Counselling in Brighton

View neighbourhoods in Brighton
Photo of Sarah Done, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Sarah Done
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
Life can feel like a struggle at times and you may be going through a time of feeling stressed, anxious or depressed. Relationships or work might be difficult, or losses feel too much. Perhaps you are just feeling dissatisfied with life and don't know why. Asking for help can be the first step towards finding yourself again. I provide long and short-term 1-1 counselling for those who'd like to explore what's led them to where they are now and want things to change. We may look at how your past is affecting your present and help you become aware of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that are not near the surface in everyday life.
Life can feel like a struggle at times and you may be going through a time of feeling stressed, anxious or depressed. Relationships or work might be difficult, or losses feel too much. Perhaps you are just feeling dissatisfied with life and don't know why. Asking for help can be the first step towards finding yourself again. I provide long and short-term 1-1 counselling for those who'd like to explore what's led them to where they are now and want things to change. We may look at how your past is affecting your present and help you become aware of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that are not near the surface in everyday life.
01273 092494 View 01273 092494
Photo of Kathleen McCabe, Psychotherapist in Brighton, England
Kathleen McCabe
Psychotherapist, MSc, BPC
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1
I would say that an important element of analytic work is that it helps to build real internal strength; one that can enable you to know and accept yourself. For People who are able to make use of analytic work, it can provide translatable skills that help deal with ongoing difficulties, not just the ones that brought you to therapy. Analytic therapy can be short term, but tends to be relatively long term work, dealing with issues that have likely been problematic for many years.
I would say that an important element of analytic work is that it helps to build real internal strength; one that can enable you to know and accept yourself. For People who are able to make use of analytic work, it can provide translatable skills that help deal with ongoing difficulties, not just the ones that brought you to therapy. Analytic therapy can be short term, but tends to be relatively long term work, dealing with issues that have likely been problematic for many years.
01273 092593 View 01273 092593
Photo of Paul Vernon, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Paul Vernon
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
I’m a registered and accredited therapist with lots of experience of working with adults, young people, couples and families. I offer a secure and confidential space where we can address and navigate the concerns you bring, and together we'll delve into the impact of past events on your current life and relationships. My style is compassionate and non-judgemental but challenging enough to ensure positive change can occur. I will adapt my style, approach and methods according to your needs or situation, and I will work at your pace.
I’m a registered and accredited therapist with lots of experience of working with adults, young people, couples and families. I offer a secure and confidential space where we can address and navigate the concerns you bring, and together we'll delve into the impact of past events on your current life and relationships. My style is compassionate and non-judgemental but challenging enough to ensure positive change can occur. I will adapt my style, approach and methods according to your needs or situation, and I will work at your pace.
01273 092160 View 01273 092160
Photo of Stephanie Pearce, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Stephanie Pearce
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1
We all have times in our lives when we find it difficult to cope, causing us issues such as anxiety, depression, stress, feelings of emptiness, loneliness, anger and relationship problems. I offer a place to work out what is going for you, in a safe, non-judgmental and confidential space. Sometimes we are aware of issues that are causing our distress and sometimes not. Being able to work out exactly what is going on for each of us as an individual, can be the key to change.
We all have times in our lives when we find it difficult to cope, causing us issues such as anxiety, depression, stress, feelings of emptiness, loneliness, anger and relationship problems. I offer a place to work out what is going for you, in a safe, non-judgmental and confidential space. Sometimes we are aware of issues that are causing our distress and sometimes not. Being able to work out exactly what is going on for each of us as an individual, can be the key to change.
01273 092598 View 01273 092598
Photo of Gemma Nethersole, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Gemma Nethersole
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brighton BN2
At times life can be distressing or leave us feeling less able to cope. Perhaps you feel at odds with yourself; unsure of how to move forward or aware that you don't want to continue feeling as you do now.
At times life can be distressing or leave us feeling less able to cope. Perhaps you feel at odds with yourself; unsure of how to move forward or aware that you don't want to continue feeling as you do now.
01273 005918 View 01273 005918
Photo of Paul Marshall, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Paul Marshall
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
Whether it be anxiety or depression, problems with relationships, bereavement or trauma, my role is to be alongside you in order to support you to overcome the difficulties you are facing. My work is with people from all walks of life and backgrounds who come to therapy with a diverse range of issues. As a counsellor I have experience in education, employment and voluntary settings; I have also worked as a Gas Engineer, Teacher and Stand-up Comedian.
Whether it be anxiety or depression, problems with relationships, bereavement or trauma, my role is to be alongside you in order to support you to overcome the difficulties you are facing. My work is with people from all walks of life and backgrounds who come to therapy with a diverse range of issues. As a counsellor I have experience in education, employment and voluntary settings; I have also worked as a Gas Engineer, Teacher and Stand-up Comedian.
