Photo of Karolien Vandersmissen, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Karolien Vandersmissen
Counsellor, MA, RCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
I provide therapy for individuals and couples who are navigating life’s challenges and want to create meaningful change. Issues rarely stand alone, but affect and are influenced by various other aspects of daily life, such as our physical wellbeing, relationships, work, environmental and societal factors. I offer a judgment-free environment in which clients feel welcome, safe and heard. Through a collaborative, holistic approach we explore the challenges you are facing while incorporating and developing your inner strengths and resources and finding ways to increase your control.
I provide therapy for individuals and couples who are navigating life’s challenges and want to create meaningful change. Issues rarely stand alone, but affect and are influenced by various other aspects of daily life, such as our physical wellbeing, relationships, work, environmental and societal factors. I offer a judgment-free environment in which clients feel welcome, safe and heard. Through a collaborative, holistic approach we explore the challenges you are facing while incorporating and developing your inner strengths and resources and finding ways to increase your control.
(548) 490-2198 View (548) 490-2198
Photo of Lean Into You, Pre-Licensed Professional in V9C, BC
Lean Into You
Pre-Licensed Professional, RPC-C
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
If you're struggling with or experiencing anxiety, depression, a tough life transition, trauma, emotional dysregulation or lacking self love, I offer a safe space for you to show up as you are to talk about what is present for you. If you're looking to heal and grow from your life experiences, I am here with a non-judgmental and empathic presence to be your guide.
If you're struggling with or experiencing anxiety, depression, a tough life transition, trauma, emotional dysregulation or lacking self love, I offer a safe space for you to show up as you are to talk about what is present for you. If you're looking to heal and grow from your life experiences, I am here with a non-judgmental and empathic presence to be your guide.
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Photo of Blair McLean, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Blair McLean
Counsellor, MA, RCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
Welcoming new clients! Are you feeling anxious, stuck or overwhelmed? Do you feel like something is stopping you from getting the most out of life? It can seem like invisible barriers are holding you back from cherishing moments with loved ones, finding fulfilling relationships, enjoying retirement, or pursuing your dream career. My clients are striving to overcome these struggles and find greater joy in life.
Welcoming new clients! Are you feeling anxious, stuck or overwhelmed? Do you feel like something is stopping you from getting the most out of life? It can seem like invisible barriers are holding you back from cherishing moments with loved ones, finding fulfilling relationships, enjoying retirement, or pursuing your dream career. My clients are striving to overcome these struggles and find greater joy in life.
(506) 308-4163 View (506) 308-4163
Photo of Zarine Vogel, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in V9C, BC
Zarine Vogel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, RSW
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C
How well do we know ourselves and our ability to cope with life's challenges? This is a question I have assisted many people answer. My focus is to help people see their intrinsic strengths and deal with challenges in an empowered way. Having worked in the counseling field for over 30 years, has allowed me to gain a unique perspective on human resiliency. I work with individuals and couples in areas such as stress related issues, depression/anxiety, grief/loss, post-traumatic stress, career direction and cross cultural counseling.
How well do we know ourselves and our ability to cope with life's challenges? This is a question I have assisted many people answer. My focus is to help people see their intrinsic strengths and deal with challenges in an empowered way. Having worked in the counseling field for over 30 years, has allowed me to gain a unique perspective on human resiliency. I work with individuals and couples in areas such as stress related issues, depression/anxiety, grief/loss, post-traumatic stress, career direction and cross cultural counseling.
(647) 492-5403 View (647) 492-5403
Photo of Lisa Mitchell, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Lisa Mitchell
Counsellor, MA, MACP, RCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
At some point, every family will face challenges. Helping families come together to work through these challenges and promote positive outcomes is my goal. As a registered clinical Counsellor (RCC), I aim to help children, youth, and their families connect in new and meaningful ways.
At some point, every family will face challenges. Helping families come together to work through these challenges and promote positive outcomes is my goal. As a registered clinical Counsellor (RCC), I aim to help children, youth, and their families connect in new and meaningful ways.
(778) 700-1283 View (778) 700-1283
Photo of Jennifer Bourassa, Registered Social Worker in V9C, BC
Jennifer Bourassa
Registered Social Worker, RSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a retired military Captain, who works exclusively with Veterans of the Canadian Armed Forces and RCMP. My practice is a little more unique as I have front line exposure (disaster and war zones) as well as years of experience in working operational stress injuries including PTSD. I keep my practice very small and specialized working exclusively with those members who have experienced mental health injuries while serving our country.
I am a retired military Captain, who works exclusively with Veterans of the Canadian Armed Forces and RCMP. My practice is a little more unique as I have front line exposure (disaster and war zones) as well as years of experience in working operational stress injuries including PTSD. I keep my practice very small and specialized working exclusively with those members who have experienced mental health injuries while serving our country.
