Sleep or Insomnia Therapists in Vaughan, ON

See all counsellors in Vaughan
Photo of Jennifer Kwong in Vaughan, ON
Jennifer Kwong
MA, CPsych, Assoc
3 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L6A
Waitlist for new clients
Sleepless? Irritable? Constantly tired? If you've been struggling with poor sleep for more than a month, it's time to get it checked out. Poor sleep contributes to all sorts of daytime challenges, including increased stress at work and in your relationships. Or... is it chronic stress from work/school/family that's contributing to sleep problems? You might be on autopilot so much that it's hard to evaluate and problem solve. You resort to old reaction habits that aren't really effective anymore.
Sleepless? Irritable? Constantly tired? If you've been struggling with poor sleep for more than a month, it's time to get it checked out. Poor sleep contributes to all sorts of daytime challenges, including increased stress at work and in your relationships. Or... is it chronic stress from work/school/family that's contributing to sleep problems? You might be on autopilot so much that it's hard to evaluate and problem solve. You resort to old reaction habits that aren't really effective anymore.
(647) 360-8903 View (647) 360-8903
Photo of Jane Mizevich, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
Jane Mizevich
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified
1 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4J  (Online Only)
My mission is to guide those struggling with emotional turbulence, persistent sadness, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and the complexities of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
I'm a dedicated clinical and counseling psychologist, proudly serving the community since 2015. My journey in psychology has been driven by a profound fascination with the human spirit—the indomitable resilience that propels individuals to introspect, confront their struggles, and embark on a path of self-improvement. I immerse myself in your world, striving to comprehend the depths of your challenges. Together, we embark on a journey towards self-discovery and healing, traversing the terrain of your emotions, thoughts, and experiences.
My mission is to guide those struggling with emotional turbulence, persistent sadness, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and the complexities of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
I'm a dedicated clinical and counseling psychologist, proudly serving the community since 2015. My journey in psychology has been driven by a profound fascination with the human spirit—the indomitable resilience that propels individuals to introspect, confront their struggles, and embark on a path of self-improvement. I immerse myself in your world, striving to comprehend the depths of your challenges. Together, we embark on a journey towards self-discovery and healing, traversing the terrain of your emotions, thoughts, and experiences.
(289) 802-4977 View (289) 802-4977
Photo of Anastasiia Puzyrina, Counsellor in Vaughan, ON
Anastasiia Puzyrina
Counsellor, MA
Verified
Vaughan, ON L4K
I access clients with divorce, domestic abuse, anger, anxiety, stress, fears, sleep disorders.
I have a Master's Degree in Psychology and am a professional counselor with more than 15 years of experience starting in Ukraine. I provide counseling services to couples and adolescents with relationship issues, such as conflicts, difficulties building and maintaining relationships, parenting, and marital and premarital fields.
I access clients with divorce, domestic abuse, anger, anxiety, stress, fears, sleep disorders.
I have a Master's Degree in Psychology and am a professional counselor with more than 15 years of experience starting in Ukraine. I provide counseling services to couples and adolescents with relationship issues, such as conflicts, difficulties building and maintaining relationships, parenting, and marital and premarital fields.
(647) 724-2082 View (647) 724-2082
Photo of York Region CBT, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
York Region CBT
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych, MA, ABA
Verified
Vaughan, ON L6A
Our experienced team offers evidence-based approaches for concerns with children, youth, and adults such as anxiety, depression, stress management, insomnia, relationship issues, OCD, PTSD, marital difficulties, learning difficulties, child behavioural issues, ADHD/ADD, Autism, social anxiety, and grief.
We know it is difficult to find the help you need. We have expanded our team to include multiple disciplines (Applied Behaviour Therapy, social work, psychotherapy, and psychologists), to address the diversity of presenting concerns today. We try our best to match you with the best clinician for your needs, whether you require a formal diagnosis or are seeking counseling for mild concerns. We provide therapy for all ages, as well as psycho-educational, developmental, and socio-emotional assessments for children and adolescents. We welcome all, and if we can't find a fit for you we can provide you with referral options.
Our experienced team offers evidence-based approaches for concerns with children, youth, and adults such as anxiety, depression, stress management, insomnia, relationship issues, OCD, PTSD, marital difficulties, learning difficulties, child behavioural issues, ADHD/ADD, Autism, social anxiety, and grief.
