As organizations become more diverse, leaders must become more culturally competent in order to manage an inclusive culture and bring the best out of their employees. Although members of all social identity groups occasionally experience cultural misunderstandings at work, cultural misunderstandings about LGBTQIA people are too often commonplace at work and within our society. From September 16-19, 2015, the National Black Justice Coalition held their Sixth Annual Out on the Hill Black LGBT Leadership Summit: A Focus on the Health and Wellness of Our Community. The theme of the conference was "We are Family: Building Stronger Roots Together." Matthew Shaw, J.D., who is also a doctoral student at Harvard University, and I had the pleasure of presenting at the conference on Friday morning*. Our session entitled, "That's So Gay! Exploring Scientific Research to Answer Common Questions and Beliefs about LGBTQ People was intended to help clear up some cultural misunderstandings about LGBTQ people. Similar to the popular TV show Mythbusters, Matthew and I surveyed a large sample of people and asked them what common sayings, beliefs, and/or questions they had about LGBTQ people that they wanted to know whether or not were true. In order to answer their questions, Matthew and I surveyed the scientific literature to find answers to their questions and presented our findings to a wonderfully engaged NBJC audience. Please find below some of the questions and answers that were presented at the NBJC conference.
Is gaydar real?
True—GLBTQ people have a distinct culture and methods of communication. Since GLBTQ people typically do not have phenotypical identity characteristics, a variety of methods have been created in an effort to communicate one’s identity. Sometimes, these methods are borne out of a need to “survive” in a heteronormative society. One such method is the eye gaze, also known as gaydar gaze (Nicholas, 2004). Rutter (1984) stated that eye contact consists of 1) the pattern of looking, 2) contextual cues, and 3) the function of the gaze. The direct stare, which is prolonged eye contact and the broken stare, which is the “stare-look-away-stare-again” are the two most cited forms of eye gaze used to activate gaydar. It is also possible for heterosexuals to obtain “gaydar” if they spend enough time with GLBTQ people and gain sufficient levels of gay cultural competencies. Not surprisingly, Ambady, Hallahan, and Conner (1999) found that gays and lesbians outperformed heterosexuals in accurately identifying the sexual orientation of target individuals when provided only a “thin-slice” of information from a picture or one-second video (lesbians were the most accurate). However, gaydar is not innate, people learn the skill through experience and cultural interactions (Bennett, 2006).
Lyons, M., Lynch, A., Bruno, D., & Brewer, G. (2014). Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 43(2), 345-352. doi:10.1007/s10508-013-0144-7
Stern, C., West, T. V., Jost, J. T., & Rule, N. O. (2013). The politics of gaydar: Ideological differences in the use of gendered cues in categorizing sexual orientation. Journal Of Personality & Social Psychology, 104(3), 520-541. doi:10.1037/a0031187
Bennett, J. A. (2006). In defense of gaydar: Reality television and the politics of the glance. Critical Studies In Media Communication, 23(5), 408-425. doi:10.1080/07393180601046154
Rieger, G., Linsenmeier, J. W., Gygax, L., Garcia, S., & Bailey, J. M. (2010). Dissecting “gaydar”: Accuracy and the role of masculinity–femininity. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 124-140. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9405-2
Nicholas, C. L. (2004). Gaydar: Eye-gaze as identity recognition among gay men and lesbians. Sexuality & Culture, 8(1), 60-86.
Woolery, L. (2007). Gaydar: a social-cognitive analysis. Journal Of Homosexuality, 53(3), 9-17.
Are bisexuals just in denial about being gay or lesbian?
False—While some gay and lesbian individuals may adopt a bisexual identity or behaviors on their journal to becoming their authentic selves, there is research that corroborate a distinct bisexual social identity. In studies relying on genital arousal as a measurement of sexual orientation, men tended to be more aroused based on one sex or the other whereas women’s arousal was more fluid across sexes (Lippa, 2012, 2013). Survey research has found that more men identify as homosexual and more women identify as bisexual (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994: Smith, Rissel, Richters, Grulich, & de Visser, 2003; Wellings, Field, Johnson, & Wadsworth, 1994; Wells, McGee, & Beautrais, 2011). Finally, research has shown that unlike their homosexual and heterosexual counterparts, bisexual individuals show less sex category specificity and attraction levels (Lippa, 2013).
