Counselling in Battle

Photo of Laura Rowe, Psychologist in Battle, England
Laura Rowe
Psychologist, HCPC - Sport Psych.
Verified Verified
Battle TN33  (Online Only)
Please Note - I will be 'out of the office' until Monday 15th April 2024. Enquiries will be reviewed and responded to on my return. Do you want to perform at your best in sport? Have a goal you would love to reach but aren’t quite sure if you’ll get there? Recognised that the ‘mental side’ may be holding you back? If you are suffering with low confidence, competition anxiety, or inconsistency in your performance, I am here to help.
Please Note - I will be 'out of the office' until Monday 15th April 2024. Enquiries will be reviewed and responded to on my return. Do you want to perform at your best in sport? Have a goal you would love to reach but aren’t quite sure if you’ll get there? Recognised that the ‘mental side’ may be holding you back? If you are suffering with low confidence, competition anxiety, or inconsistency in your performance, I am here to help.
01424 236850 View 01424 236850
Photo of Tom Cowan, Counsellor in Battle, England
Tom Cowan
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
Whatever the issues and problems we have to face, one question seems to come up whether we are aware of it or not, which is how much if any control do we have over the way we feel, especially when we feel very powerful or overwhelming emotions. Usually the bad things happen (or are said) when we are out of control and completely in the grip of our feelings of anger, jealousy, fear, lust, greed etc. However trying to remove or erase these feelings, an obvious and often tried solution doesn’t seem to work that well, usually they squirt out and can be even more damaging by being denied and buried.
Whatever the issues and problems we have to face, one question seems to come up whether we are aware of it or not, which is how much if any control do we have over the way we feel, especially when we feel very powerful or overwhelming emotions. Usually the bad things happen (or are said) when we are out of control and completely in the grip of our feelings of anger, jealousy, fear, lust, greed etc. However trying to remove or erase these feelings, an obvious and often tried solution doesn’t seem to work that well, usually they squirt out and can be even more damaging by being denied and buried.
01424 238985 View 01424 238985
Photo of Nadiya Paton, Counsellor in Battle, England
Nadiya Paton
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
My mission is to empower you with the knowledge and skills needed to overcome challenges and thrive in various aspects of your life, together we will explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviour, we will focus on understanding your concerns and develop practical strategies for meaningful change. I have a deep and personal understanding of Autism and ADHD and utilize a combination of therapeutic modalities, to meet the specific needs of each individual such as Solution Focused therapy and psycho education to foster understanding, resilience, and positive change.
My mission is to empower you with the knowledge and skills needed to overcome challenges and thrive in various aspects of your life, together we will explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviour, we will focus on understanding your concerns and develop practical strategies for meaningful change. I have a deep and personal understanding of Autism and ADHD and utilize a combination of therapeutic modalities, to meet the specific needs of each individual such as Solution Focused therapy and psycho education to foster understanding, resilience, and positive change.
01424 619053 View 01424 619053
Photo of Marilia C Whittome, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Marilia C Whittome
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
Counselling, Psychotherapy, Therapeutic Coaching in Bexhill on Sea, Eastbourne, Brighton (face-to face) and beyond (by Skype). I qualified as a psychotherapist from the University of Sussex nearly 20 years ago, having gained a BSc (Honours) degree in Psychology in the late 1990s. My previous career was as a translator/interpreter in Higher Education. My work is underpinned by the psychodynamic (Freudian) approach which helps clients to understand how past relationships may be influencing their present issues such anxiety, generalised anxiety disorder, relationships, depression and many other personal difficulties.
Counselling, Psychotherapy, Therapeutic Coaching in Bexhill on Sea, Eastbourne, Brighton (face-to face) and beyond (by Skype). I qualified as a psychotherapist from the University of Sussex nearly 20 years ago, having gained a BSc (Honours) degree in Psychology in the late 1990s. My previous career was as a translator/interpreter in Higher Education. My work is underpinned by the psychodynamic (Freudian) approach which helps clients to understand how past relationships may be influencing their present issues such anxiety, generalised anxiety disorder, relationships, depression and many other personal difficulties.
07480 619612 View 07480 619612
Photo of Charlotte Brown, Counsellor in Battle, England
Charlotte Brown
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
Hi, I am a qualified person-centred counsellor in Hastings with experience of working with adults, adolescents and children. I offer a holistic and creative approach to therapy, where I have extensive training and experience working with a wide range of issues. I understand seeking counselling can be a very difficult daunting process. I am naturally empathic, supportive and non-judgmental. I am passionate in my belief of working together to create a trusting authentic therapeutic relationship, to explore potentially difficult and tender aspects of your life in a safe and confidential space.
