Eating Disorders Counselling in Bromsgrove

Photo of Lynn Casey-Baker, MSc, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Lynn Casey-Baker
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B61
I offer counselling to individual adults and couples for a range of difficulties. For example depression, anxiety, panic attacks, relationship issues, bereavement loss, work related problems, obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions, eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, post-natal depression, childhood issues, and much more. Sessions are tailored to meet the needs of each individual. Some people may require short term counselling, such as 6 sessions, others will require more longer term counselling. A plan of work will be made together, to suit you and what you would like to address in our sessions together.
I offer counselling to individual adults and couples for a range of difficulties. For example depression, anxiety, panic attacks, relationship issues, bereavement loss, work related problems, obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions, eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, post-natal depression, childhood issues, and much more. Sessions are tailored to meet the needs of each individual. Some people may require short term counselling, such as 6 sessions, others will require more longer term counselling. A plan of work will be made together, to suit you and what you would like to address in our sessions together.
07858 728562 View 07858 728562
Photo of Sharon Fox, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Sharon Fox
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B60
As an Integrative Counsellor, I offer a variety of counselling styles to suit your individual needs including Person Centred Therapy, Single Session Therapy, Solution Focussed Therapy, CBT, CEBT Eating Disorders), EFT and Outdoor Therapy.
Hi, my name is Sharon and I am a Psychotherapist based in Redditch offering face to face, phone and online therapy. I work online with clients from across the UK. I work with adults and young people age 13+ to improve mental health and emotional wellbeing. As a fully qualified and experienced Integrative Therapist and an Accredited member of the British Association of Counsellors and Psychotherapists, I offer a relaxed and supportive space to talk. Whether you are looking for a brief, solution focussed approach or to work for longer on deeper issues, I can provide a safe, confidential environment to explore your concerns.
As an Integrative Counsellor, I offer a variety of counselling styles to suit your individual needs including Person Centred Therapy, Single Session Therapy, Solution Focussed Therapy, CBT, CEBT Eating Disorders), EFT and Outdoor Therapy.
Hi, my name is Sharon and I am a Psychotherapist based in Redditch offering face to face, phone and online therapy. I work online with clients from across the UK. I work with adults and young people age 13+ to improve mental health and emotional wellbeing. As a fully qualified and experienced Integrative Therapist and an Accredited member of the British Association of Counsellors and Psychotherapists, I offer a relaxed and supportive space to talk. Whether you are looking for a brief, solution focussed approach or to work for longer on deeper issues, I can provide a safe, confidential environment to explore your concerns.
01527 381065 View 01527 381065
Photo of Lissa-Marie Edwards - L.M.E. Counselling, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
L.M.E. Counselling
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B61
Hi there, I’m Lissa. Are you finding things a little bit of a struggle at the moment? I understand how you feel. Feel free to contact me today and we can have a chat about how together we can work through your worries. Whether this be needing help with mental health such as anxiety, depression, O.C.D etc. Family issues, Trauma, Relationships and just general day to day. Click on my profile to read more.
Hi there, I’m Lissa. Are you finding things a little bit of a struggle at the moment? I understand how you feel. Feel free to contact me today and we can have a chat about how together we can work through your worries. Whether this be needing help with mental health such as anxiety, depression, O.C.D etc. Family issues, Trauma, Relationships and just general day to day. Click on my profile to read more.
01527 361390 View 01527 361390
Photo of Dr Leanne Tomkins, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Leanne Tomkins
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B61
Hello! I am a qualified Clinical Psychologist experienced in working with adults, children and families using a wide range of psychological approaches. I work one to one with adults and children of all ages offering evidence based therapy for a wide range of emotional and mental health difficulties. I also work with parents and families to support you to understand and make sense of any emotional well-being concerns you may have for your child and family. Life can be a challenge for most of us at times for lots of different reasons. Accessing the right support can help you to thrive and improve your emotional 'wellness'.
Hello! I am a qualified Clinical Psychologist experienced in working with adults, children and families using a wide range of psychological approaches. I work one to one with adults and children of all ages offering evidence based therapy for a wide range of emotional and mental health difficulties. I also work with parents and families to support you to understand and make sense of any emotional well-being concerns you may have for your child and family. Life can be a challenge for most of us at times for lots of different reasons. Accessing the right support can help you to thrive and improve your emotional 'wellness'.
0121 827 1652 View 0121 827 1652
Photo of Jonathan Livingstone, MSc, GMBPsS, Psychologist
Jonathan Livingstone
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B60
I have 26 years’ experience as a solution-focused therapist, psychologist and coach: helping couples to communicate effectively and let go of resentments; and helping individuals to overcome trauma, anxiety, childhood abuse, OCD, ADHD and other problems. I will help you to clarify your goals; identify what it is within you that is blocking achievement of your goals; find out where this comes from in your biography; and help you to process the experience to permanently resolve your problem. This person-centred therapy enables you fully to overcome your problem, not simply to understand or manage it, enabling swift transformation.
I have 26 years’ experience as a solution-focused therapist, psychologist and coach: helping couples to communicate effectively and let go of resentments; and helping individuals to overcome trauma, anxiety, childhood abuse, OCD, ADHD and other problems. I will help you to clarify your goals; identify what it is within you that is blocking achievement of your goals; find out where this comes from in your biography; and help you to process the experience to permanently resolve your problem. This person-centred therapy enables you fully to overcome your problem, not simply to understand or manage it, enabling swift transformation.
01562 543351 View 01562 543351
Photo of Jackie Henderson, MBACP, Counsellor
Jackie Henderson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B60
My name is Jackie and I am a very experienced, fully qualified Counsellor, based in Stourport, Worcestershire. We all experience emotional times in our lives which we can struggle to make sense of, or to cope with. This can lead to many different feelings which can include stress, anxiety and depression; low self worth and an overwhelming sense of hopelessness . I offer my clients the opportunity to explore those often painful or challenging aspects of their lives in a safe, friendly and trusting environment, helping them to feel at ease and that they are not alone in exploring life challenges without being judged.
My name is Jackie and I am a very experienced, fully qualified Counsellor, based in Stourport, Worcestershire. We all experience emotional times in our lives which we can struggle to make sense of, or to cope with. This can lead to many different feelings which can include stress, anxiety and depression; low self worth and an overwhelming sense of hopelessness . I offer my clients the opportunity to explore those often painful or challenging aspects of their lives in a safe, friendly and trusting environment, helping them to feel at ease and that they are not alone in exploring life challenges without being judged.
01299 667541 View 01299 667541
Photo of Emma Tait, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Emma Tait
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bromsgrove B60
I am a counsellor and psychotherapist offering a private and confidential counselling service for Redditch and surrounding areas. I am fully insured and hold an enhanced DBS. I am a registered member of the BACP and work with individuals, couples and parents for both short term and long term counselling. If you're feeling overwhelmed or are living with low mood/depression, anxiety, or having problems in relationships or just experiencing difficulties generally and would like to explore how counselling may help, please get in touch. This is completely without obligation.
I am a counsellor and psychotherapist offering a private and confidential counselling service for Redditch and surrounding areas. I am fully insured and hold an enhanced DBS. I am a registered member of the BACP and work with individuals, couples and parents for both short term and long term counselling. If you're feeling overwhelmed or are living with low mood/depression, anxiety, or having problems in relationships or just experiencing difficulties generally and would like to explore how counselling may help, please get in touch. This is completely without obligation.
01527 361411 View 01527 361411