We know it is difficult to find the help you need. We have expanded our team to include multiple disciplines (Applied Behaviour Therapy, social work, psychotherapy, and psychologists), to address the diversity of presenting concerns today. We try our best to match you with the best clinician for your needs, whether you require a formal diagnosis or are seeking counseling for mild concerns. We provide therapy for all ages, as well as psycho-educational, developmental, and socio-emotional assessments for children and adolescents. We welcome all, and if we can't find a fit for you we can provide you with referral options.
(905) 417-4442 View (905) 417-4442
Photo of Humaira Khurshid, Registered Psychotherapist in Vaughan, ON
Humaira Khurshid
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP, CCTP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4L  (Online Only)
Mind Wings specializes in the following services: • Psychotherapy for anxiety, depression, adjustment concerns, marital concerns, fears, sleep concerns • Career counseling • Teenagers’ conflict resolution • Parental counseling for children with learning difficulties and developmental challenges • Anger management • PTSD.
I provide confidential, safe, self-empowering mental health services that promote dignity and respect for the individual. I have 22 years of experience in helping people navigate and overcome their life's challenges while fostering personal growth and resilience through psychotherapy and counselling services
Mind Wings specializes in the following services: • Psychotherapy for anxiety, depression, adjustment concerns, marital concerns, fears, sleep concerns • Career counseling • Teenagers’ conflict resolution • Parental counseling for children with learning difficulties and developmental challenges • Anger management • PTSD.
I provide confidential, safe, self-empowering mental health services that promote dignity and respect for the individual. I have 22 years of experience in helping people navigate and overcome their life's challenges while fostering personal growth and resilience through psychotherapy and counselling services
(289) 806-5143 View (289) 806-5143
Photo of Jessica Israelstam, Registered Psychotherapist in Vaughan, ON
Jessica Israelstam
Registered Psychotherapist, MEd, RP
Verified
10 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4K  (Online Only)
To suffer is human – but to grow and heal is also human. In life, you might experience stress, anxiety, self-criticism, anger, difficult transitions or relationships, chronic pain/health issues, trauma, sleep disturbance, and other challenges. Sometimes, you might feel so stuck or overwhelmed that your usual coping tools are not quite enough. It can be helpful to seek support from a professional who empowers you to overcome life’s challenges by helping you tap into your inner resources and develop new ones. I am a therapist with several years of experience offering such support.
To suffer is human – but to grow and heal is also human. In life, you might experience stress, anxiety, self-criticism, anger, difficult transitions or relationships, chronic pain/health issues, trauma, sleep disturbance, and other challenges. Sometimes, you might feel so stuck or overwhelmed that your usual coping tools are not quite enough. It can be helpful to seek support from a professional who empowers you to overcome life’s challenges by helping you tap into your inner resources and develop new ones. I am a therapist with several years of experience offering such support.
(647) 694-8939 View (647) 694-8939
Photo of Eva Svoboda, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
Eva Svoboda
Psychologist, MA, PhD, CPsych
Verified
3 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4K
Dr. Eva Svoboda is a co-founding psychologist at Toronto Brain Health. She has significant experience treating individuals with persistent symptoms following concussion (e.g., headaches, sleep problems, low stress tolerance, anxiety, irritability, low mood, noise/light sensitivity), providing rehabilitation to those with acquired brain injury (e.g., stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy), and therapy for personal development, anxiety, stress, insomnia, chronic pain, depression, OCD & trauma. Her approach is compassionate and client-centered. Her treatment is informed by research in neuroscience, rehabilitation & psychological therapy.
Dr. Eva Svoboda is a co-founding psychologist at Toronto Brain Health. She has significant experience treating individuals with persistent symptoms following concussion (e.g., headaches, sleep problems, low stress tolerance, anxiety, irritability, low mood, noise/light sensitivity), providing rehabilitation to those with acquired brain injury (e.g., stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy), and therapy for personal development, anxiety, stress, insomnia, chronic pain, depression, OCD & trauma. Her approach is compassionate and client-centered. Her treatment is informed by research in neuroscience, rehabilitation & psychological therapy.
(289) 210-5996 View (289) 210-5996
Photo of Dr. Leeor Granite, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
Dr. Leeor Granite
Psychologist, PsyD, CPsych
Verified
Vaughan, ON L4J  (Online Only)
My therapeutic approach encompasses supporting individuals grappling with stress, anxiety, irritability, depressive symptoms, social apprehensions, panic episodes, sleep disturbances, challenges in time-management, professional hurdles, and occupational burnout.
Starting therapy can be daunting, particularly when burdened with stress, anxiety, or feelings of sadness. Identifying and working through the underlying causes of these mental and emotional states can yield profound transformations. Such outcomes include uplifted moods, enhanced coping mechanisms for life's adversities, and improved life satisfaction. As a licensed Clinical Psychologist in Ontario, Canada, I deeply understand the enduring impact of our personal histories.