01273 894612 View 01273 894612
Photo of Inspired Soulutions, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Inspired Soulutions
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1  (Online Only)
Hi, I'm Kristin. I have been a counsellor for over fifteen years, and have been blessed and trusted with countless stories of the human experience. I consider it an honour and a privilege to help others purposefully and consciously connect with their own power. We all, at times, need support and guidance as we become aware of what we need to heal and attempt to navigate life’s challenges with authenticity and grace. It takes courage and vulnerability to ask for help; and sometimes it takes patience and commitment to find the right help. If you are curious to find out how I can help you…let’s chat.
Hi, I'm Kristin. I have been a counsellor for over fifteen years, and have been blessed and trusted with countless stories of the human experience. I consider it an honour and a privilege to help others purposefully and consciously connect with their own power. We all, at times, need support and guidance as we become aware of what we need to heal and attempt to navigate life’s challenges with authenticity and grace. It takes courage and vulnerability to ask for help; and sometimes it takes patience and commitment to find the right help. If you are curious to find out how I can help you…let’s chat.
01903 924244 View 01903 924244
Photo of David Robert Cuff, Counsellor in Brighton, England
David Robert Cuff
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1
I am an experientially informed, person centred, psychotherapeutic counsellor with a faith in the human potential to develop in a positive direction. I believe we have our own path to cut through the woods in our unique life journey. The body keeps the score, and we are wiser than we think. I take a non-discriminatory, LGBTQI+ affirmative, experiential, Person Centred approach. I believe neurodiversity is a difference and not a disorder. I take a non-judgemental, relational, holistic approach, alive to all aspects of self and factors outside. For me, it's not about what's wrong with a person, it's about what has happened to them.
I am an experientially informed, person centred, psychotherapeutic counsellor with a faith in the human potential to develop in a positive direction. I believe we have our own path to cut through the woods in our unique life journey. The body keeps the score, and we are wiser than we think. I take a non-discriminatory, LGBTQI+ affirmative, experiential, Person Centred approach. I believe neurodiversity is a difference and not a disorder. I take a non-judgemental, relational, holistic approach, alive to all aspects of self and factors outside. For me, it's not about what's wrong with a person, it's about what has happened to them.
01273 034568 View 01273 034568
Photo of Will Geffin, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Will Geffin
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
I offer therapy and counselling to help people to deal with & change unhelpful, disturbing thoughts, feelings & behaviours. These can be recent issues or long-held problems. The good news is – it is possible to change and to live a better, more fulfilling life. I help clients deal with depression & low mood, anxiety & performance anxiety, stress & panic, relationship problems, anger & low self-esteem, bereavement & health/body issues & post-traumatic stress disorder & obsessive, compulsive behaviour. I work with all groups of people & also specialise in working with artists, performers & those working in the creative industries.
I offer therapy and counselling to help people to deal with & change unhelpful, disturbing thoughts, feelings & behaviours. These can be recent issues or long-held problems. The good news is – it is possible to change and to live a better, more fulfilling life. I help clients deal with depression & low mood, anxiety & performance anxiety, stress & panic, relationship problems, anger & low self-esteem, bereavement & health/body issues & post-traumatic stress disorder & obsessive, compulsive behaviour. I work with all groups of people & also specialise in working with artists, performers & those working in the creative industries.
01273 032543 View 01273 032543
Photo of Andreia Counselling, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Andreia Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brighton BN1
Welcome and thank you for getting in touch with me, it takes courage to get the first step. I hope by reading this page you will feel curious and wondering how I would be able to assist you and your needs. I am a Person-centred therapist and passionate about my job. I am committed to working with safety and care when dealing with your troubled experiences. I offer a confidential space for us to build a relationship of trust with mutual respect, aiming to explore and work through any difficulties you may be facing. My approach is nurturing and non-judgmental.
Welcome and thank you for getting in touch with me, it takes courage to get the first step. I hope by reading this page you will feel curious and wondering how I would be able to assist you and your needs. I am a Person-centred therapist and passionate about my job. I am committed to working with safety and care when dealing with your troubled experiences. I offer a confidential space for us to build a relationship of trust with mutual respect, aiming to explore and work through any difficulties you may be facing. My approach is nurturing and non-judgmental.
01273 121268 View 01273 121268
Photo of Annabelle Clarke, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Annabelle Clarke
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1
Hi, I'm Annabelle. I am a qualified integrative counsellor. This means I can draw on a range of psychological models and tailor my approach to your needs - whether you need someone to sit with you in your pain, help you find acceptance, explore changes in your sense of self, heal wounds from the past, make positive changes and develop new skills. Perhaps you have experienced loss, relationship issues, anxiety or trauma. Looking after your mental health is not selfish and can help you develop resilience. I have 10 years' experience in the NHS working with clients with depression, anxiety and health challenges including Long COVID.