Hi, I am a qualified person-centred counsellor in Hastings with experience of working with adults, adolescents and children. I offer a holistic and creative approach to therapy, where I have extensive training and experience working with a wide range of issues. I understand seeking counselling can be a very difficult daunting process. I am naturally empathic, supportive and non-judgmental. I am passionate in my belief of working together to create a trusting authentic therapeutic relationship, to explore potentially difficult and tender aspects of your life in a safe and confidential space.
01424 236856 View 01424 236856
Photo of Helen Willoughby, Counsellor in Battle, England
Helen Willoughby
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33  (Online Only)
To hold onto issues whether from childhood or a few years ago can keep us in a place that is painful and confusing and can seem impossible to move on from. This can lead to mental health problems such as anxiety or depression or some form of addiction that keeps you stuck. By starting to talk through these issues with a counsellor it can lead to a freedom and understanding about yourself and then you are able to move on with your life.
To hold onto issues whether from childhood or a few years ago can keep us in a place that is painful and confusing and can seem impossible to move on from. This can lead to mental health problems such as anxiety or depression or some form of addiction that keeps you stuck. By starting to talk through these issues with a counsellor it can lead to a freedom and understanding about yourself and then you are able to move on with your life.
01342 659974 View 01342 659974
Photo of Dorothy Arnott, Counsellor in Battle, England
Dorothy Arnott
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
'Life is not the way it supposed to be. It is the way it is. The way we cope with it is what makes the difference.' Virginia Satir, psychotherapist. Changes, challenges, fears and loss are all part of our human experience. Sometimes we can manage the difficulties we face, on other occasions we may feel overwhelmed and in need of support. This is true for people at all stages of life. I offer a safe, non-judgemental, confidential and comfortable environment where you can talk about and creatively explore your thoughts, feelings and experiences.
'Life is not the way it supposed to be. It is the way it is. The way we cope with it is what makes the difference.' Virginia Satir, psychotherapist. Changes, challenges, fears and loss are all part of our human experience. Sometimes we can manage the difficulties we face, on other occasions we may feel overwhelmed and in need of support. This is true for people at all stages of life. I offer a safe, non-judgemental, confidential and comfortable environment where you can talk about and creatively explore your thoughts, feelings and experiences.
01424 238983 View 01424 238983
Photo of Leonie Roffe, Counsellor in Battle, England
Leonie Roffe
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Battle TN33
I am an LGBTQ+ affirmative person-centred counsellor based in Hastings, and I work with individuals and couples. I offer a safe, accepting and compassionate space for you to be completely yourself, where you can experience your emotions without judgement. We can explore what it is that has brought you to counselling at your own pace, and find ways to navigate the difficult times together.
I am an LGBTQ+ affirmative person-centred counsellor based in Hastings, and I work with individuals and couples. I offer a safe, accepting and compassionate space for you to be completely yourself, where you can experience your emotions without judgement. We can explore what it is that has brought you to counselling at your own pace, and find ways to navigate the difficult times together.
01323 671803 View 01323 671803
Photo of Lisa Adams-Davey, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Lisa Adams-Davey
Psychotherapist, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
I work in private clinical practice at Trust Therapy, East Sussex, and I am a Clinical Supervisor with CRUSE Bereavement Support (Hastings and Rother). I have specialised in Bereavement as a Therapist for the NHS with St Michael's Hospice (St Leonards on sea), and I have experience in working with trauma, abuse, severe and enduring mental health, and Neurodiversity within my private clinic and at various organisations, including Butterflies Children’s Therapy, CRUSE Bereavement Support, JHD Counselling, Sensoft, and Place2B Children’s Mental Health Services.
I work in private clinical practice at Trust Therapy, East Sussex, and I am a Clinical Supervisor with CRUSE Bereavement Support (Hastings and Rother). I have specialised in Bereavement as a Therapist for the NHS with St Michael's Hospice (St Leonards on sea), and I have experience in working with trauma, abuse, severe and enduring mental health, and Neurodiversity within my private clinic and at various organisations, including Butterflies Children’s Therapy, CRUSE Bereavement Support, JHD Counselling, Sensoft, and Place2B Children’s Mental Health Services.
01424 400396 View 01424 400396
Photo of Dr Ann Steele, Psychologist in Battle, England
Dr Ann Steele
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
We all face and overcome challenges every single day; but sometimes we come up against something that feels too big to tackle alone. If this feels like you then you are in the right place - seeking support through talking therapy can be the beginning of a life-changing journey. I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 10 years of experience working in the NHS, research and private practice with people of all ages. I have treated people with low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, trauma, OCD, bipolar disorder, psychosis and long-term physical health conditions amongst other difficulties.