My therapeutic approach encompasses supporting individuals grappling with stress, anxiety, irritability, depressive symptoms, social apprehensions, panic episodes, sleep disturbances, challenges in time-management, professional hurdles, and occupational burnout.
Starting therapy can be daunting, particularly when burdened with stress, anxiety, or feelings of sadness. Identifying and working through the underlying causes of these mental and emotional states can yield profound transformations. Such outcomes include uplifted moods, enhanced coping mechanisms for life's adversities, and improved life satisfaction. As a licensed Clinical Psychologist in Ontario, Canada, I deeply understand the enduring impact of our personal histories.
(289) 796-1244 View (289) 796-1244
Photo of Dr. Greg Tippin, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
Dr. Greg Tippin
Psychologist, CPsych, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L6A  (Online Only)
I specialize in the assessment and treatment of chronic health issues, depression, generalized anxiety/worry, stress, social anxiety, OCD, panic attacks, ADHD, phobias, sleep/insomnia, and adjustment to life’s demands and changes.
Hi, I'm Dr. Greg Tippin a clinical, health and rehabilitation psychologist focused on adults at MindFit, a leading psychology clinic (or as prefer to say, "mental health gym") in Toronto. Just like a "typical" gym, MindFit was designed to be accessible and inviting to anyone looking to improve their emotional well-being. My approach is generally structured (with weekly handouts), evidence-based, and designed to help you develop practical and effective skills and strategies to achieve your wellness goals! I would be delighted to offer you a free 15-minute consult to see if I would be a great fit for you!
I specialize in the assessment and treatment of chronic health issues, depression, generalized anxiety/worry, stress, social anxiety, OCD, panic attacks, ADHD, phobias, sleep/insomnia, and adjustment to life’s demands and changes.
Hi, I'm Dr. Greg Tippin a clinical, health and rehabilitation psychologist focused on adults at MindFit, a leading psychology clinic (or as prefer to say, "mental health gym") in Toronto. Just like a "typical" gym, MindFit was designed to be accessible and inviting to anyone looking to improve their emotional well-being. My approach is generally structured (with weekly handouts), evidence-based, and designed to help you develop practical and effective skills and strategies to achieve your wellness goals! I would be delighted to offer you a free 15-minute consult to see if I would be a great fit for you!
(437) 747-6023 View (437) 747-6023
Photo of Jenny Rogojanski, Psychologist in Vaughan, ON
Jenny Rogojanski
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified
Vaughan, ON L4J
Waitlist for new clients
I provides assessment and treatment to adults with difficulties related to their mood, anxiety, OCD and spectrum disorders (such as hair pulling and skin picking), insomnia, and difficulties with emotion regulation.
My therapeutic orientation is primarily cognitive behavioural. My approach to therapy is collaborative and supportive, with a focus on creating a safe environment for therapeutic change and combining client strengths with evidence-based treatment principles. Specifically, I specialize in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), motivational interviewing (MI), and mindfulness and acceptance-based treatment approaches (MBCT, ACT).
I provides assessment and treatment to adults with difficulties related to their mood, anxiety, OCD and spectrum disorders (such as hair pulling and skin picking), insomnia, and difficulties with emotion regulation.
My therapeutic orientation is primarily cognitive behavioural. My approach to therapy is collaborative and supportive, with a focus on creating a safe environment for therapeutic change and combining client strengths with evidence-based treatment principles. Specifically, I specialize in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), motivational interviewing (MI), and mindfulness and acceptance-based treatment approaches (MBCT, ACT).
View
Photo of Mahyar Zaud, Registered Psychotherapist in Vaughan, ON
Mahyar Zaud
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4J  (Online Only)
In my practice, I help clients with challenges such as trauma and PTSD, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, infidelity, immigration issues, pain management, sleep disorders, grief and attachment issues.
To begin with, I want to welcome you to my profile and wish you the best in your journey towards healing and growth. I am a registered psychotherapist with seventeen years of clinical experience and more than forty five thousand hours of individual and couple therapy sessions. As a trauma specialist, I have supervised and consulted many mental health professionals and organizations around the world. In 2015, I was selected to become United Nations designated stress counsellor and trauma therapist. I have ample experience in working with clients who have faced difficult challenges in their lives, and are ready to recover.
In my practice, I help clients with challenges such as trauma and PTSD, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, infidelity, immigration issues, pain management, sleep disorders, grief and attachment issues.
