Photo of Jacqui Edmiston, Innox Counselling, Counsellor in BA1, England
Jacqui Edmiston, Innox Counselling
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Asking for help can be very daunting: sometimes it’s hard even to articulate your thoughts, let alone work out how to find someone who might be able to help make sense of it all. I understand this. I’ve been an advocate of ‘talking therapy’ for many years and I know how comforting it can be to share what’s going on in a space that feels safe, supportive and kind. In fact it is my own experience of being a therapist’s client that has led me to the journey I am now on.
Asking for help can be very daunting: sometimes it’s hard even to articulate your thoughts, let alone work out how to find someone who might be able to help make sense of it all. I understand this. I’ve been an advocate of ‘talking therapy’ for many years and I know how comforting it can be to share what’s going on in a space that feels safe, supportive and kind. In fact it is my own experience of being a therapist’s client that has led me to the journey I am now on.
01225 435097 View 01225 435097
Photo of Jacqueline Bailey, Psychologist in BA1, England
Jacqueline Bailey
Psychologist, PhD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
I am a health psychologist working as a CBT therapist. Please see my website resolvingpain.co.uk for more information. Or you can email me: jacqueline@resolvingpain.co.uk During these times I can offer therapy via Skype and Zoom too if necessary.
I am a health psychologist working as a CBT therapist. Please see my website resolvingpain.co.uk for more information. Or you can email me: jacqueline@resolvingpain.co.uk During these times I can offer therapy via Skype and Zoom too if necessary.
01225 985387 View 01225 985387
Photo of Kim Liversidge, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Kim Liversidge
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Counselling and Psychotherapy can help with a range of difficulties for example feelings of anxiety and depression, feelings of stuckness, helplessness and low self esteem, unhelpful patterns you notice you're repeating, a sense of lostness in your life. Psychotherapy can help you to cope with and make sense of relationship difficulties and many other issues. Please see my website for more information or email me if you would like to arrange a brief discussion to see if you'd like to go ahead and book an initial session.
Counselling and Psychotherapy can help with a range of difficulties for example feelings of anxiety and depression, feelings of stuckness, helplessness and low self esteem, unhelpful patterns you notice you're repeating, a sense of lostness in your life. Psychotherapy can help you to cope with and make sense of relationship difficulties and many other issues. Please see my website for more information or email me if you would like to arrange a brief discussion to see if you'd like to go ahead and book an initial session.
01225 985066 View 01225 985066
Photo of Maddie Chorlton, Counsellor in BA1, England
Maddie Chorlton
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
I’m Maddie, a counsellor finalising my level 6 diploma at the Bath Centre for Psychotherapy and Counselling. During this time, I can offer you the opportunity to take advantage of the potential benefits of therapy within a safe and confidential space in the city of Bath and at a discounted rate. I imagine that if you’re seeking out therapy, you’re looking to understand something in your life which doesn’t feel ‘right’, or have a sense of needing change. Perhaps you want to find out what’s at the root of these difficulties, find some clarity about a situation that’s troubling you, or even use the space to explore who you truly are.
I’m Maddie, a counsellor finalising my level 6 diploma at the Bath Centre for Psychotherapy and Counselling. During this time, I can offer you the opportunity to take advantage of the potential benefits of therapy within a safe and confidential space in the city of Bath and at a discounted rate. I imagine that if you’re seeking out therapy, you’re looking to understand something in your life which doesn’t feel ‘right’, or have a sense of needing change. Perhaps you want to find out what’s at the root of these difficulties, find some clarity about a situation that’s troubling you, or even use the space to explore who you truly are.
01225 985703 View 01225 985703
Photo of Sara Connolly, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Sara Connolly
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Waitlist for new clients
I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist-in-training offering low cost short and long term psychotherapy. I see clients at my private practice on Brock Street in Central Bath.
I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist-in-training offering low cost short and long term psychotherapy. I see clients at my private practice on Brock Street in Central Bath.
01480 270912 View 01480 270912
Photo of Mary Birch, Counsellor in BA1, England
Mary Birch
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Sometimes change and uncertainty can be overwhelming, and this can have an impact on the way we feel. Whether it’s a loss or transition in your life; moving home, starting a new job, facing retirement, we are all unique and react to situations differently. These milestone events can bring a whole range of feelings, including loneliness and sadness, low self-esteem and anxiety, leaving you unable to imagine or navigate a new way forward. You may mourn your old life and question your new decisions. Counselling can help at times like these and support you to find a new perspective on your life.
Sometimes change and uncertainty can be overwhelming, and this can have an impact on the way we feel. Whether it’s a loss or transition in your life; moving home, starting a new job, facing retirement, we are all unique and react to situations differently. These milestone events can bring a whole range of feelings, including loneliness and sadness, low self-esteem and anxiety, leaving you unable to imagine or navigate a new way forward. You may mourn your old life and question your new decisions. Counselling can help at times like these and support you to find a new perspective on your life.
01480 773545 View 01480 773545
Photo of Louise Earle, Counsellor in BA1, England
Louise Earle
