Counselling in Chester

Photo of Sophie Santolaria, MSc, HCPC-Art Therap., Psychotherapist
Sophie Santolaria
Psychotherapist, MSc, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chester CH1
After a decade in the UK, including Manchester, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, I now call Montpellier home. My diverse living experiences help me offer tailored support to expatriates and those navigating different cultures. As a therapist, I prioritize inclusivity, especially for the LGBTQI+ community. Fluent in French and English, I provide in-person (in Montpellier) and online therapy. As a trained Yin Yoga and Restorative Yoga teacher, I take a holistic approach, supporting individuals with issues like anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship challenges. I welcome supervisees and art therapy students.
After a decade in the UK, including Manchester, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, I now call Montpellier home. My diverse living experiences help me offer tailored support to expatriates and those navigating different cultures. As a therapist, I prioritize inclusivity, especially for the LGBTQI+ community. Fluent in French and English, I provide in-person (in Montpellier) and online therapy. As a trained Yin Yoga and Restorative Yoga teacher, I take a holistic approach, supporting individuals with issues like anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship challenges. I welcome supervisees and art therapy students.
0131 381 2183 View 0131 381 2183
Photo of Hefina Thorne, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Hefina Thorne
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
Hello, Welcome to my profile. I'd like to begin by telling you that I have the privilege of providing a confidential, safe, non-judgemental space to individuals of all ages, a place to share whatever they choose allowing me to help them through difficult times and issues in their lives. Only the person knows what they are experiencing and have experienced making them the experts of their own lives. I am a facilitator, offering the space to enable healing, growth and change. The therapeutic relationship stands above all else. My place in the therapy room is to help you discover the answers and a way forward that best suits you.
Hello, Welcome to my profile. I'd like to begin by telling you that I have the privilege of providing a confidential, safe, non-judgemental space to individuals of all ages, a place to share whatever they choose allowing me to help them through difficult times and issues in their lives. Only the person knows what they are experiencing and have experienced making them the experts of their own lives. I am a facilitator, offering the space to enable healing, growth and change. The therapeutic relationship stands above all else. My place in the therapy room is to help you discover the answers and a way forward that best suits you.
01244 563076 View 01244 563076
Photo of Cathy McAllister, MBACP, Counsellor
Cathy McAllister
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH1  (Online Only)
As a fully qualified Integrative and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Counsellor, I work with different approaches which can help you through your journey. I work with clients with a variety of issues, including: anxiety, stress, depression, issues related to trauma, bullying, confidence/self-esteem. My commitment to you involves offering you an environment which is safe, warm, empathic, non-judgemental and confidential, in order to offer an opportunity to make sense of your past experiences, as well as current dilemmas; discovering how they affect your life today and exploring whether or not they relevant or not.
As a fully qualified Integrative and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Counsellor, I work with different approaches which can help you through your journey. I work with clients with a variety of issues, including: anxiety, stress, depression, issues related to trauma, bullying, confidence/self-esteem. My commitment to you involves offering you an environment which is safe, warm, empathic, non-judgemental and confidential, in order to offer an opportunity to make sense of your past experiences, as well as current dilemmas; discovering how they affect your life today and exploring whether or not they relevant or not.
01244 566314 View 01244 566314
Photo of Andy Singleton, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Andy Singleton
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
Hi (and thanks for taking the time to view my profile and learn a little more about me). My name is Andy, I am a psychotherapist with over 15 years’ experience working in counselling and therapy.I am a BACP accredited psychotherapist working with children, young people and adults. Prior to establishing Head Camp Counselling, I worked therapeutically within the NHS (CAMHS), a well-established Chester based Psychology service, Children’s Services and a highly subscribed school-based counselling service.
Hi (and thanks for taking the time to view my profile and learn a little more about me). My name is Andy, I am a psychotherapist with over 15 years’ experience working in counselling and therapy.I am a BACP accredited psychotherapist working with children, young people and adults. Prior to establishing Head Camp Counselling, I worked therapeutically within the NHS (CAMHS), a well-established Chester based Psychology service, Children’s Services and a highly subscribed school-based counselling service.
0151 453 4047 View 0151 453 4047
Photo of Hannah Thomas, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Hannah Thomas
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Chester CH1  (Online Only)
Whether you are struggling from a difficult situation, battling with your relationship with food, feeling low and lacking motivation or you feel restless and worried. I can give you a safe space to talk and guide you through coping strategies to overcome your difficulties to achieve a more fulfilling life.
Whether you are struggling from a difficult situation, battling with your relationship with food, feeling low and lacking motivation or you feel restless and worried. I can give you a safe space to talk and guide you through coping strategies to overcome your difficulties to achieve a more fulfilling life.
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Photo of Amanda Wiles, MBACP, Counsellor