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Jenna Leanne Hayes-Allen - MindCalm Ltd, MRes, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
MindCalm Ltd
Psychotherapist, MRes, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Quinton B32
I commonly work with clients with symptoms of PTSD and/or Eating Disorders. I also work with people with other anxiety disorders and depression. People accessing my support are often looking to come to terms with traumatic events, or may be looking to overcome issues they face with eating such as restricted eating, fear of weight gain or over eating. It may also be that clients are looking for more general stress management, worry management or to address a specific phobia. Overall, however, people are often accessing therapy to achieve a particular set of goals so that they can function better and be happier in themselves.
I commonly work with clients with symptoms of PTSD and/or Eating Disorders. I also work with people with other anxiety disorders and depression. People accessing my support are often looking to come to terms with traumatic events, or may be looking to overcome issues they face with eating such as restricted eating, fear of weight gain or over eating. It may also be that clients are looking for more general stress management, worry management or to address a specific phobia. Overall, however, people are often accessing therapy to achieve a particular set of goals so that they can function better and be happier in themselves.
0121 817 7969 View 0121 817 7969
Photo of Conall Donegan, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Conall Donegan
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Rubery B45
Life these days can be difficult. It is only normal to have your bad days, yet, do not allow yourse to defined by these. Perhaps you are searching for more meaning in your life? Perhaps you have developed negative coping strategies from some pain in life or situational stress. Whether you want to build your resilience or begin positive change to excel within your life, I am here to help. I have experience dealing with stress, anxiety, relationship problems, depression, addiction, eating disorders, compulsions to name a few. Perhaps the time is now, to start the change and if so I can help you to create long lasting formative growth.
Life these days can be difficult. It is only normal to have your bad days, yet, do not allow yourse to defined by these. Perhaps you are searching for more meaning in your life? Perhaps you have developed negative coping strategies from some pain in life or situational stress. Whether you want to build your resilience or begin positive change to excel within your life, I am here to help. I have experience dealing with stress, anxiety, relationship problems, depression, addiction, eating disorders, compulsions to name a few. Perhaps the time is now, to start the change and if so I can help you to create long lasting formative growth.
0141 280 7413 View 0141 280 7413
Photo of Joe Mimnagh, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Joe Mimnagh
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B29
Many of my client’s present difficulties with; relationships, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, work related stress, bereavement, trauma, eating disorders and problems with alcohol or drugs.
I entered the world of psychotherapy so I could manage and eventually overcome the painful emotions and thoughts that I had experienced. If this is the case for you, then psychotherapy can help you explore uncomfortable feelings that have held you back from living life to the full. Life often throws the unexpected at us, be it through relationships, either personal or professional, we sometimes find it difficult to cope alone and need the support to help us through this difficult time.
Many of my client’s present difficulties with; relationships, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, work related stress, bereavement, trauma, eating disorders and problems with alcohol or drugs.
I entered the world of psychotherapy so I could manage and eventually overcome the painful emotions and thoughts that I had experienced. If this is the case for you, then psychotherapy can help you explore uncomfortable feelings that have held you back from living life to the full. Life often throws the unexpected at us, be it through relationships, either personal or professional, we sometimes find it difficult to cope alone and need the support to help us through this difficult time.
0121 728 6469 View 0121 728 6469
Photo of Parveen Kaur, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Parveen Kaur
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B17
I am a fully accredited and qualified psychotherapist and counsellor, working in both the private and public sector. I have over 14 years of experience working in mental health NHS services and can support people experiencing low mood, depression, generalised anxiety, phobias, PTSD, relationship difficulties, anger, loss, bereavement, trauma, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, OCD, identity and cultural issues. I am able to offer integrative psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR or person centred counselling to help people move forward in their lives when they feel stuck or distressed.
I am a fully accredited and qualified psychotherapist and counsellor, working in both the private and public sector. I have over 14 years of experience working in mental health NHS services and can support people experiencing low mood, depression, generalised anxiety, phobias, PTSD, relationship difficulties, anger, loss, bereavement, trauma, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, OCD, identity and cultural issues. I am able to offer integrative psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR or person centred counselling to help people move forward in their lives when they feel stuck or distressed.
0121 752 9130 View 0121 752 9130
Photo of Sheila Ridgley, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Sheila Ridgley