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Finding a therapist can feel like a minefield. Ultimately you probably want to find someone to talk to that you feel comfortable with, and who can of course help. I understand how confusing and nerve-wracking it can be to consider therapy and take the first step. I provide clients with a supportive space in which to unpack their challenges. I will help you to get a better handle on what is happening for you. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, significant loss and bereavement, childhood and midlife trauma, as well as difficulty understanding feelings.
Finding a therapist can feel like a minefield. Ultimately you probably want to find someone to talk to that you feel comfortable with, and who can of course help. I understand how confusing and nerve-wracking it can be to consider therapy and take the first step. I provide clients with a supportive space in which to unpack their challenges. I will help you to get a better handle on what is happening for you. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, significant loss and bereavement, childhood and midlife trauma, as well as difficulty understanding feelings.
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Photo of Nadine Benn, Counsellor in BA1, England
Nadine Benn
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Welcome. Reaching out for support in a time of difficulty or to address issues from the past can feel challenging and unsafe and you have now taken the first step. For all of us, life is multi-faceted with many ups and downs. The process of counselling can be transformative, helping you weather past and present storms, feel safer and more connected with yourself and others, and simply live a more meaningful life with greater satisfaction. I am a BACP registered trainee Counsellor with several years of client experience and also over 15 years working as a mentor and an NHS Midwife. I work in a ‘humanistic-integrative’ manner.
Welcome. Reaching out for support in a time of difficulty or to address issues from the past can feel challenging and unsafe and you have now taken the first step. For all of us, life is multi-faceted with many ups and downs. The process of counselling can be transformative, helping you weather past and present storms, feel safer and more connected with yourself and others, and simply live a more meaningful life with greater satisfaction. I am a BACP registered trainee Counsellor with several years of client experience and also over 15 years working as a mentor and an NHS Midwife. I work in a ‘humanistic-integrative’ manner.
01225 434516 View 01225 434516
Photo of Jade Luck, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Jade Luck
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Life can present challenges that leave us feeling overwhelmed, depressed, anxious or disconnected from ourselves. At these times the support of another can help you to find a way forward. I can support you to understand your thoughts and feelings, bringing awareness to where you are feeling stuck. Together we will explore what is currently difficult in the present and look to the past for information that might be helpful. Often our strategies for coping might not be serving us in our current situation. I can help you to understand patterns that may be keeping you stuck and support you to find a way through.
Life can present challenges that leave us feeling overwhelmed, depressed, anxious or disconnected from ourselves. At these times the support of another can help you to find a way forward. I can support you to understand your thoughts and feelings, bringing awareness to where you are feeling stuck. Together we will explore what is currently difficult in the present and look to the past for information that might be helpful. Often our strategies for coping might not be serving us in our current situation. I can help you to understand patterns that may be keeping you stuck and support you to find a way through.
01225 617276 View 01225 617276
Photo of Claire Crocker, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Claire Crocker
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Life can be really tough at times. We can all go through periods when we feel we are constantly struggling to cope, and there are many different reasons why you might want to come to see a psychotherapist. You might be facing issues in the present, like relationship difficulties, bereavement or a health scare, or feeling overwhelmed by global events and challenges. Maybe you’re dealing with anxiety or depression, or feeling troubled by past events and experiences like abuse, violence or problematic relationships. Maybe you’re working though issues connected with gender, sexuality or identity generally.
Life can be really tough at times. We can all go through periods when we feel we are constantly struggling to cope, and there are many different reasons why you might want to come to see a psychotherapist. You might be facing issues in the present, like relationship difficulties, bereavement or a health scare, or feeling overwhelmed by global events and challenges. Maybe you’re dealing with anxiety or depression, or feeling troubled by past events and experiences like abuse, violence or problematic relationships. Maybe you’re working though issues connected with gender, sexuality or identity generally.
01225 434954 View 01225 434954
Photo of Keith Fowler, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Keith Fowler
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1  (Online Only)
Welcome to my page! I'm glad you're here. I am a clinical sexologist registered with the College of Sexual and Relationship Therapy (COSRT), working mainly with men around topics including relationships, sex, and problematic sexual behaviours which may include compulsive sexual behaviour (so-called sex/porn addiction). I offer an empathic and non-shaming environment to explore issues, such as betrayals, mismatched desire or enhancing sexual intimacy. I can help to find ways to listen, share and restore connection.
Welcome to my page! I'm glad you're here. I am a clinical sexologist registered with the College of Sexual and Relationship Therapy (COSRT), working mainly with men around topics including relationships, sex, and problematic sexual behaviours which may include compulsive sexual behaviour (so-called sex/porn addiction). I offer an empathic and non-shaming environment to explore issues, such as betrayals, mismatched desire or enhancing sexual intimacy. I can help to find ways to listen, share and restore connection.