Hi, I'm Annabelle. I am a qualified integrative counsellor. This means I can draw on a range of psychological models and tailor my approach to your needs - whether you need someone to sit with you in your pain, help you find acceptance, explore changes in your sense of self, heal wounds from the past, make positive changes and develop new skills. Perhaps you have experienced loss, relationship issues, anxiety or trauma. Looking after your mental health is not selfish and can help you develop resilience. I have 10 years' experience in the NHS working with clients with depression, anxiety and health challenges including Long COVID.
01444 718224 View 01444 718224
Photo of Laura Ruth Davenport, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Laura Ruth Davenport
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
The decision to try therapy can seem very daunting, but you have already taken the first step if you are here in this directory. Dealing with difficult issues, loss, bereavement, trauma, divorce/separation, identity , etc can feel utterly overwhelming. Initially, the prospect of sharing such experience may feel like a step too far. My own and clients’ experiences have shown me time & again that it is through the process of talking therapy that in sharing the burden the healing can begin. I have a passionate belief in the power of the wounded, with support, to find some reconciliation, with themselves, their history & in relationship
The decision to try therapy can seem very daunting, but you have already taken the first step if you are here in this directory. Dealing with difficult issues, loss, bereavement, trauma, divorce/separation, identity , etc can feel utterly overwhelming. Initially, the prospect of sharing such experience may feel like a step too far. My own and clients’ experiences have shown me time & again that it is through the process of talking therapy that in sharing the burden the healing can begin. I have a passionate belief in the power of the wounded, with support, to find some reconciliation, with themselves, their history & in relationship
01276 748011 View 01276 748011
Alison White
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brighton BN1
As a humanistic therapist, I offer you the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of yourself in a supportive setting. However challenging life may seem at times, I believe that each of us has the potential to manage our lives in a way that is fulfilling and satisfying. My approach is tailored to you as an individual, and is underpinned by my belief that we are each unique and have the right to understand and celebrate who we really are.
As a humanistic therapist, I offer you the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of yourself in a supportive setting. However challenging life may seem at times, I believe that each of us has the potential to manage our lives in a way that is fulfilling and satisfying. My approach is tailored to you as an individual, and is underpinned by my belief that we are each unique and have the right to understand and celebrate who we really are.
01903 947226 View 01903 947226
Photo of Dr Gabriel Schnitzer, Psychologist in Brighton, England
Dr Gabriel Schnitzer
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
We all go through times when some additional support could be useful. Whether a specific issue has led you here today, or a wish to explore difficulties in your early life and their impacting on you today, I might be the right person to help. I have extensive experience of working in NHS and charity settings as well as abroad. Aside from my private practice I currently work as Principal Psychologist / Clinical Lead in an NHS service. I have worked with a wide range of difficulties and have most experience in working with complex trauma, interpersonal difficulties, mood management, and autism spectrum conditions.
We all go through times when some additional support could be useful. Whether a specific issue has led you here today, or a wish to explore difficulties in your early life and their impacting on you today, I might be the right person to help. I have extensive experience of working in NHS and charity settings as well as abroad. Aside from my private practice I currently work as Principal Psychologist / Clinical Lead in an NHS service. I have worked with a wide range of difficulties and have most experience in working with complex trauma, interpersonal difficulties, mood management, and autism spectrum conditions.
01273 443596 View 01273 443596
Photo of Dana Cohen, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Dana Cohen
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2  (Online Only)
I am an LGBTQ affirmative counsellor and psychotherapist. I offer online support to lesbian, gay, bi, non-binary trans and queer people throughout the UK. If you identify as LGBTQ, it can make a huge difference to find an LGBTQ counsellor who accepts you as you are, with warmth and understanding. I have 20 years experience in LGBTQ counselling, advocacy and support services, and work with a broad spectrum of LGBTQ identities and ways of being. I provide a safe, confidential space where you can talk openly about problems that are affecting you and explore your fears, hopes and dreams.
I am an LGBTQ affirmative counsellor and psychotherapist. I offer online support to lesbian, gay, bi, non-binary trans and queer people throughout the UK. If you identify as LGBTQ, it can make a huge difference to find an LGBTQ counsellor who accepts you as you are, with warmth and understanding. I have 20 years experience in LGBTQ counselling, advocacy and support services, and work with a broad spectrum of LGBTQ identities and ways of being. I provide a safe, confidential space where you can talk openly about problems that are affecting you and explore your fears, hopes and dreams.