We all face and overcome challenges every single day; but sometimes we come up against something that feels too big to tackle alone. If this feels like you then you are in the right place - seeking support through talking therapy can be the beginning of a life-changing journey. I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 10 years of experience working in the NHS, research and private practice with people of all ages. I have treated people with low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, trauma, OCD, bipolar disorder, psychosis and long-term physical health conditions amongst other difficulties.
01424 619106 View 01424 619106
Photo of Dr Stewart Blake, Psychologist in Battle, England
Dr Stewart Blake
Psychologist, PsychD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
I am a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society and have a doctorate in Psychotherapeutic and Counselling Psychology from the University of Surrey. Prior to this qualification I was awarded a Bachelor of Science (First Class Honours) degree in Psychology with Clinical Psychology from the University of Kent. I have a wide range of experience working within a number of Community Mental Health Teams and Psychological Services Departments for the Kent and Medway NHS Foundation Trust. These roles involved working with a broad spectrum of psychological distress ranging from mild to severe and enduring.
I am a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society and have a doctorate in Psychotherapeutic and Counselling Psychology from the University of Surrey. Prior to this qualification I was awarded a Bachelor of Science (First Class Honours) degree in Psychology with Clinical Psychology from the University of Kent. I have a wide range of experience working within a number of Community Mental Health Teams and Psychological Services Departments for the Kent and Medway NHS Foundation Trust. These roles involved working with a broad spectrum of psychological distress ranging from mild to severe and enduring.
01424 236851 View 01424 236851
Photo of Karen Taylor, Counsellor in Battle, England
Karen Taylor
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
I am an accredited, fully insured therapeutic counsellor having studied Transactional Analysis psychotherapy, based in East Sussex; working with adults on a one-to-one basis, either in-person or on-line. I have a corporate background which compliments my work and provides context to some of the challenges my clients face. This mixture of experience allows me to better understand the struggles of how our 'public face' can often feel at odds with our inner world and of the pressures and expectations of self and others that often feel overwhelming.
I am an accredited, fully insured therapeutic counsellor having studied Transactional Analysis psychotherapy, based in East Sussex; working with adults on a one-to-one basis, either in-person or on-line. I have a corporate background which compliments my work and provides context to some of the challenges my clients face. This mixture of experience allows me to better understand the struggles of how our 'public face' can often feel at odds with our inner world and of the pressures and expectations of self and others that often feel overwhelming.
01424 232859 View 01424 232859
Photo of Mark Evetts, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Mark Evetts
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Battle TN33
18 years experience as a Psychotherapist. Online Counselling provided for those isolated at home. It’s very normal to need help when life is challenging or distressing. Such upsets might be because of loss, anxiety, depression or maybe due to childhood neglect, abuse or trauma. Some people simply want to learn more about themselves. Whatever the reason, counselling is a way to help you discover more of who you are, your resilience, find strength and determine a successful strategy that works for you.
18 years experience as a Psychotherapist. Online Counselling provided for those isolated at home. It’s very normal to need help when life is challenging or distressing. Such upsets might be because of loss, anxiety, depression or maybe due to childhood neglect, abuse or trauma. Some people simply want to learn more about themselves. Whatever the reason, counselling is a way to help you discover more of who you are, your resilience, find strength and determine a successful strategy that works for you.
01323 671809 View 01323 671809
Photo of Jodie Wade - Seashore Therapy , Counsellor in Battle, England
Jodie Wade - Seashore Therapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Battle TN33
Not accepting new clients
Welcome and thank you for looking at my profile. People come to counselling for for many reasons. I am committed to helping you. Giving opportunity for you to reflect on any difficulties you are experiencing in a confidential space. I will listen with sensitivity, non-judgement and empathy to understand the way you view the world around you. So together we can explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours to give you a deeper awareness and understanding of your self and the challenges you are facing. This can give you clarity and confidence to feel empowered and make meaningful decisions and change where you feel necessary.
Welcome and thank you for looking at my profile. People come to counselling for for many reasons. I am committed to helping you. Giving opportunity for you to reflect on any difficulties you are experiencing in a confidential space. I will listen with sensitivity, non-judgement and empathy to understand the way you view the world around you. So together we can explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours to give you a deeper awareness and understanding of your self and the challenges you are facing. This can give you clarity and confidence to feel empowered and make meaningful decisions and change where you feel necessary.
01424 232871 View 01424 232871
Photo of Butterflies Child & Adolescent Counselling Service, Counsellor in Battle, England
Butterflies Child & Adolescent Counselling Service
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Battle TN33
01435 512341 View 01435 512341