(705) 410-3653 View (705) 410-3653
Photo of Joel Kroeker Jungian Psychoanalyst, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Joel Kroeker Jungian Psychoanalyst
Counsellor, MA, MMT, RCC
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C
Are you feeling overwhelmed, lost or stuck in a holding pattern? I offer a safe supportive approach to help you explore the underlying meaning of your concerns regarding anxiety, depression, life transitions, trauma, loss of meaning, issues around spirituality and addictions. After twenty years of working with people through creativity-based processes as a workshop facilitator and now more recently as a therapist I've seen that the creative process is a living thing in the human psyche and that each of us has deep resources to help us heal. Together we'll rediscover these vital restorative resources within you.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, lost or stuck in a holding pattern? I offer a safe supportive approach to help you explore the underlying meaning of your concerns regarding anxiety, depression, life transitions, trauma, loss of meaning, issues around spirituality and addictions. After twenty years of working with people through creativity-based processes as a workshop facilitator and now more recently as a therapist I've seen that the creative process is a living thing in the human psyche and that each of us has deep resources to help us heal. Together we'll rediscover these vital restorative resources within you.
(855) 982-0960 View (855) 982-0960
Photo of Lycia Rodrigues, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Lycia Rodrigues
Counsellor, RCC
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with women and mothers experiencing burnout, depression, anxiety, infertility, isolation, grief and loss, parenting difficulties, and aspects of identity. I also support family caregivers who often feel shaken or unsettled throughout the turbulent waves of the caregiving journey. I invite you to discover simple, effective methods for reconnecting to who you truly are. When we place our minds on a specific cluster of themes such as caregiving and motherhood, I have discovered that our soul takes us down deep into realms that we never could have imagined from the surface.
I enjoy working with women and mothers experiencing burnout, depression, anxiety, infertility, isolation, grief and loss, parenting difficulties, and aspects of identity. I also support family caregivers who often feel shaken or unsettled throughout the turbulent waves of the caregiving journey. I invite you to discover simple, effective methods for reconnecting to who you truly are. When we place our minds on a specific cluster of themes such as caregiving and motherhood, I have discovered that our soul takes us down deep into realms that we never could have imagined from the surface.
(867) 675-5460 View (867) 675-5460
Photo of Danielle van Schaik, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Danielle van Schaik
Counsellor, MA, RCC, CCC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
Welcome! I know life can be hard. Just when we think things are going right, something happens to shift everything off balance. Even at the best of times, we are dealing with all kinds of stress (ex. money, family, work). This is why I got into counselling; because I truly believe that with 1:1 support you are provided a whole new avenue to explore those feelings, emotions, behaviours, and find practical tools to experience relief. While I counsel adults and couples, I also really enjoying counselling children and youth. I'm accepting new clients, so please reach out!
Welcome! I know life can be hard. Just when we think things are going right, something happens to shift everything off balance. Even at the best of times, we are dealing with all kinds of stress (ex. money, family, work). This is why I got into counselling; because I truly believe that with 1:1 support you are provided a whole new avenue to explore those feelings, emotions, behaviours, and find practical tools to experience relief. While I counsel adults and couples, I also really enjoying counselling children and youth. I'm accepting new clients, so please reach out!
(506) 306-5002 View (506) 306-5002
Photo of Charlaine Robinson, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Charlaine Robinson
Counsellor, MA, RCC, EMDR, CCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
If you feel overwhelmed and unsure how to cope, I am happy to help. My goal is to help you heal from emotional issues and to feel confident and positive in how you live your life. 30 years of experience in the human services field informs my practice. Traumatic experiences may cause symptoms that are hard to understand and manage. The symptoms may feel unbearable and debilitating. Therapy can help to reduce the symptoms and increase your capacity to cope. I aim to increase your awareness of your resilient traits and strengths. My goal is that you become self-assured to navigate your life moving forward.
If you feel overwhelmed and unsure how to cope, I am happy to help. My goal is to help you heal from emotional issues and to feel confident and positive in how you live your life. 30 years of experience in the human services field informs my practice. Traumatic experiences may cause symptoms that are hard to understand and manage. The symptoms may feel unbearable and debilitating. Therapy can help to reduce the symptoms and increase your capacity to cope. I aim to increase your awareness of your resilient traits and strengths. My goal is that you become self-assured to navigate your life moving forward.
(604) 265-7689 View (604) 265-7689
Photo of MxN Men's Therapy Network, Pre-Licensed Professional in V9C, BC
MxN Men's Therapy Network
Pre-Licensed Professional, BScN, MACP(Q)
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C
Kristof understands that sometimes this world leaves us feeling helpless and overwhelmed and that reaching out for help can be a difficult step. It is in these moments that Kristof's caring and approachable nature shines through. Whether you are moving through depression, anxiety, or other challenges, Kristof will work collaboratively to help you foster growth, resilience, and healing. He draws from a deep-rooted curiosity to see you for who you are while exploring your unique stories. He is inspired to help you navigate life’s struggles and challenges and to build a fulfilling and meaningful life.
