Emma Payne
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO18
Walk-Talk Therapy: Do you want to re-connect with nature? To feel more grounded, mindful & to just slow down? We will walk in the beautiful woods and fields near my counselling room in the South Downs. Walking & being in nature releases endorphins which in turn reduces depression and anxiety. Life is often so busy that nature becomes removed - this will give you time to reconnect. For some people face to face traditional counselling is too anxiety provoking, so walking in parallel can feel more comfortable. Adults & Young people 16yrs+. Indoor counselling £60 x 1hr session, Walk-Talk £78 x 1.5hrs, £104 x 2hrs.
07401 273148
Verified
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Chichester PO18
Walk-Talk Therapy: Do you want to re-connect with nature? To feel more grounded, mindful & to just slow down? We will walk in the beautiful woods and fields near my counselling room in the South Downs. Walking & being in nature releases endorphins which in turn reduces depression and anxiety. Life is often so busy that nature becomes removed - this will give you time to reconnect. For some people face to face traditional counselling is too anxiety provoking, so walking in parallel can feel more comfortable. Adults & Young people 16yrs+. Indoor counselling £60 x 1hr session, Walk-Talk £78 x 1.5hrs, £104 x 2hrs.
Photo of Thrive at Willow, Counsellor
Thrive at Willow
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
My interests and experience working with issues including Addiction, Anger problems, Anxiety, Bereavement / Loss, Depression, Loneliness, Low self-esteem, PTSD, Shame, Stress, Suicide and Trauma.
Counselling provides a safe, confidential environment for you to talk through your concerns you find difficult to deal with on your own or to discuss with friends and family. I will listen to you with empathy and in a non-judgemental way. I will support you as you become aware of how events and concerns impact your emotions, thoughts, choices and behaviour. Together we can explore to make sense of your experiences and to discover new ways to deal with similar or new experiences. You can develop and gain more self-understanding; and acquire a sense of security, significance and self-worth to help you in the future.
01252 412056
Verified
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Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
My interests and experience working with issues including Addiction, Anger problems, Anxiety, Bereavement / Loss, Depression, Loneliness, Low self-esteem, PTSD, Shame, Stress, Suicide and Trauma.
Counselling provides a safe, confidential environment for you to talk through your concerns you find difficult to deal with on your own or to discuss with friends and family. I will listen to you with empathy and in a non-judgemental way. I will support you as you become aware of how events and concerns impact your emotions, thoughts, choices and behaviour. Together we can explore to make sense of your experiences and to discover new ways to deal with similar or new experiences. You can develop and gain more self-understanding; and acquire a sense of security, significance and self-worth to help you in the future.
Photo of Lana Kelleher Counselling, Psychotherapist
Lana Kelleher Counselling
Psychotherapist, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I highly specialise in trauma and post traumatic stress disorder, sexual abuse, domestic violence, anxiety, depression, bereavement, low self-confidence, eating disorders, relationship issues.
My job is to help you look after your emotional and mental wellbeing in a safe, confidential and non-judgemental environment. We will work together to understand and clarify your concerns, explore your difficulties and identify meaningful and lasting changes you would like to make in order to improve your life. My job will not stop there as I will empower you to achieve your goals, find your own solutions to your problems, develop your own strengths and skills that you can use when dealing with life challenges.
01243 957263
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I highly specialise in trauma and post traumatic stress disorder, sexual abuse, domestic violence, anxiety, depression, bereavement, low self-confidence, eating disorders, relationship issues.
My job is to help you look after your emotional and mental wellbeing in a safe, confidential and non-judgemental environment. We will work together to understand and clarify your concerns, explore your difficulties and identify meaningful and lasting changes you would like to make in order to improve your life. My job will not stop there as I will empower you to achieve your goals, find your own solutions to your problems, develop your own strengths and skills that you can use when dealing with life challenges.
