Depression Counselling in Birmingham

Photo of Carl Flynn Msc Bsc Pg Dip, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Carl Flynn Msc Bsc Pg Dip
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B31
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, scared, confused, angry, used and abused? Do you need someone to speak with, who will explore your concerns with you and support you to achieve greater balance and happiness in your life? Call me to help you create a brighter future.
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, scared, confused, angry, used and abused? Do you need someone to speak with, who will explore your concerns with you and support you to achieve greater balance and happiness in your life? Call me to help you create a brighter future.
0121 726 1276 View 0121 726 1276
Photo of Celia Frances Moore
Celia Frances Moore
Verified Verified
Birmingham B15
I manage many young people,adults aged 18 and over (nhs & privately)affected by anxiety,low mood,depression,insomnia,panic attacks,stress and body shy.
If you are looking on this website you are more than likely wanting to engage with therapy.If you are struggling with mental health issues such as anxiety,low mood,depression,panic type episodes or other, this will be impacting on your daily living in many ways such as social interactions,focus and concentration on your work,your sleep pattern.Motivation to even get up and start the day can be difficult.Exploring these negative thoughts and moving them into a more positive outlook is key and finding the right tools to help with this, essential to success.This can be found with CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy) and Counselling.
I manage many young people,adults aged 18 and over (nhs & privately)affected by anxiety,low mood,depression,insomnia,panic attacks,stress and body shy.
If you are looking on this website you are more than likely wanting to engage with therapy.If you are struggling with mental health issues such as anxiety,low mood,depression,panic type episodes or other, this will be impacting on your daily living in many ways such as social interactions,focus and concentration on your work,your sleep pattern.Motivation to even get up and start the day can be difficult.Exploring these negative thoughts and moving them into a more positive outlook is key and finding the right tools to help with this, essential to success.This can be found with CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy) and Counselling.
07971 589377 View 07971 589377
Photo of Christopher Crehan, MNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
Christopher Crehan
Psychotherapist, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Birmingham B31  (Online Only)
When seeking therapy, finding the right therapist is the first and most important step. With the correct therapist you can feel understood and safe when discussing difficult issues in your life. I am a fully qualified and accredited hypnotherapist and psychotherapist. Offering professional listening skills and support for mental health and well-being to help you achieve the life you deserve. I have been practicing for several years and i am trained in a variety of modalities and techniques that can help with many issues including stress, anxiety, depression, grief, motivation, weight management, confidence, healing and much more.
When seeking therapy, finding the right therapist is the first and most important step. With the correct therapist you can feel understood and safe when discussing difficult issues in your life. I am a fully qualified and accredited hypnotherapist and psychotherapist. Offering professional listening skills and support for mental health and well-being to help you achieve the life you deserve. I have been practicing for several years and i am trained in a variety of modalities and techniques that can help with many issues including stress, anxiety, depression, grief, motivation, weight management, confidence, healing and much more.
0121 827 5246 View 0121 827 5246
Photo of Sharon Hinsull, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Sharon Hinsull
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B4
Not accepting new clients
Seeking out the services of a suitable therapist can be a daunting prospect at the best of times. Perhaps you're currently undergoing a particularly stressful or distressing period in your life, struggling to cope with mounting pressures at home or work, experiencing feelings of sadness or loss, relationship difficulties, or unforeseen changes in your personal circumstances. Maybe you are seeking help with a mental health issue such as anxiety or depression, aiming to find ways of better managing your condition and its impact on your everyday life. Whatever your reasons for seeking therapy, I'm here to offer you my support.
Seeking out the services of a suitable therapist can be a daunting prospect at the best of times. Perhaps you're currently undergoing a particularly stressful or distressing period in your life, struggling to cope with mounting pressures at home or work, experiencing feelings of sadness or loss, relationship difficulties, or unforeseen changes in your personal circumstances. Maybe you are seeking help with a mental health issue such as anxiety or depression, aiming to find ways of better managing your condition and its impact on your everyday life. Whatever your reasons for seeking therapy, I'm here to offer you my support.
