can be either short of long-term, I am committed to working in the best way for you.
I have been working as a counsellor for the past 17 years and work with clients from age 17 years and above. I have a warm and empathic way of being and my aim is to provide you with a confidential and safe space where you can talk through your problems freely, we can work through your difficulties together and I will support you in finding a way forward. I will adapt the therapy to suit your needs drawing on my training and experience, your therapy can be either short of long-term, I am committed to working in the best way for you.
01793 540147 View 01793 540147
Photo of Dr Kiran Spence, Psychologist in Chippenham, England
Dr Kiran Spence
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Chippenham SN15
I am a highly skilled Clinical Psychologist with 19 years experience working in the NHS within adult mental health and physical health services. I am collaborative and flexible in my approach, drawing on a range of approaches to ensure therapy is best suited to your individual needs and goals. I aim to support you to develop an understanding of your difficulties, and develop the necessary strategies to make the changes needed to work towards your goals and values in life.
I am a highly skilled Clinical Psychologist with 19 years experience working in the NHS within adult mental health and physical health services. I am collaborative and flexible in my approach, drawing on a range of approaches to ensure therapy is best suited to your individual needs and goals. I aim to support you to develop an understanding of your difficulties, and develop the necessary strategies to make the changes needed to work towards your goals and values in life.
01380 717476 View 01380 717476
Photo of Claire Crocker, Psychotherapist in Chippenham, England
Claire Crocker
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Life can be really tough at times. We can all go through periods when we feel we are constantly struggling to cope, and there are many different reasons why you might want to come to see a psychotherapist. You might be facing issues in the present, like relationship difficulties, bereavement or a health scare, or feeling overwhelmed by global events and challenges. Maybe you’re dealing with anxiety or depression, or feeling troubled by past events and experiences like abuse, violence or problematic relationships. Maybe you’re working though issues connected with gender, sexuality or identity generally.
Life can be really tough at times. We can all go through periods when we feel we are constantly struggling to cope, and there are many different reasons why you might want to come to see a psychotherapist. You might be facing issues in the present, like relationship difficulties, bereavement or a health scare, or feeling overwhelmed by global events and challenges. Maybe you’re dealing with anxiety or depression, or feeling troubled by past events and experiences like abuse, violence or problematic relationships. Maybe you’re working though issues connected with gender, sexuality or identity generally.
01225 434954 View 01225 434954
Photo of Naomi Greenwood, Psychotherapist in Chippenham, England
Naomi Greenwood
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Our true nature is free, flowing, wild and energetic. Childhood traumas create defences, because our survival instinct was so strong it protected us at all costs. The cost is our experience now, disconnection from our-self, our body, others, life. Resulting in difficult relationships, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and self harming behaviors. The decision to come to therapy is a brave one, it is a statement to yourself and the Universe that you no longer want to just survive, but to live with more ease, connection and aliveness. The therapeutic relationship encourages this life force energy, giving space for wholeness to grow.
Our true nature is free, flowing, wild and energetic. Childhood traumas create defences, because our survival instinct was so strong it protected us at all costs. The cost is our experience now, disconnection from our-self, our body, others, life. Resulting in difficult relationships, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and self harming behaviors. The decision to come to therapy is a brave one, it is a statement to yourself and the Universe that you no longer want to just survive, but to live with more ease, connection and aliveness. The therapeutic relationship encourages this life force energy, giving space for wholeness to grow.
01225 435184 View 01225 435184
Photo of Rewired Counselling, Psychotherapist in Chippenham, England
Rewired Counselling
Psychotherapist, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Chippenham SN14
Sometimes in life, the public face we present can be very different to the private experience behind the mask. Our emotional distress can get in the way of us being able to live our life fully. I offer a safe space to reveal the private experience and change the narrative. After gaining an understanding of what you are going through, together we build ways to help improve your mood and get you doing what you want to be doing.
Sometimes in life, the public face we present can be very different to the private experience behind the mask. Our emotional distress can get in the way of us being able to live our life fully. I offer a safe space to reveal the private experience and change the narrative. After gaining an understanding of what you are going through, together we build ways to help improve your mood and get you doing what you want to be doing.
07971 809123 View 07971 809123
Photo of Michaela Pain, Counsellor in Chippenham, England
Michaela Pain
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Chippenham SN14
Hi, I’m Michaela. I am a qualified counsellor and psychotherapist. I work online or from my bases in Tavistock and Lifton, Devon. If you are 18 years old or over and you are struggling to manage in your everyday life because of anxiety, depression, trauma, abuse, grief, or other situation, please get in touch. Choosing a counsellor at such a time can be difficult and confusing. I can offer you a safe and confidential space to explore the things that concern you. Talking helps.
Hi, I’m Michaela. I am a qualified counsellor and psychotherapist. I work online or from my bases in Tavistock and Lifton, Devon. If you are 18 years old or over and you are struggling to manage in your everyday life because of anxiety, depression, trauma, abuse, grief, or other situation, please get in touch. Choosing a counsellor at such a time can be difficult and confusing. I can offer you a safe and confidential space to explore the things that concern you. Talking helps.
01822 667985 View 01822 667985

See more therapy options for Chippenham

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Chippenham

40+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Chippenham who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
84% Self Esteem
84% Stress
67% Relationship Issues
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

60% AXA PPP
60% Bupa
50% Aviva

How Counsellors in Chippenham see their clients

91% In Person and Online
9% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
22% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Chippenham?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.