Carey, B. (2005, July 5). Gay, straight or lying? Bisexuality revisited. The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/05/health/05sex.html?
Rosenthal, A., Sylva, D., Safron, A., & Bailey, J. (2011). The male bisexuality debate revisited: Some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 135-147.
Rieger, G., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2005). Sexual arousal patterns of bisexual men. Psychological Science, (8). 579.
The Problems with “Straight, Gay or Lying?”. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thetaskforce.org/static_html/downloads/reports/NYTBisexuality...
Rieger, G., Rosenthal, A., Cash, B., Linsenmeier, J., Bailey, J., & Savin-Williams, R. (2013). Male bisexual arousal: A matter of curiosity?. Biological Psychology, 94(3), 479-489.
Lippa, R. (2012). Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female "swimsuit models". Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 42(2), 187-196.
Lippa, R. (2012). Effects of sex and sexual orientation on self-Reported attraction and viewing times to images of men and women: Testing for category specificity. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 149. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9898-y
Are gay and bisexual men more promiscuous than heterosexual people?
False--Generally, men show more interest in sex, report more sexual fantasies, masturbate, are more casual toward premarital and extramarital sex, and more frequent feelings of sexual desire than women (Baumeister, Catanese, & Vohs, 2001). When in relationships, lesbians report having sex less often than gay men and heterosexuals (Peplau, 2003). In a national youth study (13-18 years of age), results indicated that engaging in sexual conversations and sharing sexual photos were of similar frequency online as in-person (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2015). LGB youth were more likely to have a sexual conversation and sharing their own sexual photos than non-LGB youth. Of the youth who have had sex, gay and queer youth were more likely to meet at least one of their last 2 sex partners online. The rates of meeting a sex partner online and off-line were similar for lesbian, queer, and heterosexual women. Gay, bisexual, lesbian, and queer youths were more likely than their same-aged heterosexual counterparts to have a sexual conversation with someone 5 years or older. Ybarra & Mitchell note that “Between 73 and 81% of heterosexual men had penile-vaginal sex with their most recent sex partner, compared to 3% of gay/queer men who met their partner online. …57% of heterosexual men and 48% of gay/queer men reported generally inconsistent condom use.” Increased online sexual expression and conversation does not necessarily turn into increased sexual encounters. “Rates of penile-anal sex with one’s most recent sexual partner appear to be higher for bisexual than for gay, lesbian, and queer women in the current study—although direct statistical comparisons were not made.” “Bisexual women appear to be equally, or perhaps more likely, to report prevention behaviors, particularly discussing condom use before first sex, and less likely to report inconsistent condom use than lesbian, gay, and queer women. The internet adds to the ways youth can explore sexuality, but does not replace other ways (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2015).
Prestage, G. (2012). The spectre of promiscuity: gay male and bisexual non-monogamies and polyamories. Culture Health & Sexuality, 14(6), 719-721.
Manosevitz, M. (1970). Early sexual behavior in adult homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 76(3 PART 1), 396-402. doi:10.1037/h0020131
Nemoto, T., Luke, D., Mamo, L., Ching, A., & Patria, J. (1999). HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders in comparison with homosexual or bisexual males and heterosexual females. AIDS Care, 11(3), 297-312.
Peplau, L. A. (2003). Human Sexuality : How Do Men and Women Differ ? RELATIONSHIPS AGGRESSION. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(2), 37–41. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01221
Ybarra, M., & Mitchell, K. (2015). A national study of lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), and non-LGB youth sexual behavior online and In-person. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 16p.. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0491-7
So you think gay men are promiscuous?
