Chronic Illness Therapists in Kitchener, ON

Photo of Holly Mathers, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Holly Mathers
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MTS, RP
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2G  (Online Only)
We are here to team up with you in phone or video sessions & can support you with issues you're facing in life relating to your gender identity, chronic illness, grief & other areas of concern. Focusing on your specific situation, we will work together to find options you find most helpful. Match with one of our therapists to meet your needs throughout Ontario. Contact us today to book an appointment with the best fit for you! We have therapy sessions available within a week so you can move forward with your wellness now. We are also able to access collaborative psychiatrists by video.
We are here to team up with you in phone or video sessions & can support you with issues you're facing in life relating to your gender identity, chronic illness, grief & other areas of concern. Focusing on your specific situation, we will work together to find options you find most helpful. Match with one of our therapists to meet your needs throughout Ontario. Contact us today to book an appointment with the best fit for you! We have therapy sessions available within a week so you can move forward with your wellness now. We are also able to access collaborative psychiatrists by video.
(855) 980-2104 View (855) 980-2104
Photo of W Experience Counselling and Wellness Services, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
W Experience Counselling and Wellness Services
Registered Social Worker, HBSc, BSW, MSW, RSW, PhD (c)
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2E
Using evidenced-based therapeutic practices, we provide compassionate, empathetic support and practical strategies to address challenges including, but not limited to, addictions, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, ASD, mood disorders, trauma, school challenges, stress, life transitions, chronic illness, interpersonal conflict, and rehabilitation.
Hello! At W Experience, W can mean many things... Wellness, Worthy, Willpower and Warrior. What will W mean for you? Our therapists have over 25 years of combined experience helping adults, children, couples and families achieve wellness. Allow W Experience Counselling and Wellness Services to support you on your wellness journey. Our clinic supports children, adults, couples and families. We are registered social workers who have provided therapy in hospital inpatient and outpatient units, K-12 and post-secondary spaces, specialized children's mental health treatment centres and residential settings.
Using evidenced-based therapeutic practices, we provide compassionate, empathetic support and practical strategies to address challenges including, but not limited to, addictions, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, ASD, mood disorders, trauma, school challenges, stress, life transitions, chronic illness, interpersonal conflict, and rehabilitation.
Hello! At W Experience, W can mean many things... Wellness, Worthy, Willpower and Warrior. What will W mean for you? Our therapists have over 25 years of combined experience helping adults, children, couples and families achieve wellness. Allow W Experience Counselling and Wellness Services to support you on your wellness journey. Our clinic supports children, adults, couples and families. We are registered social workers who have provided therapy in hospital inpatient and outpatient units, K-12 and post-secondary spaces, specialized children's mental health treatment centres and residential settings.
(226) 781-7495 View (226) 781-7495
Photo of Soha Elsayed, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Soha Elsayed
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW, MBA
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2N  (Online Only)
Throughout my professional experience as a clinician, I have had the privilege and honor to help thousands of people like yourself with a wide range of issues like depression, anxiety, BPD, addiction, grief, parenting, chronic illness.
Being anxious, sad, overwhelmed or having no hope can have a negative impact on your physical and mental health. Seeking help might not be easy; and opening up and revealing yourself in therapy can be intimidating. This is why most people who suffer mentally and emotionally, do not seek help, often being forced to cope in unhealthy ways to seek temporary relief. But you are here because you are seeking help, congratulations for taking your first step towards healing!
Throughout my professional experience as a clinician, I have had the privilege and honor to help thousands of people like yourself with a wide range of issues like depression, anxiety, BPD, addiction, grief, parenting, chronic illness.
Being anxious, sad, overwhelmed or having no hope can have a negative impact on your physical and mental health. Seeking help might not be easy; and opening up and revealing yourself in therapy can be intimidating. This is why most people who suffer mentally and emotionally, do not seek help, often being forced to cope in unhealthy ways to seek temporary relief. But you are here because you are seeking help, congratulations for taking your first step towards healing!
(226) 781-3867 View (226) 781-3867
Photo of Phil Naylor, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Phil Naylor
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MA, CH, RP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2A
Utilizing hypnosis I also work with health-related issues such as chronic pain, chronic illness (e.
Are you stuck in a loop of anxiety, negative thinking, emotional turmoil and/or self sabotaging behaviours? Are you tired of suffering, and feeling overwhelmed, and powerless? Do you feel the need for a real solution but have been frustrated by limited or superficial approaches when you have tried therapy before? Through my experience in treating thousands of clients I’ve discovered what is most effective in solving problems and just as importantly, how to help my clients understand themselves and the root of their problem. I empower them with effective tools and insights so they can also coach themselves as they move forward.
Utilizing hypnosis I also work with health-related issues such as chronic pain, chronic illness (e.
Are you stuck in a loop of anxiety, negative thinking, emotional turmoil and/or self sabotaging behaviours? Are you tired of suffering, and feeling overwhelmed, and powerless? Do you feel the need for a real solution but have been frustrated by limited or superficial approaches when you have tried therapy before? Through my experience in treating thousands of clients I’ve discovered what is most effective in solving problems and just as importantly, how to help my clients understand themselves and the root of their problem. I empower them with effective tools and insights so they can also coach themselves as they move forward.