Amanda Wiles
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
Hello How are You today? How many times are you asked but not heard? I will listen and hear how You are today. The core of my practice is the therapeutic relationship, I will respect, support, and hold an honest empathic space for you where we can explore and understand your feelings. Perhaps there are feelings of not fitting in, a round peg and square hole may come to mind, anxieties and depression may feel normality and a wanting to change. We can walk together through your feelings and emotions to find who you are and where you want to be.
Hello How are You today? How many times are you asked but not heard? I will listen and hear how You are today. The core of my practice is the therapeutic relationship, I will respect, support, and hold an honest empathic space for you where we can explore and understand your feelings. Perhaps there are feelings of not fitting in, a round peg and square hole may come to mind, anxieties and depression may feel normality and a wanting to change. We can walk together through your feelings and emotions to find who you are and where you want to be.
0151 453 4235 View 0151 453 4235
Photo of Neal Edwards - Counselling & Psychotherapy in Chester, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Counselling & Psychotherapy in Chester
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH2
Not accepting new clients
Making sense of life can be challenging at times. We might find ourselves contemplating if we are causing ourselves unnecessary unhappiness, or if this is just the way things are? Or, wondering if I should just keep sticking at 'it', or is it time for things to change? We might question if our feelings are important? (They might overwhelm us!) Or should I just listen to my thoughts instead? Should we try to forget about the past, or is it helpful to understand it? Might we be living our lives in 'survival mode' when we could be 'thriving' instead?
Making sense of life can be challenging at times. We might find ourselves contemplating if we are causing ourselves unnecessary unhappiness, or if this is just the way things are? Or, wondering if I should just keep sticking at 'it', or is it time for things to change? We might question if our feelings are important? (They might overwhelm us!) Or should I just listen to my thoughts instead? Should we try to forget about the past, or is it helpful to understand it? Might we be living our lives in 'survival mode' when we could be 'thriving' instead?
01244 667419 View 01244 667419
Photo of Helen Bell -  Helen  Bell , MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Helen Bell
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH3
I am a warm and empathic, person-centered counsellor registered with the BACP. I support adults of all backgrounds and ages both online and in person. I have experience working with bereavement, life transitions and loss, relationship challenges, work-related stress, and low self-esteem. I also have specific experience in helping individuals cope with the loss of a beloved pet. I offer a space where you are genuinely seen, heard, and understood. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, navigating tough decisions, or feeling adrift, I provide a safe and nurturing environment for you to explore your concerns.
I am a warm and empathic, person-centered counsellor registered with the BACP. I support adults of all backgrounds and ages both online and in person. I have experience working with bereavement, life transitions and loss, relationship challenges, work-related stress, and low self-esteem. I also have specific experience in helping individuals cope with the loss of a beloved pet. I offer a space where you are genuinely seen, heard, and understood. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, navigating tough decisions, or feeling adrift, I provide a safe and nurturing environment for you to explore your concerns.
01270 447751 View 01270 447751
Photo of Sophie Littler, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Sophie Littler
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
I am a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and have had training and experience in many different types of psychological therapy. This enables me to offer individualised care based on the person i'm working with rather than treating people based on a generic diagnosis or label.
I am a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and have had training and experience in many different types of psychological therapy. This enables me to offer individualised care based on the person i'm working with rather than treating people based on a generic diagnosis or label.
01244 886961 View 01244 886961
Photo of Dr Lucy Flitton, PhD, FMBPsS, Psychologist
Dr Lucy Flitton
Psychologist, PhD, FMBPsS
Verified Verified
Chester CH4  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Hello and welcome. My name is Lucy Flitton, owner of Wellness Springs Therapy. I am a Psychologist, Integrative Psychotherapist, and philosophical coach, based on Humanistic Existential philosophy. My background as a Developmental Psychologist helps me apply a life course perspective to my therapeutic work, which aims to alleviate psychological distress. Based on Existential principles concerning the human need to acquire a 'personal authentic sense of self' my coaching practice enables people acquire the opportunity to fulfil their potential and become the best they can be via improved self-awareness and learned hopefulness.
Hello and welcome. My name is Lucy Flitton, owner of Wellness Springs Therapy. I am a Psychologist, Integrative Psychotherapist, and philosophical coach, based on Humanistic Existential philosophy. My background as a Developmental Psychologist helps me apply a life course perspective to my therapeutic work, which aims to alleviate psychological distress. Based on Existential principles concerning the human need to acquire a 'personal authentic sense of self' my coaching practice enables people acquire the opportunity to fulfil their potential and become the best they can be via improved self-awareness and learned hopefulness.
01244 564148 View 01244 564148
Photo of Therese Dunne Mbacp (Accred), MSc, Counsellor
Therese Dunne Mbacp (Accred)
Counsellor, MSc
Verified Verified
Chester CH1  (Online Only)