01273 036050 View 01273 036050
Photo of John Buckley, Counsellor in Brighton, England
John Buckley
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
It might be that you’re hoping to address difficult feelings related to immediate concerns in your life. Alternatively you may be seeking to explore and understand the experiences of your past, or simply reflect on who you are as a person. I'll offer you a welcoming and confidential space that will allow you to give voice to your thoughts and feelings. I believe the most important aspect of any therapeutic intervention is the relationship between the therapist and the client. It’s important when choosing a therapist to feel comfortable with them, and exploratory call may help with this, alternatively visit www.john-buckley.com
It might be that you’re hoping to address difficult feelings related to immediate concerns in your life. Alternatively you may be seeking to explore and understand the experiences of your past, or simply reflect on who you are as a person. I'll offer you a welcoming and confidential space that will allow you to give voice to your thoughts and feelings. I believe the most important aspect of any therapeutic intervention is the relationship between the therapist and the client. It’s important when choosing a therapist to feel comfortable with them, and exploratory call may help with this, alternatively visit www.john-buckley.com
01273 092530 View 01273 092530
Photo of Marcus Bowery Therapy, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Marcus Bowery Therapy
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
What my clients most commonly seek is guidance to help them understand their own emotions, responses and rules that they hold about life. My clients are not dictated to, but supported in learning about what is helpful and rational in their lives, and what is targeted for change. Our honest talks involve a lot of empathy and humour, as there are common themes that we all recognise as causing issues in our lives. My clients are very much individuals, spoken to without judgement and encouraged to make changes to their thinking and then behaviour which will help free them from well-worn paths and being 'stuck'.
What my clients most commonly seek is guidance to help them understand their own emotions, responses and rules that they hold about life. My clients are not dictated to, but supported in learning about what is helpful and rational in their lives, and what is targeted for change. Our honest talks involve a lot of empathy and humour, as there are common themes that we all recognise as causing issues in our lives. My clients are very much individuals, spoken to without judgement and encouraged to make changes to their thinking and then behaviour which will help free them from well-worn paths and being 'stuck'.
01273 092654 View 01273 092654
Photo of Tash Young, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Tash Young
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN1
We all live in the space between our internal experience and the challenges of the outer world. When difficulties such as trauma, bereavement abuse or anxiety/ depressions occur, thoughts and feelings can become overwhelming or intrusive. Therapy can give time and space to process and reflect. In some cases, it gives an opportunity to practice new ways of being in relationships. At other times, people seek therapy from a position of curiosity, with no particular reason in mind. Everyone is welcome and therapy should be as individual as you are.
We all live in the space between our internal experience and the challenges of the outer world. When difficulties such as trauma, bereavement abuse or anxiety/ depressions occur, thoughts and feelings can become overwhelming or intrusive. Therapy can give time and space to process and reflect. In some cases, it gives an opportunity to practice new ways of being in relationships. At other times, people seek therapy from a position of curiosity, with no particular reason in mind. Everyone is welcome and therapy should be as individual as you are.
07745 774703 View 07745 774703
Photo of Khanya Price-Evans, Psychologist in Brighton, England
Khanya Price-Evans
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
Dr. Price-Evans is a dedicated, proactive and enthusiastic psychologist passionate about providing evidence based psychological interventions to adults and young people with severe and enduring complex mental health conditions. She has a special interest in working in personality disorders, psychosis, complex trauma, and eating disorders and actively participates in the research and dissemination of new treatments and interventions alongside her NHS and private clinical practices.
Dr. Price-Evans is a dedicated, proactive and enthusiastic psychologist passionate about providing evidence based psychological interventions to adults and young people with severe and enduring complex mental health conditions. She has a special interest in working in personality disorders, psychosis, complex trauma, and eating disorders and actively participates in the research and dissemination of new treatments and interventions alongside her NHS and private clinical practices.
01273 092620 View 01273 092620
Photo of Mary George, Counsellor in Brighton, England
Mary George
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Brighton BN2
Are you looking for therapy where you can be yourself and feel understood? I offer neurodiversity-affirming psychodynamic therapy for clients who have ADHD, are autistic, or are exploring if they might be neurodivergent. Therapy is a space to explore, process, and understand your feelings and experiences. Neurodiversity shapes how a person experiences the world, bringing gifts as well as challenges. As a neurodivergent therapist, I know first-hand the importance of talking to someone who gets it. I offer a free online first session to all new clients to help you decide whether I’m the right therapist for you.
Are you looking for therapy where you can be yourself and feel understood? I offer neurodiversity-affirming psychodynamic therapy for clients who have ADHD, are autistic, or are exploring if they might be neurodivergent. Therapy is a space to explore, process, and understand your feelings and experiences. Neurodiversity shapes how a person experiences the world, bringing gifts as well as challenges. As a neurodivergent therapist, I know first-hand the importance of talking to someone who gets it. I offer a free online first session to all new clients to help you decide whether I’m the right therapist for you.
View

See more therapy options for Brighton

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Brighton

400+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in Brighton who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
88% Depression
83% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
76% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
65% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

62% Aviva
60% AXA PPP
45% Vitality

How Counsellors in Brighton see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
25% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Brighton?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.