0121 728 2398 View 0121 728 2398
Photo of Simon Davies, MBACP, Counsellor
Simon Davies
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B9
Waitlist for new clients
Are you struggling with experiences of anxiety, depression, or other signs of difficulties in your life? If you find yourself suffering from experiences that can be overwhelming or seem impossible to deal with, you do not have to face these alone. My name is Simon and I am a BACP registered counsellor in Birmingham offering a compassionate and confidential therapy service that can help you to understand and overcome difficulties in a safe and supportive environment.
Are you struggling with experiences of anxiety, depression, or other signs of difficulties in your life? If you find yourself suffering from experiences that can be overwhelming or seem impossible to deal with, you do not have to face these alone. My name is Simon and I am a BACP registered counsellor in Birmingham offering a compassionate and confidential therapy service that can help you to understand and overcome difficulties in a safe and supportive environment.
0121 817 7893 View 0121 817 7893
Photo of Ayesha Bhatti, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Ayesha Bhatti
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham B9
trauma, depression, anxiety, low-moods, self-esteem, difficult relationships, abuse, bereavement, loss, isolation etc.
I support my clients better cope with Autism and the impact it has on their relationships. I work from a humanistic approach, which means I view my clients holistically, considering their views, backgrounds and experiences. I believe that we all have an innate ability to develop ourselves and our potentials. Over our lifetimes, we all form ways of thinking and being to adjust to our environments. Having Autism can However sometimes these habits and beliefs are no longer useful and can become hurdles, preventing us from progressing. This is where contacting a psychotherapist can be your first step towards self-development.
trauma, depression, anxiety, low-moods, self-esteem, difficult relationships, abuse, bereavement, loss, isolation etc.
I support my clients better cope with Autism and the impact it has on their relationships. I work from a humanistic approach, which means I view my clients holistically, considering their views, backgrounds and experiences. I believe that we all have an innate ability to develop ourselves and our potentials. Over our lifetimes, we all form ways of thinking and being to adjust to our environments. Having Autism can However sometimes these habits and beliefs are no longer useful and can become hurdles, preventing us from progressing. This is where contacting a psychotherapist can be your first step towards self-development.
0121 817 7891 View 0121 817 7891
Photo of Letoya Bailey - The Growth & Guidance Clinic, MSc, Psychotherapist
The Growth & Guidance Clinic
Psychotherapist, MSc
Verified Verified
Birmingham B1
My Name is Letoya Bailey and I consider myself an incredibly grateful person. Every day I get to do work that not only feels meaningful and fulfilling but also, to me, feels like nothing short of a calling. ​ I believe wholeheartedly in the transformative power of the work of therapy and I consider it an honour to be able to support you on your journey. I work with the full range of mental health difficulties, from short term to those that are severe. Emotional struggles present themselves in many ways, for example, Depression, Anxiety and Relationship Difficulties.
My Name is Letoya Bailey and I consider myself an incredibly grateful person. Every day I get to do work that not only feels meaningful and fulfilling but also, to me, feels like nothing short of a calling. ​ I believe wholeheartedly in the transformative power of the work of therapy and I consider it an honour to be able to support you on your journey. I work with the full range of mental health difficulties, from short term to those that are severe. Emotional struggles present themselves in many ways, for example, Depression, Anxiety and Relationship Difficulties.
0121 285 3639 View 0121 285 3639
Photo of Rebecca Jane Honeybourne, MBACP, Counsellor
Rebecca Jane Honeybourne
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B13
Are you struggling with life and it's challenges? Maybe you are feeling anxious or depressed or maybe you are finding it difficult to make choices. We all find ourselves facing difficult situations at various times in our lives and sometimes having someone to listen can be all we need. I offer counselling to individuals who wish to explore the difficulties that they face in their lives in a safe, confidential, supportive and non-judgemental environment.
Are you struggling with life and it's challenges? Maybe you are feeling anxious or depressed or maybe you are finding it difficult to make choices. We all find ourselves facing difficult situations at various times in our lives and sometimes having someone to listen can be all we need. I offer counselling to individuals who wish to explore the difficulties that they face in their lives in a safe, confidential, supportive and non-judgemental environment.
0121 728 6514 View 0121 728 6514
Photo of Jo Mbaeru, MBACP, Counsellor
Jo Mbaeru
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B13
I work with clients who may be struggling with grief, relationship issues, trauma, poor self-esteem, mild, moderate and severe depression, anxiety, or dread of the future.