Kristof understands that sometimes this world leaves us feeling helpless and overwhelmed and that reaching out for help can be a difficult step. It is in these moments that Kristof's caring and approachable nature shines through. Whether you are moving through depression, anxiety, or other challenges, Kristof will work collaboratively to help you foster growth, resilience, and healing. He draws from a deep-rooted curiosity to see you for who you are while exploring your unique stories. He is inspired to help you navigate life’s struggles and challenges and to build a fulfilling and meaningful life.
(587) 417-6685 View (587) 417-6685
Photo of Andrea Bennington, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Andrea Bennington
Counsellor, MA, RCC
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
Andrea has been a Registered Clinical Counsellor with the British Columbia Association of Clinical Counsellors since February 2022. She received her Master of Counselling Psychology degree from Yorkville University in Fredricton, New Brunswick in August 2021. Her extensive experience working with individuals struggling with persistent mental health challenges in a peer support framework, sparked her desire to become a clinical counsellor. She supports solution-focused, client-centred, and recovery-oriented philosophies rooted in strength, growth, and resiliency.
Andrea has been a Registered Clinical Counsellor with the British Columbia Association of Clinical Counsellors since February 2022. She received her Master of Counselling Psychology degree from Yorkville University in Fredricton, New Brunswick in August 2021. Her extensive experience working with individuals struggling with persistent mental health challenges in a peer support framework, sparked her desire to become a clinical counsellor. She supports solution-focused, client-centred, and recovery-oriented philosophies rooted in strength, growth, and resiliency.
(236) 326-9470 View (236) 326-9470
Photo of mxn Men's Therapy Network, Counsellor in V9C, BC
mxn Men's Therapy Network
Counsellor, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
mxn Men's Therapy Network offers a range of counsellors, from fully certified practitioners to practicum students completing their Masters or Diploma programs. Our counselling rates range from $50 to $140 per session. Whether you are an experienced counselling client, or are new to counselling we have a counsellor for you! Check out our website today for your free consult. www.mxn.janeapp.com & www.mxnmenstherapynetwork.ca
mxn Men's Therapy Network offers a range of counsellors, from fully certified practitioners to practicum students completing their Masters or Diploma programs. Our counselling rates range from $50 to $140 per session. Whether you are an experienced counselling client, or are new to counselling we have a counsellor for you! Check out our website today for your free consult. www.mxn.janeapp.com & www.mxnmenstherapynetwork.ca
(587) 803-3644 View (587) 803-3644
Photo of Kate Davison, Board Certified Behavior Analyst in V9C, BC
Kate Davison
Board Certified Behavior Analyst, BCaBA
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C
I love working with children of all ages. I have been working with children with Autism for over 17 years now; first as an interventionist and now as a Behaviour Consultant. Whether it's working on self help skills, acedemic skills or social skills, I work hard with ASD clients and their families to help them reach their fullest potential through a fun, play based therapy. I like my clients to feel comfortable with me so I like to play games and make them laugh a lot. Sometimes they don't even realise that I'm teaching specific skills. Please feel free to reach out, I would love to hear from you.
I love working with children of all ages. I have been working with children with Autism for over 17 years now; first as an interventionist and now as a Behaviour Consultant. Whether it's working on self help skills, acedemic skills or social skills, I work hard with ASD clients and their families to help them reach their fullest potential through a fun, play based therapy. I like my clients to feel comfortable with me so I like to play games and make them laugh a lot. Sometimes they don't even realise that I'm teaching specific skills. Please feel free to reach out, I would love to hear from you.
(548) 761-2066 View (548) 761-2066
Photo of Isbister Counselling - OCD Therapy, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Isbister Counselling - OCD Therapy
Counsellor, MA, RCC
Verified Verified
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I have a specific area of practice - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. OCD is considered to be a debilitating, chronic, and sneaky condition. OCD often latches on to what is most sacred and cherished to us. It can cause us to question our morals, values, and beliefs. Much time and energy is then spent trying to gain relief from doubt, uncertainty, and distress. Breaking cycles of Obsessions and Compulsions is key to regaining intention, peace, and freedom.
I have a specific area of practice - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. OCD is considered to be a debilitating, chronic, and sneaky condition. OCD often latches on to what is most sacred and cherished to us. It can cause us to question our morals, values, and beliefs. Much time and energy is then spent trying to gain relief from doubt, uncertainty, and distress. Breaking cycles of Obsessions and Compulsions is key to regaining intention, peace, and freedom.
(778) 784-7191 View (778) 784-7191
Photo of Crystal Daigneault, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Crystal Daigneault
Counsellor, MC, RCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