For some of us, it can take years to reach out for help and I understand that. When a client contacts me, I know its a big step. Regardless of your past, your family and your story, I believe that you have the ability to heal and thrive in your life. I am trained and experienced to sit with you to help you find YOUR answers. Together we go on a journey of discovery to see how you have got to where you are today but most importantly how you can find your power and strength to overcome your challenges. You deserve to be healthy, happy and at peace. You do not need to be in serious crisis to go for therapy.
For some of us, it can take years to reach out for help and I understand that. When a client contacts me, I know its a big step. Regardless of your past, your family and your story, I believe that you have the ability to heal and thrive in your life. I am trained and experienced to sit with you to help you find YOUR answers. Together we go on a journey of discovery to see how you have got to where you are today but most importantly how you can find your power and strength to overcome your challenges. You deserve to be healthy, happy and at peace. You do not need to be in serious crisis to go for therapy.
01244 470425 View 01244 470425
Photo of Lena Fiebrantz, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Lena Fiebrantz
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chester CH1  (Online Only)
I don't know what brings you here today but looking for counselling and finding the right therapist takes courage. Life can be hard and asking for support is difficult at times. My goal is to make sure you feel seen and heard. Whatever you are struggling with, whether it is a troubling memory that doesn't seem to leave you alone, a day to day struggle that you feel is holding you back, an experience you're dealing with and didn't think you'd face, or if you're feeling at the end of yourself - talking about these things is a huge step toward resolving your issues and moving to a place of thriving in the life you want to live.
I don't know what brings you here today but looking for counselling and finding the right therapist takes courage. Life can be hard and asking for support is difficult at times. My goal is to make sure you feel seen and heard. Whatever you are struggling with, whether it is a troubling memory that doesn't seem to leave you alone, a day to day struggle that you feel is holding you back, an experience you're dealing with and didn't think you'd face, or if you're feeling at the end of yourself - talking about these things is a huge step toward resolving your issues and moving to a place of thriving in the life you want to live.
01244 562076 View 01244 562076
Photo of Kieran Lee, MHGI, Psychotherapist
Kieran Lee
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
Mental health doesn't have to be scary! I want to take the fear out of mental health and first help you understand your own...what makes you tick and what's stopping you from ticking? When we understand how to manage our mental health, we can structure our lives to fulfil us in the long and short term. Whatever you're struggling with right now, we will work to uncover that sense of self you might have lost.
Mental health doesn't have to be scary! I want to take the fear out of mental health and first help you understand your own...what makes you tick and what's stopping you from ticking? When we understand how to manage our mental health, we can structure our lives to fulfil us in the long and short term. Whatever you're struggling with right now, we will work to uncover that sense of self you might have lost.
01244 662324 View 01244 662324
Photo of Lucinda Milne, MBACP, Counsellor
Lucinda Milne
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH4
I know how important it is to look after our emotional well being irrespective of age. Stresses, strains and anxieties can hit at anytime. It maybe a current situation or something from our past which impacts on our ability to manage our current situation. Even anticipation of future events can impact on us at an emotional level. There are many reasons why counselling can be beneficial including low self-esteem, low self-confidence, bullying, family issues, bereavement, infant loss, relationship issues, and anger to name but a few, It takes strength and courage to acknowledge you may need help.
I know how important it is to look after our emotional well being irrespective of age. Stresses, strains and anxieties can hit at anytime. It maybe a current situation or something from our past which impacts on our ability to manage our current situation. Even anticipation of future events can impact on us at an emotional level. There are many reasons why counselling can be beneficial including low self-esteem, low self-confidence, bullying, family issues, bereavement, infant loss, relationship issues, and anger to name but a few, It takes strength and courage to acknowledge you may need help.
01244 470196 View 01244 470196
Photo of Collette Howarth, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Collette Howarth
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Chester CH2
Hello my name is Collette. I have over 20 years’ experience in the field of mental health with a special interest in low self-esteem, trauma, including PTSD, depression, generalised anxiety, OCD, illness anxiety and phobias. I have an MSc in Advanced Practice of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), am a qualified counsellor, counselling supervisor and EMDR practitioner (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing). I work with clients to achieve their goals from therapy.
Hello my name is Collette. I have over 20 years’ experience in the field of mental health with a special interest in low self-esteem, trauma, including PTSD, depression, generalised anxiety, OCD, illness anxiety and phobias. I have an MSc in Advanced Practice of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), am a qualified counsellor, counselling supervisor and EMDR practitioner (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing). I work with clients to achieve their goals from therapy.
01244 987997 View 01244 987997
Photo of Colette Johnson, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Colette Johnson
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH4
Are you feeling conflicted or confused? Have you lost direction or any sense of enjoyment? Is it getting harder to connect with day-to-day life? It can feel painful to acknowledge that the life you have been living may not be meeting your needs and this can create feelings of sadness, anxiety, frustration and helplessness.