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/oct/19/gay-men-promiscuous... By Patrick Strudwick
10 Biggest Lies You Were Told About Gay Men
By Murray Lipp June 24, 2013
Cartei, V., & Reby, D. (2012). Acting gay: male actors shift the frequency components of their voices towards female values when playing homosexual characters. Journal Of Nonverbal Behavior, 36(1), 79-93. doi:10.1007/s10919-011-0123-4
Mack, S., & Munson, B. (2012). The influence of /s/ quality on ratings of men's sexual orientation: Explicit and implicit measures of the ‘gay lisp’ stereotype. Journal Of Phonetics, 40198-212. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.002
Munson, B. (2010). Variation, implied pathology, social meaning, and the 'gay lisp': A response to Van Borsel et al. (2009). Journal Of Communication Disorders, 43(1), 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2009.07.002
Van Borsel, J., De Bruyn, E., Lefebvre, E., Sokoloff, A., De Ley, S., & Baudonck, N. (2009). The prevalence of lisping in gay men. Journal Of Communication Disorders, 42100-106. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2008.08.004
Munson, B. (2010). Discussion: Variation, implied pathology, social meaning, and the ‘gay lisp’: A response to Van Borsel et al. (2009). Journal Of Communication Disorders, 431-5. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2009.07.002
Munson, B., McDonald, E. C., DeBoe, N. L., & White, A. R. (2006). The acoustic and perceptual bases of judgments of women and men's sexual orientation from read speech. Journal Of Phonetics, 34202-240. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2005.05.003
Are Black people more homophobic than people of other races?
Mostly False--In his study relying on data from 31 national surveys conducted since 1973 (nearly 7,000 Blacks & 43,000 Whites), (Lewis, 2003, p. 63) found that “Blacks are 11 percentage points more likely than whites to condemn homosexual relationships as ‘always wrong’ and 14 percentage points more likely to see them warranting ‘God’s punishment’ in the form of AIDS, but no more likely to favor criminalizing gay sex. More blacks than whites would remove a progay book from their public library (by 6 percentage points) and would not allow an admitted homosexual give a speech in their community (by 4 percentage points). Blacks and whites do not differ in terms of their belief in allowing “gay college professors, firing gay teachers, hiring homosexuals into five occupations, and letting gays serve in the military. Strikingly, African Americans are 10 percentage points more likely than whites to support a law prohibiting antigay job discrimination” (Lewis, 2003, p. 66). Lewis also states that “beliefs about homosexuality and support for gay rights vary substantially by religion (with Jews the most accepting and born-again Protestants the most disapproving) and by intensity of religious feeling (disapproval is highest among those who attend religious services frequently, who pray frequently, and who say that religion is very important in their lives” (Lewis, 2003; p. 66). Lewis (2003, p. 76) stated that “once religious and educational differences are controlled, blacks are moderately more supportive of gay civil liberties and markedly more opposed to antigay employment discrimination.” Schulte and Battle (2004) found that white females expressed the least negativity toward lesbian and gay men (compared to white males and black males and females. Additionally, they found that single people express less negativity than non-single people. Being southern, working class, and conservative have also been linked to heterosexism (Dunbar, Brown, & Amoroso, 1973; Haddock, Zanna, & Esses, 1993; Herek, 1984, 2000; Herek & Capitanio, 1995, 1996; Levitt & Klassen, 1974; Schulte, 1998; Schulte & Battle, 2004). Finally, they found that when religious attendance entered the model, ethnic differences between blacks and whites disappeared. Studying over 500 midwestern college students, Jenkins, Lambert, and Baker (2007) found no significant racial differences between black and white students with regards toward their views toward, rights for, and willingness to socialize with gays and lesbians.
Lewis, G. B. (2003). Black-White differences in attitudes toward homosexuality and gay rights. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 67 (1). 59-78.
Jenkins, M., Lambert, E. G., & Baker, D. N. (2009). The attitudes of black and white college students toward gays and lesbians. Journal of Black Studies, (4). 589.