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Birmingham B17
I specialise in couple counselling, relationship issues (including family counselling to adult members) and eating disorders.
Are you struggling to communicate with your partner, manage arguments, get over a break up or recently discovered an affair? I am experienced in working with couples or individual to help overcome these issues. Are you struggling with anxiety, depression, work related stress, bereavement, or lack of self esteem. I work integratively, which means I use different theoretical models to support my clients.
I specialise in couple counselling, relationship issues (including family counselling to adult members) and eating disorders.
Are you struggling to communicate with your partner, manage arguments, get over a break up or recently discovered an affair? I am experienced in working with couples or individual to help overcome these issues. Are you struggling with anxiety, depression, work related stress, bereavement, or lack of self esteem. I work integratively, which means I use different theoretical models to support my clients.
0121 809 9987 View 0121 809 9987
Photo of Elliot Downs, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Elliot Downs
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stourbridge DY8
I am a person centred counsellor, offering counselling in Herefordshire and the surrounding areas. I am registered with the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and fully abide by their Ethical Framework. I work with my clients in a safe, confidential and empathic environment, free from judgement. I offer counselling and psychotherapy to adults and adolescents. My priority has always been to ensure that you feel safe to explore whatever you are feel you need to explore. I have a calm, empathic and engaging presence, which I hope will enable you to discover new avenues of thinking.
I am a person centred counsellor, offering counselling in Herefordshire and the surrounding areas. I am registered with the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and fully abide by their Ethical Framework. I work with my clients in a safe, confidential and empathic environment, free from judgement. I offer counselling and psychotherapy to adults and adolescents. My priority has always been to ensure that you feel safe to explore whatever you are feel you need to explore. I have a calm, empathic and engaging presence, which I hope will enable you to discover new avenues of thinking.
01432 803476 View 01432 803476
Photo of Suzanne Tibbetts, BACP, Counsellor
Suzanne Tibbetts
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Stourbridge DY8
I believe we are all susceptible, at some point in our lives, to feeling overwhelmed by what life can bring. Sometimes we encounter experiences that are hard for us to come to terms with leaving us in need of support, this may be in the form of a bereavement, a relationship breakdown, a job loss; any event that we struggle to comprehend and understand. Other times a series of events may have taken place that leave us feeling like we are walking under a big black cloud and fail to see a way forward. At times like this counselling can help.
I believe we are all susceptible, at some point in our lives, to feeling overwhelmed by what life can bring. Sometimes we encounter experiences that are hard for us to come to terms with leaving us in need of support, this may be in the form of a bereavement, a relationship breakdown, a job loss; any event that we struggle to comprehend and understand. Other times a series of events may have taken place that leave us feeling like we are walking under a big black cloud and fail to see a way forward. At times like this counselling can help.
01386 574165 View 01386 574165
Photo of Sarah Silvester, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Sarah Silvester
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kidderminster DY10
Hello, I'm an Integrative Counsellor & Psychotherapist offering private therapy to individuals and couples over the age of 18. Therapy is an opportunity for you to have the time and a safe, confidential space to explore your life, yourself and any issues you feel are causing you concern or distress. I can help you with a wide range of issues such as: bereavement, anxiety, depression, panic, pain & chronic health conditions, stress, family & relationship issues, addictions, phobias and many more. I have a special interest in mindfulness and specialise in working with people who have chronic health conditions.
Hello, I'm an Integrative Counsellor & Psychotherapist offering private therapy to individuals and couples over the age of 18. Therapy is an opportunity for you to have the time and a safe, confidential space to explore your life, yourself and any issues you feel are causing you concern or distress. I can help you with a wide range of issues such as: bereavement, anxiety, depression, panic, pain & chronic health conditions, stress, family & relationship issues, addictions, phobias and many more. I have a special interest in mindfulness and specialise in working with people who have chronic health conditions.
01746 335266 View 01746 335266
Photo of Philippa Capel, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Philippa Capel
Psychologist, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Worcester WR7
“Growth and change can be both exciting and scary. Whether it's personal or external changes, I pride myself in being able to walk along side you to foster the new knowledge, skills and courage needed to develop." I am a qualified, chartered, HCPC registered psychologist with over 15 years of experience working in the NHS, offering therapy to support people to recover from life events that have left them struggling with their mental health. This has given me a wealth of experience and knowledge that I can draw on to support you to grow and recover, as well as considering the role of your family, the past, work and the environment.