(226) 909-7066 View (226) 909-7066
Photo of Sue Klassen, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Sue Klassen
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, BEd, RP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2M
What might it feel like to release your stress and trauma and feel restored? To finally feel at home in your body? To feel more free to move towards your goals? I use evidence-based cognitive-somatic approaches, including Internal Family Systems (IFS) and Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to release stress, pain, depression, and anxiety, and efficiently overcome PTSD and trauma. I have strong affinity for working with neurodivergent individuals (ADHD, ASD, HSP). Whether you are experiencing physical, emotional, or interpersonal stress or trauma, find lasting relief here.
What might it feel like to release your stress and trauma and feel restored? To finally feel at home in your body? To feel more free to move towards your goals? I use evidence-based cognitive-somatic approaches, including Internal Family Systems (IFS) and Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to release stress, pain, depression, and anxiety, and efficiently overcome PTSD and trauma. I have strong affinity for working with neurodivergent individuals (ADHD, ASD, HSP). Whether you are experiencing physical, emotional, or interpersonal stress or trauma, find lasting relief here.
(226) 242-9885 View (226) 242-9885
Photo of Gillian Flynn, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Gillian Flynn
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, MSc
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2H
Hi! I'm Gillian (she/her) and I am a Registered Psychotherapist. I have studied mental health across the lifespan and have over 15 years of experience working in healthcare. I believe that at the heart of being human is the desire for connection with others and our world. But sometimes it can feel like we are stuck and disconnected. As a therapist, I set out to build strong connections with my clients, making them feel seen, heard and cared for. Together we set goals and make a treatment plan, taking into account each individual’s unique experiences, culture, and beliefs.
Hi! I'm Gillian (she/her) and I am a Registered Psychotherapist. I have studied mental health across the lifespan and have over 15 years of experience working in healthcare. I believe that at the heart of being human is the desire for connection with others and our world. But sometimes it can feel like we are stuck and disconnected. As a therapist, I set out to build strong connections with my clients, making them feel seen, heard and cared for. Together we set goals and make a treatment plan, taking into account each individual’s unique experiences, culture, and beliefs.
(548) 490-1499 View (548) 490-1499
Photo of Anne Mary Schnarr, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Anne Mary Schnarr
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2A
I am a Jungian Psychoanalyst offering Jungian Analysis to individuals who want a deeper understanding of themselves. For many reasons, these persons feel emotionally in pain, conflicted or unbalanced in their inner and/or outer life and would benefit from exploring the deep rooted causes of relationship problems and unproductive emotional patterns. The direction of therapy is to look to the past and to the unconscious determinants of behaviour but also to open to the creative and positive movements of the psyche that offer a way forward even in the face of the greatest difficulties or trauma.
I am a Jungian Psychoanalyst offering Jungian Analysis to individuals who want a deeper understanding of themselves. For many reasons, these persons feel emotionally in pain, conflicted or unbalanced in their inner and/or outer life and would benefit from exploring the deep rooted causes of relationship problems and unproductive emotional patterns. The direction of therapy is to look to the past and to the unconscious determinants of behaviour but also to open to the creative and positive movements of the psyche that offer a way forward even in the face of the greatest difficulties or trauma.
(519) 884-3305 View (519) 884-3305
Photo of Chelsea Gay, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Chelsea Gay
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, BA, TITC-CT
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2A  (Online Only)
I am dedicated to supporting individuals experiencing symptoms from trauma, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, codependency, and low self-worth/self-esteem. I explore how the previous experiences we have encountered and the relationships we have had impact the way we view ourselves and interact with the world around us. I like to use a variety of tools to aid in symptom management while also working with the root to facilitate healing. My practice is heavily trauma-informed and attachment-focused. I use CBT, CPT, DBT, ACT, IFS, and mindfulness in my practice.
I am dedicated to supporting individuals experiencing symptoms from trauma, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, codependency, and low self-worth/self-esteem. I explore how the previous experiences we have encountered and the relationships we have had impact the way we view ourselves and interact with the world around us. I like to use a variety of tools to aid in symptom management while also working with the root to facilitate healing. My practice is heavily trauma-informed and attachment-focused. I use CBT, CPT, DBT, ACT, IFS, and mindfulness in my practice.
(548) 457-2074 View (548) 457-2074
Photo of Sarah Pearson, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Sarah Pearson
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MMT, MTA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2G
Are you feeling stuck in an older version of yourself that you know is ready to change? Do you live with the feeling that there's a truer version of "you" that's dying to come out? Are you held back by complicated relationships from your past, that seem to keep you in a holding pattern? Are you a couple stuck in a pattern that keeps you apart? Often we hit a place where we know we are ready for a transition, but we're just not sure what to do next. That's when therapy can be the most powerful. It's my greatest privilege to experience real connection with folks who are journeying towards a more meaningful, fulfilled, authentic life.
Are you feeling stuck in an older version of yourself that you know is ready to change? Do you live with the feeling that there's a truer version of "you" that's dying to come out? Are you held back by complicated relationships from your past, that seem to keep you in a holding pattern? Are you a couple stuck in a pattern that keeps you apart? Often we hit a place where we know we are ready for a transition, but we're just not sure what to do next. That's when therapy can be the most powerful. It's my greatest privilege to experience real connection with folks who are journeying towards a more meaningful, fulfilled, authentic life.