To begin with, I want to welcome you to my profile and wish you the best in your journey towards healing and growth. I am a registered psychotherapist with seventeen years of clinical experience and more than forty five thousand hours of individual and couple therapy sessions. As a trauma specialist, I have supervised and consulted many mental health professionals and organizations around the world. In 2015, I was selected to become United Nations designated stress counsellor and trauma therapist. I have ample experience in working with clients who have faced difficult challenges in their lives, and are ready to recover.
(437) 747-7984 View (437) 747-7984
Photo of Olivia Morano, Registered Psychotherapist in Vaughan, ON
Olivia Morano
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MA
Verified
Vaughan, ON L4L  (Online Only)
If the trauma from your past is impacting your life today, you have options, and therapy may help. Your history doesn’t have to dictate your future. Your life experiences may be the source of your trauma, but they can also be a part of your healing. With the right tools and support, you can be in control, and the author of this next chapter of your life. I help people choose a different path, find a way to truly look forward to tomorrow, and enjoy the present moment.
If the trauma from your past is impacting your life today, you have options, and therapy may help. Your history doesn’t have to dictate your future. Your life experiences may be the source of your trauma, but they can also be a part of your healing. With the right tools and support, you can be in control, and the author of this next chapter of your life. I help people choose a different path, find a way to truly look forward to tomorrow, and enjoy the present moment.
(289) 276-7373 View (289) 276-7373
Photo of STAR Holistic Services , Registered Social Worker in Vaughan, ON
STAR Holistic Services
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4L
Accepting new clients!
Accepting new clients!
(289) 272-8786 View (289) 272-8786
Photo of Kamakshi Marwah, Pre-Licensed Professional in Vaughan, ON
Kamakshi Marwah
Pre-Licensed Professional, BA, MA, MSc
Verified
4 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4H  (Online Only)
A compassionate and dedicated therapist, I am committed to helping individuals gain a healthy perspective and find clarity amidst life's challenges. With a decade of unwavering passion for psychology, I firmly believe that everyone possesses unique strengths, and my mission is to empower my clients to embrace their individuality and thrive. As a clinician, I believe in the power of diverse therapeutic modalities to provide comprehensive and personalised care. Through approaches like Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Solution-Focused Therapy, and Acceptance Commitment Therapy.
A compassionate and dedicated therapist, I am committed to helping individuals gain a healthy perspective and find clarity amidst life's challenges. With a decade of unwavering passion for psychology, I firmly believe that everyone possesses unique strengths, and my mission is to empower my clients to embrace their individuality and thrive. As a clinician, I believe in the power of diverse therapeutic modalities to provide comprehensive and personalised care. Through approaches like Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Solution-Focused Therapy, and Acceptance Commitment Therapy.
(437) 747-6905 View (437) 747-6905
Photo of Alessia Petrella, Registered Social Worker in Vaughan, ON
Alessia Petrella
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
Vaughan, ON L4L
Partnership is at the heart of my work. I believe through collaboration and compassion, clients have the opportunity to partake in a therapeutic process where they feel safe and empowered to make the changes they are hoping to see. My aim in our work together is to support you in healing, while we work together to develop coping strategies to navigate current and future stressors. I practice from a culturally sensitive perspective, honoring the diversity of my clients and their experiences.
Partnership is at the heart of my work. I believe through collaboration and compassion, clients have the opportunity to partake in a therapeutic process where they feel safe and empowered to make the changes they are hoping to see. My aim in our work together is to support you in healing, while we work together to develop coping strategies to navigate current and future stressors. I practice from a culturally sensitive perspective, honoring the diversity of my clients and their experiences.
(289) 203-0617 View (289) 203-0617
Photo of Christina Gallo, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Vaughan, ON
Christina Gallo
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying)
Verified
1 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4K
Life is full of surprises, and even on our best days, challenges can feel overwhelming. Through my personal journey navigating life's complexities and with my experience in the mental health field, I've come to understand the strength it takes to confront these challenges and that it is a personal journey for each of us. Through my own journey and experiences in both my personal and professional life I have experienced the impacts of mental health and stigma, and this has inspired me to be there for those who may be struggling and need help finding a voice and identifying their journey.
Life is full of surprises, and even on our best days, challenges can feel overwhelming. Through my personal journey navigating life's complexities and with my experience in the mental health field, I've come to understand the strength it takes to confront these challenges and that it is a personal journey for each of us. Through my own journey and experiences in both my personal and professional life I have experienced the impacts of mental health and stigma, and this has inspired me to be there for those who may be struggling and need help finding a voice and identifying their journey.