Photo of Rachel Barlow, Counsellor
Rachel Barlow
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Do you sometimes struggle with feelings of sadness, loneliness, depression or hopelessness? Do you feel that you're in a never ending loop, repeating unhelpful and negative patterns of behaviour? Together we can help you to understand your feelings by looking at your past relationships and any past trauma. We can work through old and unhelpful perspectives and feelings about yourself and your life and help you make positive changes; putting the pieces of your puzzle back together, leading to you loving your life and accepting every aspect of it. This might be the most important journey you will ever make.
01243 974641
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Do you sometimes struggle with feelings of sadness, loneliness, depression or hopelessness? Do you feel that you're in a never ending loop, repeating unhelpful and negative patterns of behaviour? Together we can help you to understand your feelings by looking at your past relationships and any past trauma. We can work through old and unhelpful perspectives and feelings about yourself and your life and help you make positive changes; putting the pieces of your puzzle back together, leading to you loving your life and accepting every aspect of it. This might be the most important journey you will ever make.
Lesley Downs
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I love working with couples & individuals who want to make changes in their lives. Perhaps for you it's a struggle with anxiety or depression. Maybe you are unhappy with a relationship, feel trapped, betrayed or dissatisfied with how things are. I offer couples weekly or intensive half and full day sessions to really kick start your progress towards a happier future. Possibly you hate your job and want to do something different but you're not sure what or how to make that big step forward into a different world. Perhaps you've lost your confidence and your self esteem has hit rock bottom and you need a positive way forward?
07427 534886
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I love working with couples & individuals who want to make changes in their lives. Perhaps for you it's a struggle with anxiety or depression. Maybe you are unhappy with a relationship, feel trapped, betrayed or dissatisfied with how things are. I offer couples weekly or intensive half and full day sessions to really kick start your progress towards a happier future. Possibly you hate your job and want to do something different but you're not sure what or how to make that big step forward into a different world. Perhaps you've lost your confidence and your self esteem has hit rock bottom and you need a positive way forward?
Photo of Catherine Elizabeth Goss, Counsellor
Catherine Elizabeth Goss
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
People come to counselling when their life is not going as they want it to. With sensitive listening, empathy and gentle observation I can help you to become aware of what is troubling you and why. You may be having difficulties in one or more of a wide range of difficulties including anger, anxiety, bereavement, eating disorders, depression, divorce and separation, family issues, guilt, loneliness, injury, loss and grief, low self esteem, relationship issues or stress. Talking to someone who really listens and supports you in listening to yourself, can lead to greater self-acceptance, understanding and resilience.
07588 735136
Verified
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Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
People come to counselling when their life is not going as they want it to. With sensitive listening, empathy and gentle observation I can help you to become aware of what is troubling you and why. You may be having difficulties in one or more of a wide range of difficulties including anger, anxiety, bereavement, eating disorders, depression, divorce and separation, family issues, guilt, loneliness, injury, loss and grief, low self esteem, relationship issues or stress. Talking to someone who really listens and supports you in listening to yourself, can lead to greater self-acceptance, understanding and resilience.
Photo of Shanti Cussans, Counsellor
Shanti Cussans
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO18
I cover a wide range of presenting issues; I specialise in obesity, disordered eating, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, addiction issue, sexual abuse and trauma, bereavement, low esteem and confidence, self harm and relationship problems.
I am here to help you through this difficult time, even if the issues you face feel insurmountable; we will use our time to develop a genuine and professional relationship which becomes the platform for your discovery and growth. The therapeutic space will make you feel comfortable, trusting and safe, and I will support you to make positive changes in your life. I use a wide range of creative therapies to provide every opportunity to explore your worries. Ultimately we all want to be happy and able to enjoy all that life has to offer; you have the power to take control of the problems weighing you down, let me help you achieve it.
01243 974586
Verified
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Chichester PO18
I cover a wide range of presenting issues; I specialise in obesity, disordered eating, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, addiction issue, sexual abuse and trauma, bereavement, low esteem and confidence, self harm and relationship problems.