I am a BACP-registered integrative counsellor. I have had over 6yrs experience working within the NHS as service desk analyst in a non-clinical role before graduating from Birmingham Newman University with a Bachelor’s Degree (B.A) in counselling studies and currently completing a Master’s Degree (MSc) in integrative counselling. My training cut across several counselling modalities based on PCT as a core approach providing the foundation for therapeutic alliance with my clients. Along this, depending on the client presenting issue, I draw on CBT, Gestalt, mindfulness and psychodynamic modalities in my clinical formulation.
I work with clients who may be struggling with grief, relationship issues, trauma, poor self-esteem, mild, moderate and severe depression, anxiety, or dread of the future.
I am a BACP-registered integrative counsellor. I have had over 6yrs experience working within the NHS as service desk analyst in a non-clinical role before graduating from Birmingham Newman University with a Bachelor’s Degree (B.A) in counselling studies and currently completing a Master’s Degree (MSc) in integrative counselling. My training cut across several counselling modalities based on PCT as a core approach providing the foundation for therapeutic alliance with my clients. Along this, depending on the client presenting issue, I draw on CBT, Gestalt, mindfulness and psychodynamic modalities in my clinical formulation.
01564 334662 View 01564 334662
Photo of Nadine Wilson, MSc, MUKCP, Counsellor
Nadine Wilson
Counsellor, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B18
I have specialist interests in gender and sexuality affirmative therapy; transcultural therapy; anxiety, depression, stress, and loneliness.
I warmly welcome you to my page. You have taken a courageous first step towards improving your life satisfaction. I know that sometimes our sense of direction and ways of coping in life can get a little out of sync and even friends or loved ones seem absent or unable to help. Sometimes they're part of the problems we are dealing with. Whether you're seeking a simple improvement or healing from deep wounds, within yourself and/or with others, I can help.
I have specialist interests in gender and sexuality affirmative therapy; transcultural therapy; anxiety, depression, stress, and loneliness.
I warmly welcome you to my page. You have taken a courageous first step towards improving your life satisfaction. I know that sometimes our sense of direction and ways of coping in life can get a little out of sync and even friends or loved ones seem absent or unable to help. Sometimes they're part of the problems we are dealing with. Whether you're seeking a simple improvement or healing from deep wounds, within yourself and/or with others, I can help.
0121 728 6603 View 0121 728 6603
Photo of Suzette Condison - Guided Journey Psychotherapy , MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Guided Journey Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B11
I specialise in: Anxiety, Depression, Confidence, Trauma, Family, Relationships, cultural issues and Emotional regulation.
For as long as I can remember, I have always wanted to work within a role where I'm able to help and support others. I see myself as someone who has the ability to demonstrate an attitude of respect and sensitivity towards others. Within my work, I aim to provide a comfortable environment and establish a warm therapeutic relationship, as a believe this is key factor within the therapeutic process For me therapy is like peeling an onion. It is up to you which layer of the onion you want to focus on and in how much detail.
I specialise in: Anxiety, Depression, Confidence, Trauma, Family, Relationships, cultural issues and Emotional regulation.
For as long as I can remember, I have always wanted to work within a role where I'm able to help and support others. I see myself as someone who has the ability to demonstrate an attitude of respect and sensitivity towards others. Within my work, I aim to provide a comfortable environment and establish a warm therapeutic relationship, as a believe this is key factor within the therapeutic process For me therapy is like peeling an onion. It is up to you which layer of the onion you want to focus on and in how much detail.
01785 335845 View 01785 335845
Photo of Dr Lorna Nelson, PsychD, CPsychol, Psychologist
Dr Lorna Nelson
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Birmingham B30
Not accepting new clients
I am an experienced, HCPC registered, Clinical Psychologist with over 18 years’ experience working in the NHS as a qualified psychologist. In this time, I have supported individuals, families, young people, and staff teams in various settings. This includes community and inpatient mental health services, and within paediatrics and neonatal care, in both London and the West Midlands. I have worked therapeutically with a range of emotional difficulties, including anxiety disorders, depression, OCD, PTSD, birth trauma, and adjustment to health conditions.
I am an experienced, HCPC registered, Clinical Psychologist with over 18 years’ experience working in the NHS as a qualified psychologist. In this time, I have supported individuals, families, young people, and staff teams in various settings. This includes community and inpatient mental health services, and within paediatrics and neonatal care, in both London and the West Midlands. I have worked therapeutically with a range of emotional difficulties, including anxiety disorders, depression, OCD, PTSD, birth trauma, and adjustment to health conditions.