(226) 702-4638 View (226) 702-4638
Photo of Christi-an Slomka, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Kitchener, ON
Christi-an Slomka
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying)
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2H
Are you feeling burnt out, overwhelmed or anxious? Do you struggle to know/honour the true needs of your body, mind and heart? Are boundaries difficult for you? Do you wish for less stress and more balance and deeper rest?
Are you feeling burnt out, overwhelmed or anxious? Do you struggle to know/honour the true needs of your body, mind and heart? Are boundaries difficult for you? Do you wish for less stress and more balance and deeper rest?
(437) 291-7374 View (437) 291-7374
Photo of Dr. Anne McHugh, Psychologist in Kitchener, ON
Dr. Anne McHugh
Psychologist, CPsych
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2H
Throughout our lives we face many challenges; at times these can exceed our ability to problem solve and cope, even with the assistance of family and friends. At these times the professional assistance of a psychologist can be immensely helpful. I am a licensed psychologist with over 25 years of experience. I am qualified to assess, diagnose and treat any mental health disorder. I am also a health/rehabilitation psychologist, helping clients address the stress and depression associated with either chronic/acute illnesses, infertility and medical treatment. For complete information on my practice please go to www.drannemchugh.com
Throughout our lives we face many challenges; at times these can exceed our ability to problem solve and cope, even with the assistance of family and friends. At these times the professional assistance of a psychologist can be immensely helpful. I am a licensed psychologist with over 25 years of experience. I am qualified to assess, diagnose and treat any mental health disorder. I am also a health/rehabilitation psychologist, helping clients address the stress and depression associated with either chronic/acute illnesses, infertility and medical treatment. For complete information on my practice please go to www.drannemchugh.com
(226) 640-3271 View (226) 640-3271
Photo of VivelaVitaTherapies, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
VivelaVitaTherapies
Registered Social Worker, BHSc, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2M
Do you want to develop strategies to better manage the thoughts, feelings and relationships that are holding you back from a healthy and productive life? Are you struggling to find enjoyment in life, experiencing mental or physical illness, grief, and loss, stress in your job, relationships or as a caregiver or parent? There are steps you can take to improve your psychological well-being, strengthen your relationships and attachments and move towards personal healing and growth. I am here to help you break the cycle or negative thoughts, emotions and relationships and take steps to experience a more positive and fulfilling life.
Do you want to develop strategies to better manage the thoughts, feelings and relationships that are holding you back from a healthy and productive life? Are you struggling to find enjoyment in life, experiencing mental or physical illness, grief, and loss, stress in your job, relationships or as a caregiver or parent? There are steps you can take to improve your psychological well-being, strengthen your relationships and attachments and move towards personal healing and growth. I am here to help you break the cycle or negative thoughts, emotions and relationships and take steps to experience a more positive and fulfilling life.
(226) 400-1912 View (226) 400-1912
Photo of Sarah Glinski, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Kitchener, ON
Sarah Glinski
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA, RP(Q)
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2H  (Online Only)
You are exhausted! You know that you could feel more fulfilled but you're not sure what to do next. You worry all the time, your energy is depleted, managing daily tasks feel impossible and you aren't feeling too great about yourself. You have a sense that your life should be different than this, that you should have a more meaningful purpose. Maybe you even know what that purpose is- but you're scared. Scared of being misunderstood, humiliated, rejected. Scared of failing. I know what that feels like. And if you're willing, I can help guide you through it.
You are exhausted! You know that you could feel more fulfilled but you're not sure what to do next. You worry all the time, your energy is depleted, managing daily tasks feel impossible and you aren't feeling too great about yourself. You have a sense that your life should be different than this, that you should have a more meaningful purpose. Maybe you even know what that purpose is- but you're scared. Scared of being misunderstood, humiliated, rejected. Scared of failing. I know what that feels like. And if you're willing, I can help guide you through it.
(548) 490-8774 View (548) 490-8774
Photo of Teresa Vandebelt, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Teresa Vandebelt
Registered Social Worker, BA, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2G  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Journeying towards wellness takes more work than most of us imagine! Without support it can feel slow and discouraging! If you are on this journey, then you may want someone to walk alongside to help you move forward. Once you have this support, then it's time to start preparing for the journey! This could include remembering what's important to you, and working through the challenges that make the path forward difficult. You might even need to equip yourself with new skills and discover new paths towards a goal.
Journeying towards wellness takes more work than most of us imagine! Without support it can feel slow and discouraging! If you are on this journey, then you may want someone to walk alongside to help you move forward. Once you have this support, then it's time to start preparing for the journey! This could include remembering what's important to you, and working through the challenges that make the path forward difficult. You might even need to equip yourself with new skills and discover new paths towards a goal.
(548) 490-5850 View (548) 490-5850
Photo of Laura Dziuba, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Laura Dziuba
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kitchener, ON N2N  (Online Only)
Welcome! I’m so glad you’re here. Many people initiate therapy when something big is going on in their life – mental health symptoms, a big life change, or a sudden loss. But you don’t have to wait until life feels overwhelming to seek support. I welcome it all into my practice - no concern is too big or too small to bring to therapy. I specialize in supporting adults (18+) in healing from trauma, depression and anxiety, and supporting those navigating the perinatal period (including perinatal mental health issues), perfectionism/people pleasing, and those that identify as empaths and highly sensitive people (HSP).