I am here to help you through this difficult time, even if the issues you face feel insurmountable; we will use our time to develop a genuine and professional relationship which becomes the platform for your discovery and growth. The therapeutic space will make you feel comfortable, trusting and safe, and I will support you to make positive changes in your life. I use a wide range of creative therapies to provide every opportunity to explore your worries. Ultimately we all want to be happy and able to enjoy all that life has to offer; you have the power to take control of the problems weighing you down, let me help you achieve it.
Photo of Alison Cassy, Counsellor
Alison Cassy
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Life can throw many challenges at us, and whilst we may often cope well, we sometimes need a little support from someone unrelated to our lives. This is where effective counselling, tailored to the individual, has its place. I am experienced via the NHS, charities and private practice in helping clients explore many issues including anxiety, depression, trauma & PTSD, addictions, lifestage and relationship issues. I am also trained to work with sex offending issues, sexual addictions including online pornography and other paraphilias. I offer a totally non-judgmental, confidential space to safely explore your current difficulties.
07891 372708
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Life can throw many challenges at us, and whilst we may often cope well, we sometimes need a little support from someone unrelated to our lives. This is where effective counselling, tailored to the individual, has its place. I am experienced via the NHS, charities and private practice in helping clients explore many issues including anxiety, depression, trauma & PTSD, addictions, lifestage and relationship issues. I am also trained to work with sex offending issues, sexual addictions including online pornography and other paraphilias. I offer a totally non-judgmental, confidential space to safely explore your current difficulties.
Lynn Crescens Smith
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Do you sometimes struggle with anxiety, panic attacks, sadness, depression, stress or a lack of confidence? Do you keep repeating the same old patterns of behaviour? Just want it to stop? Together we can look at where these patterns began by exploring your past experiences and relationships in a safe, non-judgemental environment. Whether you have a problem that needs some time to look at or something specific that you need help with right now .... using either long-term or short-term therapy, we can work together to help you find a solution and get back to the enjoyment of living. Appointments may be available at short notice.
07480 488869
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Do you sometimes struggle with anxiety, panic attacks, sadness, depression, stress or a lack of confidence? Do you keep repeating the same old patterns of behaviour? Just want it to stop? Together we can look at where these patterns began by exploring your past experiences and relationships in a safe, non-judgemental environment. Whether you have a problem that needs some time to look at or something specific that you need help with right now .... using either long-term or short-term therapy, we can work together to help you find a solution and get back to the enjoyment of living. Appointments may be available at short notice.
Photo of Craig Ryan, Counsellor
Craig Ryan
Counsellor, BACP Verified
Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
I trained at the London Metropolitan University and am an Individual member registered with the BACP. Along side working within the NHS, I carry out work with a charity supporting single parents. I provide a non judgemental safe protected space. I am an integrative counsellor, which means I am able to draw upon different resources to meet your individual needs and requirements. Some areas of work I work with are; stress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, men's health, bereavement and loss, physical and domestic violence, low confidence and self-esteem issues, substance misuse disorders and many more.
01737 949947
Verified
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Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
I trained at the London Metropolitan University and am an Individual member registered with the BACP. Along side working within the NHS, I carry out work with a charity supporting single parents. I provide a non judgemental safe protected space. I am an integrative counsellor, which means I am able to draw upon different resources to meet your individual needs and requirements. Some areas of work I work with are; stress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, men's health, bereavement and loss, physical and domestic violence, low confidence and self-esteem issues, substance misuse disorders and many more.
Photo of Amy Stoddard Ajayi, Psychotherapist
Amy Stoddard Ajayi
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Verified
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Many patients I support have suffered with chronic anxiety and depression, low self-esteem, self-harm, OCD, trauma, suicidal thoughts, addiction and physical and psychological pain.