(289) 797-2942 View (289) 797-2942
Photo of Valeria Matei, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Vaughan, ON
Valeria Matei
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA, RP-Q
Verified
3 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L6A
Are you feeling overwhelmed, struggling to find your footing in a world that seems increasingly complex and demanding? Do you yearn for a sense of peace, balance, and clarity in your life? I want you to know that you're not alone, and I'm here to support you. I understand that each person's journey is distinct, and I'm committed to meeting you where you are. Anxiety can be suffocating, making even the simplest tasks feel insurmountable. Depression can feel like a weight that's impossible to shake. Together, we'll explore the challenges you're facing and work towards practical, tailored solutions that resonate with your individuality
Are you feeling overwhelmed, struggling to find your footing in a world that seems increasingly complex and demanding? Do you yearn for a sense of peace, balance, and clarity in your life? I want you to know that you're not alone, and I'm here to support you. I understand that each person's journey is distinct, and I'm committed to meeting you where you are. Anxiety can be suffocating, making even the simplest tasks feel insurmountable. Depression can feel like a weight that's impossible to shake. Together, we'll explore the challenges you're facing and work towards practical, tailored solutions that resonate with your individuality
(289) 277-3452 View (289) 277-3452
Photo of Sivan Ibragimov, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Vaughan, ON
Sivan Ibragimov
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA
Verified
3 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4J  (Online Only)
Although it may feel that way right now, you are not alone! Just know that there are ways to improve your mental health, put a stop to those negative thoughts, and take back the control you have lost over your own mental well-being. Whether you are feeling anxious, depressed, overwhelmed or lost, know that with guidance and someone to lean on you can restore balance in your life. My goal is to help you obtain tools to manage different challenges that may come your way.
Although it may feel that way right now, you are not alone! Just know that there are ways to improve your mental health, put a stop to those negative thoughts, and take back the control you have lost over your own mental well-being. Whether you are feeling anxious, depressed, overwhelmed or lost, know that with guidance and someone to lean on you can restore balance in your life. My goal is to help you obtain tools to manage different challenges that may come your way.
(647) 559-5148 View (647) 559-5148
Photo of Stephanie Onoferychuk, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Vaughan, ON
Stephanie Onoferychuk
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), BA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4K
I seek to assist people in all walks of life and hold specialties in grief & loss, LGBTQ2S+ identity, neurodivergence, anxiety, depression, life transitions, and trauma. Above all, I hold a profound belief that all individuals are worthy of safety and acceptance. I am committed to creating a welcoming and secure environment for every client. I achieve this through a therapeutic approach that is person-centered, strengths-based, pro-LGBTQ2S+, pro-diversity, neuro-affirming, trauma-informed, and accessible.
I seek to assist people in all walks of life and hold specialties in grief & loss, LGBTQ2S+ identity, neurodivergence, anxiety, depression, life transitions, and trauma. Above all, I hold a profound belief that all individuals are worthy of safety and acceptance. I am committed to creating a welcoming and secure environment for every client. I achieve this through a therapeutic approach that is person-centered, strengths-based, pro-LGBTQ2S+, pro-diversity, neuro-affirming, trauma-informed, and accessible.
(289) 312-4331 x9 View (289) 312-4331 x9
Photo of Victoria Huang, Registered Social Worker in Vaughan, ON
Victoria Huang
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
8 Endorsed
Vaughan, ON L4K  (Online Only)
I always approach my clients in with an anti-oppressive, trauma-informed, harm reduction framework. What does that mean? It means that I will always ask "what happened to you?" instead of asking "what's wrong with you?". It also means that I will always respect you as the expert in your own life. Finally, it means that I believe that everyone does their very best to survive and thrive each day–even on the days that we can't see any hope. I am here to be with you, even through the darkest of days, and help you find inspiration and hope within yourself.
I always approach my clients in with an anti-oppressive, trauma-informed, harm reduction framework. What does that mean? It means that I will always ask "what happened to you?" instead of asking "what's wrong with you?". It also means that I will always respect you as the expert in your own life. Finally, it means that I believe that everyone does their very best to survive and thrive each day–even on the days that we can't see any hope. I am here to be with you, even through the darkest of days, and help you find inspiration and hope within yourself.
(289) 804-8384 View (289) 804-8384