Whitley, B., Childs, C., & Collins, J. (2011). Differences in black and white american college students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Sex Roles, 64(5/6), 299-310. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9892-1
Schulte, L. J., & Battle, J. (2004). The relative importance of ethnicity and religion in predicting attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Journal Of Homosexuality, 47(2), 127-142.
Do Black gay men have advantages over other LGBTQ people?
Mostly False—Theories on intersectionality inform us that we have various social identities and they can come together to give us a constellation of advantages and disadvantages. So even if people are members of marginalized, stigmatized, underrepresented social identity groups, they may still have privilege relative to others on one or more of their other social identity dimensions. So individual Black gay men may enjoy advantages over other LGBTQ people, but collectively, the research does not support this idea. In fact, double jeopardy theory (Bergman, Palmieri, Drasgow, & Ormerod, 2012; Kessler, Mickelson, & Williams, 1999; Ragins, Cornwell, & Miller, 2003; Rosette & Livingston, 2012) posits that as a person becomes a member of more stigmatized identity groups, they can experience more negative outcomes based on the lower statuses of those identity groups. The notion that Black gay men have an advantage was recently advanced based on the results of a recent experimental study done by David Pedulla. Pedulla found that his study participants offered gay black applicants higher salary recommendations and were perceived to be less threatening. Although his study provides interesting insight and invites further research on the topic, the study’s design does not allow us to make a generalizable claim that black gay men have advantages over other LGBTQ people.
Pedulla, D. (2014). The positive consequences of negative stereotypes: race, sexual orientation, and the job application process. Social Psychology Quarterly, 77(1), 75-94. doi:10.1177/0190272513506229
Zach, S. (2015, April 27). Black gay privilege is a ridiculous notion; A recent study alleges that black gay men get similar salaries to white straight men. That couldn't sound further from the truth. Guardian, The: Web Edition Articles (London, England).
Harper, G., Jernewall, N., & Zea, M. (2004). Giving voice to emerging science and theory for lesbian, gay and bisexual people of color. Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 187-199. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.10.3.187
Han, C. (2007). They don't want to cruise your type: Gay men of color and the racial politics of exclusion. Social Identities, 13(1), 51-67. doi:10.1080/13504630601163379
Teunis, N. (2007). Sexual objectification and the construction of whiteness in the gay male community. Culture, Health And Sexuality, 9(3), 263-275.
Did only White LGBTQ people make important contributions to the Gay Liberation Movement?
False. Although White people have made significant contributions to the gay liberation movement, people of color have also made significant contributions. For example, Sylvia Rivera, Miss Major Griffin-Gracy, and Marsha P. Johnson played pivotal roles in the Stonewall Riots. Additionally, the Obama administration has ushered in unprecedented pro-LGBTQ laws that have advanced the gay liberation movement more than any other presidential administration. Finally in his research, Holmes (2006) stated that Marielitos, specifically, Fidel Toboso-Alfonso, Reinaldo Arenas, and Pedro Zamora, were instrumental in transforming Miami’s gay culture, influencing United States Immigration Law, publishing literature with homosexual themes, and increasing AIDS awareness.
Mumford, K. J. (2011). The trouble with gay rights: Race and the politics of sexual orientation in philadelphia, 1969-1982. Journal Of American History, 98(1), 49-72. doi:10.1093/jahist/jar139
Holmes IV, O. (2006). One more river to cross: Marielitos and the United States gay liberation movement. MACLAS: Latin American Essays, 19, 59–77.
Bell, M. (2007). Black ground, gay figure: Working through another country, black power, and gay liberation. American Literature, 79(3), 577-603.
Pastrana, A. (2006). The intersectional imagination: What do lesbian and gay leaders of color have to do with it?. Race, Gender & Class, (3/4). 218.
Dis-membering Stonewall By Irene Monroe
5 Black Trans Women Who Paved the Way b Aaron, MTPC intern
Do all LGBTQ people make a lot of money?