I am a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with a background in specialist NHS psychological treatment. I am the Mental Health Lead for the Cambridge Medical Academy (Cambridge University), where I train a global network of 800+ doctors and nurses in mental health. My research on improving access to mental health has been published internationally. I sit on a number of international Boards where I advise on mental health service design and delivery. I lecture at Southampton University teaching the Phd and MSc Psychology students. I provide in depth assessment and treatment for a range of psychological and emotional problems.
01243 957262
Verified
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Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Many patients I support have suffered with chronic anxiety and depression, low self-esteem, self-harm, OCD, trauma, suicidal thoughts, addiction and physical and psychological pain.
I am a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist with a background in specialist NHS psychological treatment. I am the Mental Health Lead for the Cambridge Medical Academy (Cambridge University), where I train a global network of 800+ doctors and nurses in mental health. My research on improving access to mental health has been published internationally. I sit on a number of international Boards where I advise on mental health service design and delivery. I lecture at Southampton University teaching the Phd and MSc Psychology students. I provide in depth assessment and treatment for a range of psychological and emotional problems.
Photo of Stephen Burt, Counsellor
Stephen Burt
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
You may be wondering why you do some of the things you do, things that may be harmful to yourself or others, or that keep bringing you back to square one. Perhaps you feel lonely, even when you are with other people, or stuck in the process of making a difficult decision or transition. You may be struggling with depression or anxiety, or feel stressed and find it hard to relax. Whatever your reason for ending up at my page, your being here shows that you have, at the very least, a glimmer of hope that things could be better, and a sense that you need someone to help you on your journey.
07403 940007
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
You may be wondering why you do some of the things you do, things that may be harmful to yourself or others, or that keep bringing you back to square one. Perhaps you feel lonely, even when you are with other people, or stuck in the process of making a difficult decision or transition. You may be struggling with depression or anxiety, or feel stressed and find it hard to relax. Whatever your reason for ending up at my page, your being here shows that you have, at the very least, a glimmer of hope that things could be better, and a sense that you need someone to help you on your journey.
Photo of Janis Wilson, Psychotherapist
Janis Wilson
Psychotherapist, MUKCP Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
Thinking about coming to see a Counsellor/Therapist? Welcome. If you're looking here then it's likely you are experiencing some kind of distress or unhappiness. You might be suffering with anxiety or depression or have recently experienced a loss or be having difficulties with work, relationships or unwanted habits. Many things can prompt seeking help and you're probably looking for a compassionate listener but also someone who can help you to feel better.
01243 979826
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
Thinking about coming to see a Counsellor/Therapist? Welcome. If you're looking here then it's likely you are experiencing some kind of distress or unhappiness. You might be suffering with anxiety or depression or have recently experienced a loss or be having difficulties with work, relationships or unwanted habits. Many things can prompt seeking help and you're probably looking for a compassionate listener but also someone who can help you to feel better.
Photo of Louise Benzimra, Psychotherapist
Louise Benzimra
Psychotherapist, BPC Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Difficulties addressed in therapy can include anxiety, fear, depression, sadness, loneliness, stress, relational breakdowns or suicidal feelings. Therapy may be challenging at times but we can get to a point where staying stuck hurts more than risking growth.
07866 376238
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
Difficulties addressed in therapy can include anxiety, fear, depression, sadness, loneliness, stress, relational breakdowns or suicidal feelings. Therapy may be challenging at times but we can get to a point where staying stuck hurts more than risking growth.
Photo of Colin Chapman, Psychotherapist
Colin Chapman
Psychotherapist, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
I offer individual therapy to anyone that may be experiencing challenges in their life that may include depression, anxiety, abuse, loss, trauma, stress, anger, addictions, eating disorders and relationship difficulties.
There may be occasions in our lives when we struggle to make sense of what is happening to us and the world we experience. I provide an opportunity to explore your thoughts, feelings and experiences within a relationship that is free of the fears we may hold about disclosing to people we know. I offer a relationship of trust, honesty and openness that allows you to explore your story, thoughts, hopes and fears, in a safe, supportive, confidential place, free of external influences and judgement, providing an opportunity for personal insight and change.