“Growth and change can be both exciting and scary. Whether it's personal or external changes, I pride myself in being able to walk along side you to foster the new knowledge, skills and courage needed to develop." I am a qualified, chartered, HCPC registered psychologist with over 15 years of experience working in the NHS, offering therapy to support people to recover from life events that have left them struggling with their mental health. This has given me a wealth of experience and knowledge that I can draw on to support you to grow and recover, as well as considering the role of your family, the past, work and the environment.
01386 571437 View 01386 571437
Photo of Deborah Grice-Griffin, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Deborah Grice-Griffin
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Droitwich WR9
Your mental health is important. If you have any issues or concerns that are affecting your well-being or feel that you are struggling with your emotions or you just sense that having someone to talk to could affect real change in your life, then now is the right time to explore Counselling, whether you are an adult or child counselling can help you. My name is Debbie and I have worked with both adults and children helping them through a variety of issues and concerns, whether it's anxiety, stress, grief, depression, low self-esteem, feeling overwhelmed, I'm here to help.
Your mental health is important. If you have any issues or concerns that are affecting your well-being or feel that you are struggling with your emotions or you just sense that having someone to talk to could affect real change in your life, then now is the right time to explore Counselling, whether you are an adult or child counselling can help you. My name is Debbie and I have worked with both adults and children helping them through a variety of issues and concerns, whether it's anxiety, stress, grief, depression, low self-esteem, feeling overwhelmed, I'm here to help.
01299 666667 View 01299 666667
Photo of Kate Alliss, MBACP, Counsellor
Kate Alliss
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Stourbridge DY8
My name is Kate Alliss and I am a qualified and experienced counsellor based in Stourbridge, West Midlands. I will offer you a safe space to talk confidentially about your difficulties without fear of being judged, with empathy and with understanding. When we experience difficult times in our lives, we often struggle to understand our emotions and often find it hard to cope with our day to day lives. By working with you I will try to help you make sense of your thoughts, feelings, responses and reactions to overcome the obstacles in your life that prevent you from feeling happy and fulfilled.
My name is Kate Alliss and I am a qualified and experienced counsellor based in Stourbridge, West Midlands. I will offer you a safe space to talk confidentially about your difficulties without fear of being judged, with empathy and with understanding. When we experience difficult times in our lives, we often struggle to understand our emotions and often find it hard to cope with our day to day lives. By working with you I will try to help you make sense of your thoughts, feelings, responses and reactions to overcome the obstacles in your life that prevent you from feeling happy and fulfilled.
01603 361411 View 01603 361411
Photo of Christopher Crehan, MNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
Christopher Crehan
Psychotherapist, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Birmingham B31  (Online Only)
When seeking therapy, finding the right therapist is the first and most important step. With the correct therapist you can feel understood and safe when discussing difficult issues in your life. I am a fully qualified and accredited hypnotherapist and psychotherapist. Offering professional listening skills and support for mental health and well-being to help you achieve the life you deserve. I have been practicing for several years and i am trained in a variety of modalities and techniques that can help with many issues including stress, anxiety, depression, grief, motivation, weight management, confidence, healing and much more.
When seeking therapy, finding the right therapist is the first and most important step. With the correct therapist you can feel understood and safe when discussing difficult issues in your life. I am a fully qualified and accredited hypnotherapist and psychotherapist. Offering professional listening skills and support for mental health and well-being to help you achieve the life you deserve. I have been practicing for several years and i am trained in a variety of modalities and techniques that can help with many issues including stress, anxiety, depression, grief, motivation, weight management, confidence, healing and much more.
0121 827 5246 View 0121 827 5246
Photo of Dr Lucy Bassil, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Lucy Bassil
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Kidderminster DY10
I am a HCPC registered chartered Clinical Psychologist, working both within the NHS in adult community mental health settings and Private Practice. I have experience of working psychologically with clients across the lifespan and have a specialist interest in working with complex trauma, feelings of shame/self criticism and emotion regulation difficulties. I primarily work within a Compassion Focused Therapy and Psychodynamic Framework; however, I utilise principles from Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy to compliment this.
I am a HCPC registered chartered Clinical Psychologist, working both within the NHS in adult community mental health settings and Private Practice. I have experience of working psychologically with clients across the lifespan and have a specialist interest in working with complex trauma, feelings of shame/self criticism and emotion regulation difficulties. I primarily work within a Compassion Focused Therapy and Psychodynamic Framework; however, I utilise principles from Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy to compliment this.
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See more therapy options for Bromsgrove