0121 285 6975 View 0121 285 6975
Photo of Sarah Kennefick, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Sarah Kennefick
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Birmingham B13
Hi I'm Sarah and I specialise in working anxiety, depression and trauma. Maybe you are feeling anxious, overwhelmed or exhausted. Maybe you are struggling to cope with a traumatic life event. Or maybe you are generally finding life unmanageable at the moment. At times we can lose our way unintentionally and then find it difficult to get back onto the right path. If this sounds familiar, my therapy approach can help you regain some strength, clarity and balance so that you can feel more calm and back in control of your life.
Hi I'm Sarah and I specialise in working anxiety, depression and trauma. Maybe you are feeling anxious, overwhelmed or exhausted. Maybe you are struggling to cope with a traumatic life event. Or maybe you are generally finding life unmanageable at the moment. At times we can lose our way unintentionally and then find it difficult to get back onto the right path. If this sounds familiar, my therapy approach can help you regain some strength, clarity and balance so that you can feel more calm and back in control of your life.
0121 285 7524 View 0121 285 7524
Photo of Hope Peckover, MSc, BACP, Counsellor
Hope Peckover
Counsellor, MSc, BACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B13
Hi, my name is Hope. I know, a pretty good name for a therapist! I am an Integrative Psychotherapist. My aim and approach in therapy is to help you find your own path to the life you wish to live. We are all uniquely different and have different reactions to life and life events. I can help you work through some things you might find difficult. For example: Anxiety; Depression; Trauma; Relationship Issues. In order to heal and progress, we must first understand our emotions, what they are and where they come from. From here can make decisions to do something different, to break the patterns that no longer serve us in our life.
Hi, my name is Hope. I know, a pretty good name for a therapist! I am an Integrative Psychotherapist. My aim and approach in therapy is to help you find your own path to the life you wish to live. We are all uniquely different and have different reactions to life and life events. I can help you work through some things you might find difficult. For example: Anxiety; Depression; Trauma; Relationship Issues. In order to heal and progress, we must first understand our emotions, what they are and where they come from. From here can make decisions to do something different, to break the patterns that no longer serve us in our life.
0121 752 9182 View 0121 752 9182
Photo of Sobia Janjua - SJ Psychotherapy, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
SJ Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Birmingham B2  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Sobia and I'm an Accredited Psychotherapist with 17 years experience. Are you struggling with anxiety, stress, depression, feeling overwhelmed? Maybe you are finding it hard to come to terms with major life events, difficult experiences or traumas. If you are looking to make sense of your experiences, emotions or to change how you think or deal with difficulties in your life, then maybe therapy is the way forward for you. I provide a safe, contained, compassionate and person centred therapeutic environment for you to share and explore your difficulties.
Hello, my name is Sobia and I'm an Accredited Psychotherapist with 17 years experience. Are you struggling with anxiety, stress, depression, feeling overwhelmed? Maybe you are finding it hard to come to terms with major life events, difficult experiences or traumas. If you are looking to make sense of your experiences, emotions or to change how you think or deal with difficulties in your life, then maybe therapy is the way forward for you. I provide a safe, contained, compassionate and person centred therapeutic environment for you to share and explore your difficulties.
0121 387 0239 View 0121 387 0239
Photo of Farishta Jalal, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Farishta Jalal
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B16
Hello and welcome to my page. I am Farishta Jalal. I am an accredited Cognitive Behaviour Therapist having gained my Postgraduate Diploma in CBT at the University of Derby. I am also a qualified and experienced EMDR Therapist. I have experience of working with adults aged 16+, presenting with a wide range of psychological difficulties. Areas of expertise include: Generalised Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, OCD, social anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, Post-natal depression, and workplace stress. I have a particular interest in the area of psychological trauma including childhood sexual abuse, RTA, bullying, domestic violence, one-off traumas and complicated grief.