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Harriet Dudley, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Harriet Dudley
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hastings TN34
As an integrative psychotherapist I tailor my approach to meet your needs. Together we will develop tools to help you manage your thoughts and feelings so that you can have the relationships you want and pursue a meaningful life. If you are struggling with emotional pain, worry, anxiety or depression, I can provide a safe and confidential space to begin your recovery. During your introductory session you can get a sense of if and how we might work together.
As an integrative psychotherapist I tailor my approach to meet your needs. Together we will develop tools to help you manage your thoughts and feelings so that you can have the relationships you want and pursue a meaningful life. If you are struggling with emotional pain, worry, anxiety or depression, I can provide a safe and confidential space to begin your recovery. During your introductory session you can get a sense of if and how we might work together.
01424 619080 View 01424 619080
Photo of Carrie Dubber, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Carrie Dubber
Psychotherapist, PsychD, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hastings TN34
I have worked in the NHS for 20 years, initially as an Occupational Therapist and subsequently as a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and Therapy Supervisor. I have worked with a wide range of issues such as Anxiety, Phobias, Panic disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Depression PTSD and Trauma. I also work with relationship issues and the impact on depression, self esteem, body dysmorphia and eating issues. I am highly skilled in groupwork as well as 1:1 Therapy. Therapies Offered: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Inter-Personal Therapy (IPT). EMDR for PTSD and complex trauma.
I have worked in the NHS for 20 years, initially as an Occupational Therapist and subsequently as a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist and Therapy Supervisor. I have worked with a wide range of issues such as Anxiety, Phobias, Panic disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Depression PTSD and Trauma. I also work with relationship issues and the impact on depression, self esteem, body dysmorphia and eating issues. I am highly skilled in groupwork as well as 1:1 Therapy. Therapies Offered: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Inter-Personal Therapy (IPT). EMDR for PTSD and complex trauma.
01424 619017 View 01424 619017
Photo of Lucy Matthews, Counsellor in Battle, England
Lucy Matthews
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Heathfield TN21
Hi, I’m Lucy (she/her) a psychodynamic psychotherapeutic counsellor and a registered member of the BACP. I see clients in person near Uckfield in East Sussex. My practice is 30 minutes’ drive from Brighton and Eastbourne, on a main bus route and with private free parking. I also offer sessions online. I understand how difficult it can be to reach out for help, I will provide a warm, welcoming, confidential and safe space for you to explore what is on your mind and troubling you. We will work together to help you gain a deeper understanding of yourself and explore your thoughts, feelings and desires.
Hi, I’m Lucy (she/her) a psychodynamic psychotherapeutic counsellor and a registered member of the BACP. I see clients in person near Uckfield in East Sussex. My practice is 30 minutes’ drive from Brighton and Eastbourne, on a main bus route and with private free parking. I also offer sessions online. I understand how difficult it can be to reach out for help, I will provide a warm, welcoming, confidential and safe space for you to explore what is on your mind and troubling you. We will work together to help you gain a deeper understanding of yourself and explore your thoughts, feelings and desires.
01825 703182 View 01825 703182
Photo of Dr Rachel Bull, Psychotherapist in Battle, England
Dr Rachel Bull
Psychotherapist, ACP
Verified Verified
Hastings TN35
Waitlist for new clients
I see children and young people aged 0 - 25 with a wide range of difficulties - including complex mental health problems, autism, physical health conditions and those struggling with the day-to-day social and emotional challenges of growing up. Most people will experience times in their lives when they are worried or distressed. In an initial consultation we will explore the ways I might be able to help so that family life and emotional well-being can improve.
I see children and young people aged 0 - 25 with a wide range of difficulties - including complex mental health problems, autism, physical health conditions and those struggling with the day-to-day social and emotional challenges of growing up. Most people will experience times in their lives when they are worried or distressed. In an initial consultation we will explore the ways I might be able to help so that family life and emotional well-being can improve.
01424 619117 View 01424 619117
Photo of Beaumont Child and Educational Psychology Ltd, Psychologist in Battle, England
Beaumont Child and Educational Psychology Ltd
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Ed. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bexhill-on-Sea TN39
It's difficult watching a child or young person experience difficulties. I can provide support to children, young people, their Parents, Teachers and organisations e.g. fostering/adoption organisations with services including: Joint problem-solving meetings, Full Psychological assessment with report, Bespoke individual, group and whole class therapeutic interventions, Staff supervision etc. Please see my website for further information, which can be found under Beaumont child and educational psychology
It's difficult watching a child or young person experience difficulties. I can provide support to children, young people, their Parents, Teachers and organisations e.g. fostering/adoption organisations with services including: Joint problem-solving meetings, Full Psychological assessment with report, Bespoke individual, group and whole class therapeutic interventions, Staff supervision etc. Please see my website for further information, which can be found under Beaumont child and educational psychology
01424 232886 View 01424 232886

See more therapy options for Battle

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Battle

10+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in Battle who prioritize treating:

93% Depression
93% Anxiety
87% Self Esteem
87% Stress
80% Bereavement
67% Relationship Issues
67% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aviva
100% Bupa
67% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in Battle see their clients

87% In Person and Online
13% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
21% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Battle?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.