See more therapy options for Vaughan


Sleep or Insomnia Counsellors

How effective is treatment for insomnia?

The most effective treatments for insomnia are behavioral techniques that reduce anxiety, including anxiety about falling asleep, and allow the body’s natural cycles to be recalibrated. The most common treatment is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), which researchers have found to be more useful than medication, with rates of success as high as 80 percent.

Are there specific medications for sleep problems?

There are many medications, both over-the-counter and prescription that treat sleep problems. Supplements such as melatonin are popular and may help, though there is little evidence that it is more effective than a placebo. Prescription medications such as zolpidem are sometimes prescribed.

Are there natural treatments for sleep problems?

There are many natural treatments for everyday sleep problems. Reducing blue-light emitting screens, setting a regular bedtime, regular exercise, reducing caffeine and nicotine consumption, and keeping the bedroom dark and cool at night are all lifestyle changes that can help those who struggle with sleep but may not reach the level of an insomnia diagnosis.

What’s the difference between having trouble falling asleep and insomnia?

Life events, stress, and anxiety can lead to sleepless nights for everyone from time to time. To be diagnosed with insomnia, a patient must experience trouble falling asleep, trouble remaining asleep, waking up too early, or non-restorative sleep at least three nights per week for at least one month. Sleep problems affect one-third to one-half of the population, while chronic insomnia affects about 10 to 15 percent of people.