False—Based on 2013 U.S. census data information on average, same-sex couples tend to have higher household income ($112,576) than married opposite sex couples ($101,487) and unmarried opposite sex couples ($69,511). Male-male couples make the most ($127,764) whereas female-female couples ($98,234), on average, make less than opposite sex married couples ($101,487). Same-sex couples are also more likely that at least one partner holds a bachelor’s degree (49.04%) vs. 37.43 % for married opposite-sex couples and 23.48 % for unmarried opposite sex couples and are more likely that both partners hold a bachelor’s degree (30.82%) vs. 23.16% for married opposite-sex couples and 12.04% for unmarried opposite sex couples. Male-male couples led the educational attainment with at least one (52.32%) and both (32.00%) followed by female-female couples with at least one (45.96%) and both (29.71%). However, when assessed singly, research has tended to find that gay men generally earn less than heterosexual men (Badgett, 1995; Klawitter & Flatt, 1998; Clain and Leppel, 2001; Allegretto & Arthur, 2001; Berg & lien, 2002; Black et al., 2003; Blandford, 2003; Carpenter, 2007) while lesbian women tend to make more money than heterosexual women (Klawitter & Flatt, 1998; Clain & Leppel, 2001; Berg & Lien, 2002; Black et al., 2003; Blandford, 2003). So although in some situations, GLBTQ people earn more money than their heterosexual counterparts, there are large variations based on other significant factors, so all LGBTQ people do not make a lot of money.
M. V. Lee Badgett. (1995). The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, (4). 726.
Blandford, J. M. (2003). The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determination of earnings. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 56(4), 622.
Antecol, H., Jong, A., & Steinberger, M. (2008). The sexual orientation wage gap: The role of occupational sorting and human capital. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 61(4), 518.
Schmitt, E. (2008) Discrimination versus specialization. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(1), 17-30, doi:10.1300/10894160802174250
U.S. Census Bureau Same Sex Couples http://www.census.gov/hhes/samesex/
Do LGBTQ people who refuse to date people of their own race hate themselves?
False—It is not necessarily the case that LGBTQ people who refuse to date people of their own race hate themselves. However, LGBTQ people are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to date people of other races, with lesbians being the most willing and heterosexual men being more willing than heterosexual women (McIntosh, Scott, Dawson, & Locker, 2011). This may be the case since gay people have a smaller dating pool than heterosexual people and because offspring is less of a concern to gay people than to heterosexual people. In their study, Phua and Kaufman (2003) found that African-American, Hispanic, and Asian men were more likely than White men to state a race preference and African-Americans were most likely to prefer other African-Americans whereas overall, White men were the most preferred and Black men were the least preferred, closely followed by Asian men (McIntosh et al., 2011). The research suggests that dating preferences on race are “tied to issues of masculinity and dominance, such that people who are generally more interested in masculine dates are less interested in dating people of minority races, because people of minority races are afforded less social status in society, and thus less opportunity to display dominance (McIntosh et al., 2011, p. 714). In their study, Ro and colleagues (2013) found that some gay men of color did express great concern with interracial dating admitting that White men desired them because of sexual stereotypes.
-McIntosh, W. D., Dawson, B. L., Scott, A. J., & Locker JR., L. (2011). Willingness to date across race: Differences among gay and heterosexual men and women. Psychological Reports, 108(3), 711-716. doi:10.2466/07.PR0.108.3.711-716
-Phua, V. C., & Kaufman, G. (2003) The crossroads of race and sexuality: date selection among men in internet “personal” ads. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 981-994.
-Potârcă, G., Mills, M., & Neberich, W. (2015). Relationship preferences among gay and lesbian online daters: Individual and contextual influences. Journal Of Marriage & Family, 77(2), 523-541. doi:10.1111/jomf.12177
-Lundquist, J. H., & Lin, K. (2015). Is love (color) blind? The economy of race among gay and straight daters. Social Forces, 93(4), 1423-1449.