Hello and welcome to my page. I am Farishta Jalal. I am an accredited Cognitive Behaviour Therapist having gained my Postgraduate Diploma in CBT at the University of Derby. I am also a qualified and experienced EMDR Therapist. I have experience of working with adults aged 16+, presenting with a wide range of psychological difficulties. Areas of expertise include: Generalised Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, OCD, social anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, Post-natal depression, and workplace stress. I have a particular interest in the area of psychological trauma including childhood sexual abuse, RTA, bullying, domestic violence, one-off traumas and complicated grief.
0121 728 6554 View 0121 728 6554
Photo of Abi Jordan, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Abi Jordan
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B13
No question is too big or small to bring to therapy. Perhaps you have a sense that something in your life isn’t feeling quite right and would like to make sense of this, or perhaps you are struggling with issues within relationships with loved ones and would like for these to improve. It may be that you have been struggling with low mood, depression or anxiety and have taken the first step of seeking support. As a Systemic Psychotherapist, I work with Families, Couples and Individuals. I work in a way which is collaborative, recognising and drawing upon people’s strengths.
No question is too big or small to bring to therapy. Perhaps you have a sense that something in your life isn’t feeling quite right and would like to make sense of this, or perhaps you are struggling with issues within relationships with loved ones and would like for these to improve. It may be that you have been struggling with low mood, depression or anxiety and have taken the first step of seeking support. As a Systemic Psychotherapist, I work with Families, Couples and Individuals. I work in a way which is collaborative, recognising and drawing upon people’s strengths.
0121 803 9868 View 0121 803 9868
Photo of Rajnish Kaur Virk
Rajnish Kaur Virk
Verified Verified
Birmingham B32
My online CBT therapy sessions are designed to help you overcome anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues triggered by various life events.
Are you struggling with anxiety, health concerns, or stress in these challenging times? If you're looking for a way to better manage your mental health and overall wellbeing, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) might be the solution you need. I'm Rajnish Virk, an experienced CBT therapist with over 15 years of experience in the NHS, and I'm here to help you navigate through these difficult emotions. “Not quite ready for one-on-one therapy, or looking for a more cost-effective option? Discover my exclusive 4-week anxiety management program.
My online CBT therapy sessions are designed to help you overcome anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues triggered by various life events.
Are you struggling with anxiety, health concerns, or stress in these challenging times? If you're looking for a way to better manage your mental health and overall wellbeing, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) might be the solution you need. I'm Rajnish Virk, an experienced CBT therapist with over 15 years of experience in the NHS, and I'm here to help you navigate through these difficult emotions. “Not quite ready for one-on-one therapy, or looking for a more cost-effective option? Discover my exclusive 4-week anxiety management program.
0121 809 6135 View 0121 809 6135
Photo of Raj Bassi, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Raj Bassi
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B15
I am an accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and have completed a degree in Psychology and primarily practice cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). I have over ten years experience of working within a range of NHS mental health services in London and the West Midlands in treating depression, anxiety disorders and trauma in adults and children by way of delivering effective treatment and providing evidence-based procedures.
I am an accredited Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (CBT) and have completed a degree in Psychology and primarily practice cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). I have over ten years experience of working within a range of NHS mental health services in London and the West Midlands in treating depression, anxiety disorders and trauma in adults and children by way of delivering effective treatment and providing evidence-based procedures.
0121 809 6158 View 0121 809 6158
Photo of Louise Brookes, MBACP, Counsellor
Louise Brookes
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Birmingham B9  (Online Only)
Maybe you’re looking for support right now? Maybe you have anxiety or depression? Do you want to manage different transitions in life, or perhaps your confidence feels low? I work with a variety of topics, utilising techniques to best suit you. Talking about your difficulties may feel overwhelming. However, I provide a safe space for you to be listened to and to help you to see things differently. I believe you’re the expert in you and will support you to explore things at a pace to suit you. I’m a registered member of BACP. 50 minute sessions as standard but 30-minutes available on request.
Maybe you’re looking for support right now? Maybe you have anxiety or depression? Do you want to manage different transitions in life, or perhaps your confidence feels low? I work with a variety of topics, utilising techniques to best suit you. Talking about your difficulties may feel overwhelming. However, I provide a safe space for you to be listened to and to help you to see things differently. I believe you’re the expert in you and will support you to explore things at a pace to suit you. I’m a registered member of BACP. 50 minute sessions as standard but 30-minutes available on request.
0121 661 5955 View 0121 661 5955
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Depression Counsellors

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognise and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioural activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.