0330 058 1998
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
I offer individual therapy to anyone that may be experiencing challenges in their life that may include depression, anxiety, abuse, loss, trauma, stress, anger, addictions, eating disorders and relationship difficulties.
There may be occasions in our lives when we struggle to make sense of what is happening to us and the world we experience. I provide an opportunity to explore your thoughts, feelings and experiences within a relationship that is free of the fears we may hold about disclosing to people we know. I offer a relationship of trust, honesty and openness that allows you to explore your story, thoughts, hopes and fears, in a safe, supportive, confidential place, free of external influences and judgement, providing an opportunity for personal insight and change.
Photo of Jerry Paul Ramsden, Counsellor
Jerry Paul Ramsden
Counsellor Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
My clients are looking for support with burnout, insomnia, anger, phobias, anxiety, depression, trauma, bereavement, PTSD, panic attacks and/or eating disorders. I use a variety of approaches to address my clients unique needs. Many successful treatment plans will utilise a foundation of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, then quickly move toward a tailored treatment plan and approach that includes tools to help sustain the growth experienced in regular therapy. Clients may also require 24-hour service to clients including crisis management. My approach is gentle, compassionate and empathetic.
01903 947061
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
My clients are looking for support with burnout, insomnia, anger, phobias, anxiety, depression, trauma, bereavement, PTSD, panic attacks and/or eating disorders. I use a variety of approaches to address my clients unique needs. Many successful treatment plans will utilise a foundation of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, then quickly move toward a tailored treatment plan and approach that includes tools to help sustain the growth experienced in regular therapy. Clients may also require 24-hour service to clients including crisis management. My approach is gentle, compassionate and empathetic.
Photo of Sinead Mitchell, Counsellor
Sinead Mitchell
Counsellor, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
I’m Sinead Mitchell and I’ve been working as a counsellor for the past two decades. Counselling young people, couples and individuals, I work with a wide range of people through the community. Issues such as anxiety, depression, relationships issues are common areas that I support clients through. Working with various therapy styles, including CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy), Gestalt, Humanistic and Holistic, I aim to match the counselling needs to each individual or couple that I see. My specialism is the field of infertility, pregnancy, birth and all related issues. Goal-setting can be facilitated too.
01489 346863
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO18
Offers online therapy
I’m Sinead Mitchell and I’ve been working as a counsellor for the past two decades. Counselling young people, couples and individuals, I work with a wide range of people through the community. Issues such as anxiety, depression, relationships issues are common areas that I support clients through. Working with various therapy styles, including CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy), Gestalt, Humanistic and Holistic, I aim to match the counselling needs to each individual or couple that I see. My specialism is the field of infertility, pregnancy, birth and all related issues. Goal-setting can be facilitated too.
Neill Hughes
Counsellor, MBACP Accred Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
As an Accredited & registered Person-Centred & CBT (BACP Accred), I have extensive experience working with Complex trauma, PTSD, Attachment issues & Autism. I have also worked in open clinics with clients with issues such as Anxiety, Anger * Depression. I have qualified in Mentalization Based Therapy for families MBT-F, CBT and Trauma-focused CBT for PTSD (Anna Frued centre) and ADOS-2 (Autism) & Motivational Interviewing (Tavistock & Portman). I help clients to facilitate change, over come grief, work with trauma, achieve goals, build resilience & reduce unhelpful thinking patterns, I also support parents.
01243 200369
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
As an Accredited & registered Person-Centred & CBT (BACP Accred), I have extensive experience working with Complex trauma, PTSD, Attachment issues & Autism. I have also worked in open clinics with clients with issues such as Anxiety, Anger * Depression. I have qualified in Mentalization Based Therapy for families MBT-F, CBT and Trauma-focused CBT for PTSD (Anna Frued centre) and ADOS-2 (Autism) & Motivational Interviewing (Tavistock & Portman). I help clients to facilitate change, over come grief, work with trauma, achieve goals, build resilience & reduce unhelpful thinking patterns, I also support parents.