Welcome! I’m so glad you’re here. Many people initiate therapy when something big is going on in their life – mental health symptoms, a big life change, or a sudden loss. But you don’t have to wait until life feels overwhelming to seek support. I welcome it all into my practice - no concern is too big or too small to bring to therapy. I specialize in supporting adults (18+) in healing from trauma, depression and anxiety, and supporting those navigating the perinatal period (including perinatal mental health issues), perfectionism/people pleasing, and those that identify as empaths and highly sensitive people (HSP).
View
Photo of Mark Booker, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Mark Booker
Registered Social Worker, MTS, MSW , RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2H
I support individuals with depression, anxiety, relationships, disabilities, and overall health. I have over 22 years experience within the mental health sector providing support and counselling to those with a wide range of challenges.
I support individuals with depression, anxiety, relationships, disabilities, and overall health. I have over 22 years experience within the mental health sector providing support and counselling to those with a wide range of challenges.
(548) 485-5939 View (548) 485-5939
Photo of Fancy Therapy Services, Registered Psychotherapist in Kitchener, ON
Fancy Therapy Services
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2K
Imagine if... You weren’t constantly worried. You were confident in your abilities at home and work. Your past was only a distant memory instead of a ghost in your present. You had a space where you felt safe to talk about anything that is troubling you. You had someone you could talk to without fear of judgement or inadequacy. Stop feeling exhausted and start feeling stable. The use of psychotherapy can help you find yourself again, we understand you don’t want to feel this way forever. Our therapists are highly trained in a variety of issues and approaches. Let’s find the perfect therapist for you!
Imagine if... You weren’t constantly worried. You were confident in your abilities at home and work. Your past was only a distant memory instead of a ghost in your present. You had a space where you felt safe to talk about anything that is troubling you. You had someone you could talk to without fear of judgement or inadequacy. Stop feeling exhausted and start feeling stable. The use of psychotherapy can help you find yourself again, we understand you don’t want to feel this way forever. Our therapists are highly trained in a variety of issues and approaches. Let’s find the perfect therapist for you!
(226) 779-3684 View (226) 779-3684
Photo of Midtown Counselling - Shelly Pavlic, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Midtown Counselling - Shelly Pavlic
Registered Social Worker, BASc, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2H
Living with a dark, stormy cloud over your head is no way to live. If your cloud is taking away from your personal life or career, you may feel burdened, alone or misunderstood. It doesn't have to be that way. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Interventions relieve anxiety, depression & stress, restore confidence, develop effective family relationships, and unlock personal potential. The solutions to your problems might be closer than you think. Why wait? (Midtown Counselling offers immediate bookings to new clients).
Living with a dark, stormy cloud over your head is no way to live. If your cloud is taking away from your personal life or career, you may feel burdened, alone or misunderstood. It doesn't have to be that way. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Interventions relieve anxiety, depression & stress, restore confidence, develop effective family relationships, and unlock personal potential. The solutions to your problems might be closer than you think. Why wait? (Midtown Counselling offers immediate bookings to new clients).
(519) 589-1550 View (519) 589-1550
Photo of Shelley Restall, Registered Social Worker in Kitchener, ON
Shelley Restall
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2H
I help anxious, perfectionistic, and highly sensitive people shift their relationship with their body to feel grounded and confident. You feel exhausted as your mind and body remind you each moment of every day of being consumed with worry. Not understood by those closest to you, is overwhelmingly dreadful. You may have an idea when this started, or maybe it came suddenly and you aren't sure why. It’s here and feels fierce as it has taken over your life. You are trapped in your mind, ruminating about what has happened, while you wish it was different. You're left feeling "stuck", the old patterns of life aren’t helping you now.
I help anxious, perfectionistic, and highly sensitive people shift their relationship with their body to feel grounded and confident. You feel exhausted as your mind and body remind you each moment of every day of being consumed with worry. Not understood by those closest to you, is overwhelmingly dreadful. You may have an idea when this started, or maybe it came suddenly and you aren't sure why. It’s here and feels fierce as it has taken over your life. You are trapped in your mind, ruminating about what has happened, while you wish it was different. You're left feeling "stuck", the old patterns of life aren’t helping you now.
(226) 778-5349 View (226) 778-5349
Photo of Julie Gosen, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Kitchener, ON
Julie Gosen
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), BA, MA, `RPQ
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Kitchener, ON N2H
Waitlist for new clients
Life is truly filled with so many layers (just like an onion!) which can make it hard to know where to start when it comes to counselling. Hi, I'm Julie (she/her) and I deeply believe in the beauty of connection. My own journey with mental health and being neurodivergent has truly inspired my passion for this field. I work with anxiety, depression, relationship challenges, chronic pain, ADHD/ASD, self-esteem, and couples counselling. I am also deeply passionate about working with 2slgbtqia+ individuals and the queer community.
Life is truly filled with so many layers (just like an onion!) which can make it hard to know where to start when it comes to counselling. Hi, I'm Julie (she/her) and I deeply believe in the beauty of connection. My own journey with mental health and being neurodivergent has truly inspired my passion for this field. I work with anxiety, depression, relationship challenges, chronic pain, ADHD/ASD, self-esteem, and couples counselling. I am also deeply passionate about working with 2slgbtqia+ individuals and the queer community.
(548) 457-2264 View (548) 457-2264