Are you feeling conflicted or confused? Have you lost direction or any sense of enjoyment? Is it getting harder to connect with day-to-day life? It can feel painful to acknowledge that the life you have been living may not be meeting your needs and this can create feelings of sadness, anxiety, frustration and helplessness.
01244 735042 View 01244 735042
Photo of Dr Lisa Paul, PhD, BACP, Psychotherapist
Dr Lisa Paul
Psychotherapist, PhD, BACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
Hi, I'm Lisa and I am a person-centred therapist. I initially trained as a psychologist but more recently I qualified as a counsellor and psychotherapist. I have worked with a variety of issues, including mental health problems, ADHD, autism, relationship issues, dementia, and learning disabilities amongst others. Often there might be a combination of several difficulties which is impacting upon someone, and I am experienced in working with people where there are more complex issues.
Hi, I'm Lisa and I am a person-centred therapist. I initially trained as a psychologist but more recently I qualified as a counsellor and psychotherapist. I have worked with a variety of issues, including mental health problems, ADHD, autism, relationship issues, dementia, and learning disabilities amongst others. Often there might be a combination of several difficulties which is impacting upon someone, and I am experienced in working with people where there are more complex issues.
01244 667281 View 01244 667281
All Well And Good
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Chester CH1
We are a team of therapists so no matter what it is that you are facing right now, we can offer a nurturing and compassionate space to explore so you don't have to feel alone. Whether you are looking for support with low mood, help with overcoming a terrible feeling of anxiety, if you struggle with eating, sleeping, socialising, motivation or even just getting out of bed in the morning to face the day... we understand. If life has always been hard or you're going through a really difficult time just now, or if you objectively think "life is great, I don't understand why I'm feeling like this?". We can help.
We are a team of therapists so no matter what it is that you are facing right now, we can offer a nurturing and compassionate space to explore so you don't have to feel alone. Whether you are looking for support with low mood, help with overcoming a terrible feeling of anxiety, if you struggle with eating, sleeping, socialising, motivation or even just getting out of bed in the morning to face the day... we understand. If life has always been hard or you're going through a really difficult time just now, or if you objectively think "life is great, I don't understand why I'm feeling like this?". We can help.
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Photo of Nadia Bakir, MBACP, Counsellor
Nadia Bakir
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Chester CH4  (Online Only)
If you have ongoing difficulties in your life that are causing you pain and unhappiness then I am here to help support you to a better way of being. This may be down to life circumstances, work stress, relationship difficulties, or trauma, but I promise to be able to work with you to bring about a happier, healthier self. You may be strugglingly with confidence, low self worth, anxiety and stress, which, using the tools I can provide, we will explore these barriers together to develop more confidence, happiness, and a love for your authentic self, so that you can enjoy life like you deserve.
If you have ongoing difficulties in your life that are causing you pain and unhappiness then I am here to help support you to a better way of being. This may be down to life circumstances, work stress, relationship difficulties, or trauma, but I promise to be able to work with you to bring about a happier, healthier self. You may be strugglingly with confidence, low self worth, anxiety and stress, which, using the tools I can provide, we will explore these barriers together to develop more confidence, happiness, and a love for your authentic self, so that you can enjoy life like you deserve.
0116 464 9513 View 0116 464 9513
Photo of Jill Wasley Cbt Therapist, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Jill Wasley Cbt Therapist
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Chester CH3
Asking for help is not easy but making that first step can feel really positive. I am an experienced BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and work to help people (including children and young people) who are experiencing a range of issues including generalised anxiety, social anxiety, OCD, and depression, as well as other difficulties. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy focuses on the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviours, especially the way that unhelpful thoughts lead to and maintain distressing feelings and behaviours that can be a problem for some people and their families.
Asking for help is not easy but making that first step can feel really positive. I am an experienced BABCP accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and work to help people (including children and young people) who are experiencing a range of issues including generalised anxiety, social anxiety, OCD, and depression, as well as other difficulties. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy focuses on the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviours, especially the way that unhelpful thoughts lead to and maintain distressing feelings and behaviours that can be a problem for some people and their families.
01244 662590 View 01244 662590

See more therapy options for Chester

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Chester

100+

Average cost per session

£55

Counsellors in Chester who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
87% Self Esteem
86% Depression
80% Stress
71% Relationship Issues
69% Trauma and PTSD
67% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

55% Aviva
45% Bupa
39% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in Chester see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
16% Male
3% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Chester?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.