Photo of Susanne Barthelmes, Counsellor
Susanne Barthelmes
Counsellor, MA, MBACP Verified
Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I offer in-person, online and phone counselling in a warm, non-judgemental, and accepting atmosphere, where you can explore what’s going on, and find your way forward. At some stage in our lives we may all hit a low point or crisis. Depression, anxiety, traumatic experiences, separation, bereavement, illness, self-esteem, relationship, identity, and work-related issues, or other profound life challenges can leave us feeling sad, distraught, helpless, or hopeless. Counselling can offer you confidential and safe space to talk. Free initial 30min getting-to-know appointments available.
01903 924267
Verified
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Office is near:
Chichester PO19
Offers online therapy
I offer in-person, online and phone counselling in a warm, non-judgemental, and accepting atmosphere, where you can explore what’s going on, and find your way forward. At some stage in our lives we may all hit a low point or crisis. Depression, anxiety, traumatic experiences, separation, bereavement, illness, self-esteem, relationship, identity, and work-related issues, or other profound life challenges can leave us feeling sad, distraught, helpless, or hopeless. Counselling can offer you confidential and safe space to talk. Free initial 30min getting-to-know appointments available.
AHawkinstherapy
Counsellor, MNCS Accred Verified
Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
I also work in Stress management Building Self Confidence, Self Acceptance & Self Compassion Fighting Depression & Low Mood Anger Management, Jealousy and Envy I also work in Agile Coaching/ facilitating/mentoring and Leadership Coaching.
How counselling can help you - Hi, are you stressed or anxious, are you feeling overwhelmed, are you unable to sleep through worry, would you like to make sense of it all, then I can help you. I am a female fully qualified CBT Counsellor/Therapist offering friendly and confidential support through difficult times in a safe, non-judgemental space where you can talk freely, be heard and explore. I am also an experienced Global work/life coach, an Agile Coach/trainer and mentor, I am also an approved Therapist with Anxiety UK. I use Zoom, Webex, telephone and face to face in the Chichester area.
01243 979437
Verified
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Chichester PO20
Offers online therapy
I also work in Stress management Building Self Confidence, Self Acceptance & Self Compassion Fighting Depression & Low Mood Anger Management, Jealousy and Envy I also work in Agile Coaching/ facilitating/mentoring and Leadership Coaching.
How counselling can help you - Hi, are you stressed or anxious, are you feeling overwhelmed, are you unable to sleep through worry, would you like to make sense of it all, then I can help you. I am a female fully qualified CBT Counsellor/Therapist offering friendly and confidential support through difficult times in a safe, non-judgemental space where you can talk freely, be heard and explore. I am also an experienced Global work/life coach, an Agile Coach/trainer and mentor, I am also an approved Therapist with Anxiety UK. I use Zoom, Webex, telephone and face to face in the Chichester area.

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Depression Counsellors
Depressive disorders are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of desire to engage in formerly pleasurable activities. Depression is not a passing blue mood, which almost everyone experiences from time to time, but a complex mind/body illness that interferes with everyday functioning. It not only darkens one's outlook, it is commonly marked by sleep problems and changes in energy levels and appetite. It alters the structure and function of nerve cells so that it disrupts the way the brain processes information and interprets experience.

Despite feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, depression is a treatable condition. It can be treated with psychotherapy by depression counsellors in Chichester. As with many illnesses, the earlier treatment begins, the more effective it can be and the greater the likelihood that recurrence can be prevented.

Psychotherapy addresses the thinking patterns that precipitate depression, and studies show that it prevents recurrence. Drug therapy is often helpful in relieving symptoms, such as severe anxiety, so that people can engage in meaningful psychotherapy.