Life's challenges can feel overwhelming, and seeking support is a courageous first step. As a counselor, I'm here to hold space and compassionately walk alongside you on your unique journey. With a personalized approach, we'll navigate through your struggles, creating a plan to achieve healing and growth. I believe in the power of connection and will work collaboratively to create a safe and non-judgmental therapeutic relationship. Us humans are not designed to face hardships alone, so no matter what you're battling, let's embark on a path towards empowerment and positive change as a team.
Life's challenges can feel overwhelming, and seeking support is a courageous first step. As a counselor, I'm here to hold space and compassionately walk alongside you on your unique journey. With a personalized approach, we'll navigate through your struggles, creating a plan to achieve healing and growth. I believe in the power of connection and will work collaboratively to create a safe and non-judgmental therapeutic relationship. Us humans are not designed to face hardships alone, so no matter what you're battling, let's embark on a path towards empowerment and positive change as a team.
(819) 201-8594 View (819) 201-8594
Photo of Chiron Centre for Mental Health & Trauma Inc, Registered Social Worker in V9C, BC
Chiron Centre for Mental Health & Trauma Inc
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
From a very young age, I knew my purpose was to help others. I’ve dedicated my life to fighting social injustices, learning therapeutic modalities, and holding space. Between my formal education & training, and my lived experiences, I offer a unique perspective as a wounded healer and witness to support you on your journey. I strive to provide quality, professional, evidence-based clinical services to individuals who are living with complex mental health concerns, while offering collaborative trauma-informed counselling services through the lens of attachment theory.
From a very young age, I knew my purpose was to help others. I’ve dedicated my life to fighting social injustices, learning therapeutic modalities, and holding space. Between my formal education & training, and my lived experiences, I offer a unique perspective as a wounded healer and witness to support you on your journey. I strive to provide quality, professional, evidence-based clinical services to individuals who are living with complex mental health concerns, while offering collaborative trauma-informed counselling services through the lens of attachment theory.
(431) 441-3731 View (431) 441-3731
Photo of Paula Ann Greene in V9C, BC
Paula Ann Greene
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
Not accepting new clients
Childhood and adult experiences can impact the way we manage life. At times it can affect our connection with others, our ability to feel happy and our mental health. Reaching out for help can be a first step in recovering our sense of self, building health coping tools and feeling connected to our lives. Though counselling change is possible.
Childhood and adult experiences can impact the way we manage life. At times it can affect our connection with others, our ability to feel happy and our mental health. Reaching out for help can be a first step in recovering our sense of self, building health coping tools and feeling connected to our lives. Though counselling change is possible.
(778) 676-2636 View (778) 676-2636
Photo of Womb Wellness, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Womb Wellness
Counsellor, MEd, RCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
As a registered clinical counsellor, I provide a safe and supportive space for women dealing with issues such as infertility, pregnancy loss, birth trauma, prenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. My approach involves holding space, actively listening, and providing holistic healing and emotional support. By offering a non-judgmental and compassionate environment, I empower women to share and explore their thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to help you create the opportunity to heal, grow, and find strength in your journey.
As a registered clinical counsellor, I provide a safe and supportive space for women dealing with issues such as infertility, pregnancy loss, birth trauma, prenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. My approach involves holding space, actively listening, and providing holistic healing and emotional support. By offering a non-judgmental and compassionate environment, I empower women to share and explore their thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to help you create the opportunity to heal, grow, and find strength in your journey.
(604) 229-5670 View (604) 229-5670
Photo of Lisa Clarabut, Counsellor in V9C, BC
Lisa Clarabut
Counsellor, BSW, MC, RCC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Victoria, BC V9C
Arriving at counselling may feel vulnerable and uncertain, my approach to working together is to offer a safe space where we can explore the areas that you identify as needing attention. My goal is to create a space which allows you to discuss the challenges you are facing and to offer support and skills to explore these together. I will do this with curiosity, empathy, compassion, and respect for your process. It is important to me that you feel like our collaborative counselling relationship is the right fit for you.
Arriving at counselling may feel vulnerable and uncertain, my approach to working together is to offer a safe space where we can explore the areas that you identify as needing attention. My goal is to create a space which allows you to discuss the challenges you are facing and to offer support and skills to explore these together. I will do this with curiosity, empathy, compassion, and respect for your process. It is important to me that you feel like our collaborative counselling relationship is the right fit for you.
(289) 236-0985 View (289) 236-0985

See more therapy options for V9C

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in V9C

20+

Average cost per session

$145

Counsellors in V9C who prioritize treating:

88% Anxiety
80% Depression
80% Trauma and PTSD
72% Grief
68% Self Esteem
64% Relationship Issues
64% Stress

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% CVAP | Crime Victim
56% Insurance Corporation of British Columbia
44% Other

How Counsellors in V9C see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
21% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in V9C?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.