-Anderssen, N., Amlie, C., & Ytterøy, E. A. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43(4), 335–351. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00302
Bennett, J. a. (2006). In Defense of Gaydar: Reality Television and the Politics of the Glance. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23(5), 408–425. doi:10.1080/07393180601046154
Bergman, M. E., Palmieri, P. A., Drasgow, F., & Ormerod, A. J. (2012). Racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination, its antecedents, and its effect on job-related outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 65–78.
Fitzgerald, B. (2008). Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents. Marriage & Family Review, (August 2015). doi:10.1300/J002v29n01
Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(3), 208–230. doi:10.2307/2676349
Lewis, G. B. (2003). Black-White Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexuality and Gay Rights. Public Opinion Q, 67(1), 59–78.
Lippa, R. a. (2012). Effects of sex and sexual orientation on self-reported attraction and viewing times to images of men and women: Testing for category specificity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 149–160. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9898-y
Lippa, R. a. (2013). Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female “swimsuit models.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(2), 187–196. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9981-z
Mack, S., & Munson, B. (2012). The influence of /s/ quality on ratings of men’s sexual orientation: Explicit and implicit measures of the “gay lisp” stereotype. Journal of Phonetics, 40(1), 198–212. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.002
McIntosh, W. D., Scott, A. J., Dawson, B. L., & Locker, L. (2011). Willingness to date across race: differences among gay and heterosexual men and women. Psychological Reports, 108(3), 711–716. doi:10.2466/07.PR0.108.3.711-716
Nicholas, C. L. (2004). Gaydar: Eye-gaze as identity recognition among gay men and lesbians. Sexuality and Culture, 8(1), 60–86. doi:10.1007/s12119-004-1006-1
Peplau, L. A. (2003). Human Sexuality : How Do Men and Women Differ ? RELATIONSHIPS AGGRESSION. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(2), 37–41. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01221
Ragins, B. R., Cornwell, J. M., & Miller, J. S. (2003). Heterosexism in the Workplace: Do race and gender matter? Group and Organization Management, 28(1), 45–74.
Rosette, A. S., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Failure is not an option for Black women: Effects of organizational performance on leaders with single versus dual-subordinate identities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1162–1167. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.05.002
Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2015). A National Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual (LGB), and Non-LGB Youth Sexual Behavior Online and In-Person. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0491-7
Can LGBTQ people raise healthy children?
True—Research consistently show that on a variety of outcomes (e.g., emotional functioning, sexual orientation, stigmatization, gender role behavior, cognitive functioning, behavioral adjustment, etc.), children raised by gay fathers or lesbian mothers did not systematically differ from children raised by heterosexual mothers or fathers (Anderssen, Amlie, & Ytterøy, 2002; Fitzgerald, 2008).
Sasnett, S. (2015). Are the kids all right? A qualitative study of adults with gay and lesbian parents. Journal Of Contemporary Ethnography, 44(2), 196-222. doi:10.1177/0891241614540212
Welsh, M. G. (2011). Growing Up in a same-sex parented family: The adolescent voice of experience. Journal Of GLBT Family Studies, 7(1/2), 49. doi:10.1080/1550428X.2010.537241
Fitzgerald, B. (1999). Children of lesbian and gay parents: A review of the literature. Marriage And Family Review, 29(1), 57-75.
Shields, L., Zappia, T., Blackwood, D., Watkins, R., Wardrop, J., & Chapman, R. (2012). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender parents seeking health care for their children: A systematic review of the literature. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing, 9(4), 200-209. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6787.2012.00251.x
Anderssen, N., Amlie, C., & Ytterøy, E. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 43(4), 335-351.
Siegel, B. S., & Perrin, E. C. (2013). Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian. Pediatrics, 131(4), 827-830.
Are you LGBTQIA culturally competent? How many questions did you get right? Please click here to support the National Black Justice Coalition.
--Dr. Holmes can be reached on Twitter @OHIV.
*I would like thank my research assistant, Michelle Dixon, a graduate student at Rutgers University, for her work on this project.
^Matthew and I do not contend that our research is definitive, but believe this is a great starting point in answering these questions.
--Photo Credit: Macalester University