Eating Disorders Counsellors

What happens in therapy for eating disorders?

In therapy for eating disorders, patients typically describe their eating and exercise behaviours, their patterns of eating in relation to stress, their beliefs about their body, the ways their eating behaviour affects their relationships, and their desire (or lack of it) to change. Such information helps the therapist understand the origins of the disorder and the role it plays in the patient’s life, important for guiding treatment. Attitudes and feelings about food and eating, body weight, and physical appearance are common topics of discussion throughout treatment.

What therapy types help with eating disorders?

Once any acute medical or psychiatric emergency is resolved, psychoactive medication is often prescribed, requiring the supervision of a psychiatrist. In addition, patients receive some form of nutritional counselling along with one or more forms of psychotherapy. For adolescents, family-based treatment is empirically validated and considered the first line of treatment; parents and their children meet weekly with a clinician as the adults are coached on how to nourish and psychologically support the young patient. Adults typically receive some form of individual psychotherapy, intended to resolve the cognitive and behavioural disturbances that underlie the disorder and to relieve the mood disturbances that accompany it. In addition, patients may also be helped by group therapy.

What is the goal of therapy for eating disorders?

The most immediate goal of treatment for eating disorders is to save the life of people who are on a path of starving themselves to death or engaging in eating patterns that are doing irreparable physical harm to their body. Once the acute medical danger is past, therapy is required to understand the nature of the disordered eating and/or exercise patterns, establish healthy eating behaviour, and to tackle the many erroneous beliefs and distorted self-perceptions that underlie eating disorders and continue to pose a threat to health and life. Therapy also addresses the impaired mood that not only accompanies eating disorders but intensifies the danger to health and life.

What are the limitations of therapy for eating disorders?

Therapy can be very helpful for eating disorders—but that can happen only after people recognise they have a condition that must be treated. Especially with anorexia, the distortions in self-image that accompany the disorder can keep people from acknowledging they have a problem. Individuals may in fact see their eating disorder as a badge of self-control. Those with binge-eating disorder may feel too ashamed to seek help. Therapy cannot help those who do not avail themselves of it.

How long does therapy last for eating disorders?

Because of their complexity, recovery from eating disorders is usually a long-term process—measured in months and years— often marked by setbacks and relapse. Some form of help, such as individual or group therapy, may be advisable for much of that time. It is a general rule of thumb that the longer the illness has endured and the dysregulated eating behaviour has taken root, the longer treatment is likely to be needed.