See more therapy options for Kitchener


Chronic Illness Counsellors

How does therapy for chronic illness work?

Many people living with a chronic illness may feel they cannot speak honestly about their experience out of embarrassment or fear of being a burden, or because those close to them do not understand, for example, that they may “look good” even if they do not feel good. Therapy sessions are an opportunity to speak openly with someone who knows their symptoms are not in their head and who can offer practical, proven suggestions for managing feelings of grief, shame, or fatigue, such as techniques to challenge unhelpful thoughts about symptoms and develop new ways to respond to them, such as distraction or calming breathing practices.

Can therapy help with physical symptoms of chronic illness?

Yes, especially if an individual with chronic illness has developed depression. People with depression are less likely to maintain their health treatment regimens or to take positive steps to manage physical symptoms when they arise, thereby potentially complicating their medical prognosis. Treatment of depression, through talk therapy, medication, or both, will often improve one’s physical state as it eases the emotional burden of illness.

What are the most effective treatment options for chronic illness?

No one living with a chronic illness, or their loved ones, should see depression as an unavoidable result of their condition. Instead, they should actively seek treatment. Research shows that people with depression are less likely to devote the required time and effort to maintaining or monitoring their health, and so therapy to limit the risk of depression can be vital for physical health as well. Therapeutic approaches such as cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction have been found to help individuals reduce stress and anxiety.

How long does therapy for chronic illness take?

There is no set timeline for therapy for people living with chronic illnesses, but many will see a therapist for a number of weeks or months, typically spanning at least 12 weekly sessions. Some people feel that they experience progress faster than others but even some who quickly feel improvement may continue with sessions for months or years. Some people may benefit from maintenance therapy if their symptoms change or they experience a decline in physical health. Others find that the skills learned in short-term therapy can be used on an ongoing basis, even after therapy has concluded.