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Photo of Sheila Field, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Sheila Field
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
I am a trained, accredited and registered (UKCP and UKAHPP) Counsellor, Psychotherapist and Supervisor, with over 15 years’ experience. Apart from six years’ training (humanistic, UKCP accredited) as a Psychotherapist, I have also done further courses in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Sex Therapy, Addictions counselling, Couples’ counselling and have specialised in working with domestic abuse survivors. Before training as a Psychotherapist, I worked in Higher education Administration. I am experienced in working with individuals bringing a whole range of issues from anxiety and depression to bullying and other abuse.
I am a trained, accredited and registered (UKCP and UKAHPP) Counsellor, Psychotherapist and Supervisor, with over 15 years’ experience. Apart from six years’ training (humanistic, UKCP accredited) as a Psychotherapist, I have also done further courses in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Sex Therapy, Addictions counselling, Couples’ counselling and have specialised in working with domestic abuse survivors. Before training as a Psychotherapist, I worked in Higher education Administration. I am experienced in working with individuals bringing a whole range of issues from anxiety and depression to bullying and other abuse.
01225 617348 View 01225 617348
Photo of Helen Inman, Counsellor in BA1, England
Helen Inman
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
My clients are at the heart of every session, creating a welcoming, safe and relaxed atmosphere where communication can flow freely and openly. The most important thing is that you are comfortable, at ease and feel able to talk. I aim to help you see your challenges more clearly and to face the problems with less anxiety and tension. It can be an opportunity to think and speak your truth without fear of judgement. I am trained to incorporate techniques associated with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Gestalt Therapy, Guided Visualisation, Psycho-dynamic Therapy and Transactional Analysis amongst others into my work.
My clients are at the heart of every session, creating a welcoming, safe and relaxed atmosphere where communication can flow freely and openly. The most important thing is that you are comfortable, at ease and feel able to talk. I aim to help you see your challenges more clearly and to face the problems with less anxiety and tension. It can be an opportunity to think and speak your truth without fear of judgement. I am trained to incorporate techniques associated with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Gestalt Therapy, Guided Visualisation, Psycho-dynamic Therapy and Transactional Analysis amongst others into my work.
01458 552341 View 01458 552341
Photo of Kate Howells, Psychologist in BA1, England
Kate Howells
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Waitlist for new clients
I am a Clinical Psychologist with more than 20 years experience of working with young people, adults (including couples) and families. I work in both the NHS and private practice, in person and online. I am open to working with men and women, younger and older with a broad range of difficulties including those affecting mental health and emotional wellbeing, behaviour, relationships and learning.
I am a Clinical Psychologist with more than 20 years experience of working with young people, adults (including couples) and families. I work in both the NHS and private practice, in person and online. I am open to working with men and women, younger and older with a broad range of difficulties including those affecting mental health and emotional wellbeing, behaviour, relationships and learning.
01225 617404 View 01225 617404
Photo of Anne Marie Cussins, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Anne Marie Cussins
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
If you are looking for a psychoanalytic psychotherapist who specialises in women's therapy, I have had many years of experience offering psychotherapy to women of all ages and with all emotional difficulties. I have written on body image and provided organisations with presentations on eating disorders: Eating disorders: how to understand, how to help. For over 30 years I have worked with these problems, emotional trauma and personality disorder. I can also help you with a process that can enable you to move forward with life transitions and how you may be able to negotiate change.
If you are looking for a psychoanalytic psychotherapist who specialises in women's therapy, I have had many years of experience offering psychotherapy to women of all ages and with all emotional difficulties. I have written on body image and provided organisations with presentations on eating disorders: Eating disorders: how to understand, how to help. For over 30 years I have worked with these problems, emotional trauma and personality disorder. I can also help you with a process that can enable you to move forward with life transitions and how you may be able to negotiate change.
01273 036142 View 01273 036142
Photo of Louise Pivcevic, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Louise Pivcevic
Psychotherapist, MA, BACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
I'm a Tavistock trained psychotherapist for adolescents, young adults up to 26 and parents., specialising in student mental health, also in parenting including successful co-parenting around separation/divorce. I have 16 years experience in the NHS and a busy private practice. I have a warm, empathic approach, meeting you where you are. I aim to help you discover more freedom and authenticity in how you relate to yourself and others. I treat a diverse range of issues - anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, relationship issues, transgender, sexuality, Member of BACP, ACP and Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists.
I'm a Tavistock trained psychotherapist for adolescents, young adults up to 26 and parents., specialising in student mental health, also in parenting including successful co-parenting around separation/divorce. I have 16 years experience in the NHS and a busy private practice. I have a warm, empathic approach, meeting you where you are. I aim to help you discover more freedom and authenticity in how you relate to yourself and others. I treat a diverse range of issues - anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, relationship issues, transgender, sexuality, Member of BACP, ACP and Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists.
01480 773558 View 01480 773558
Photo of Susie Travis, Counsellor in BA1, England
Susie Travis
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
I'm an integrative counsellor providing face-to-face and online therapy. I'm currently working a lot with issues around self-esteem, anxiety, relationship struggles and depression. I do a lot of work with students and young adults, as well as with clients who are struggling with burnout, work stress and family dynamics. I will offer a non-judgemental space and walk alongside you as you process emotions and build awareness at your own pace. You may want to talk through something significant that has happened in your life, or you may be feeling stuck, anxious, or overwhelmed in your life now.
I'm an integrative counsellor providing face-to-face and online therapy. I'm currently working a lot with issues around self-esteem, anxiety, relationship struggles and depression. I do a lot of work with students and young adults, as well as with clients who are struggling with burnout, work stress and family dynamics. I will offer a non-judgemental space and walk alongside you as you process emotions and build awareness at your own pace. You may want to talk through something significant that has happened in your life, or you may be feeling stuck, anxious, or overwhelmed in your life now.
01275 402876 View 01275 402876
Photo of Therapy and Counselling Bath and Bristol, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Therapy and Counselling Bath and Bristol
Psychotherapist, MSc, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Therapy facilitates the journey to find our unique sense of our authentic self and what that means for each of us. Many of us live according what we deem is expected of us, life might have been good but we have put off track, life might always presented challenges. Until we live according to our own values, achieving our own goals, allowing ourselves to choose what is right and to reject what feels wrong we cannot be fulfilled or happy. Therapy empowers us to navigate our way to find who we really are and to live authentically. No matter what you have experienced and suffered, I am here to support you.
Therapy facilitates the journey to find our unique sense of our authentic self and what that means for each of us. Many of us live according what we deem is expected of us, life might have been good but we have put off track, life might always presented challenges. Until we live according to our own values, achieving our own goals, allowing ourselves to choose what is right and to reject what feels wrong we cannot be fulfilled or happy. Therapy empowers us to navigate our way to find who we really are and to live authentically. No matter what you have experienced and suffered, I am here to support you.
01225 258815 View 01225 258815
Photo of Sam Fairgrieve, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Sam Fairgrieve
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Do you feel overwhelmed by your emotions? Is anxiety adversely affecting your day-to-day life? Has life lost it’s meaning for you, making it hard for you to find energy or enthusiasm for anything? Is the transition to parenthood more challenging that you envisaged? It can be difficult to imagine things can be different, but therapy can make change possible. Therapy can not only provide relief from distressing symptoms, but can also help you live at your highest level of capacity – free to feel fully alive and to thrive in all areas of your life.
Do you feel overwhelmed by your emotions? Is anxiety adversely affecting your day-to-day life? Has life lost it’s meaning for you, making it hard for you to find energy or enthusiasm for anything? Is the transition to parenthood more challenging that you envisaged? It can be difficult to imagine things can be different, but therapy can make change possible. Therapy can not only provide relief from distressing symptoms, but can also help you live at your highest level of capacity – free to feel fully alive and to thrive in all areas of your life.
01480 270929 View 01480 270929
Photo of Beth Bauer, Psychotherapist in BA1, England
Beth Bauer
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bath BA1
Are you seeking a compassionate guide to help navigate the complexities of life and confront past traumas? Are you yearning for a safe and supportive environment where you can unravel the tangled threads of suffering? In my approach I incorporate body-centered techniques, recognizing the connection between mind and body. Working therapeutically with the nervous system offers profound benefits, fostering resilience and regulation in the face of stress and trauma. By addressing the physiological manifestations of distress, individuals can experience greater emotional stability and enhanced overall well-being.
Are you seeking a compassionate guide to help navigate the complexities of life and confront past traumas? Are you yearning for a safe and supportive environment where you can unravel the tangled threads of suffering? In my approach I incorporate body-centered techniques, recognizing the connection between mind and body. Working therapeutically with the nervous system offers profound benefits, fostering resilience and regulation in the face of stress and trauma. By addressing the physiological manifestations of distress, individuals can experience greater emotional stability and enhanced overall well-being.
01749 608659 View 01749 608659

See more therapy options for BA1

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in BA1

100+

Average cost per session

£64

Counsellors in BA1 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
88% Depression
84% Self Esteem
82% Stress
81% Relationship Issues
73% Trauma and PTSD
62% Bereavement

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

61% AXA PPP
59% Aviva
45% Bupa

How Counsellors in BA1 see their clients

81% In Person and Online
19% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
26% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in BA1?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.