Therapists in Hastings, ON

Photo of Mary English, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Mary English
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, OCT, MA, BEd, HBA
Verified Verified
Hastings, ON K0L
I understand the courage it takes to reach out for support for yourself or a loved one. I provide services for those age 8 and older relating to neurodiversity and anxiety. With gentle guidance, support and time, challenges and stressors can provide a better understanding of one's self and use of natural talents. As we co-create a safe and trusting relationship, I will model the empathy, encouragement, and compassion that you deserve for yourself. At any age and stage, new learning can inspire a shift in wellness, coping strategies and healthy habits. My hope is that we can explore, visualize and create meaningful steps forward.
I understand the courage it takes to reach out for support for yourself or a loved one. I provide services for those age 8 and older relating to neurodiversity and anxiety. With gentle guidance, support and time, challenges and stressors can provide a better understanding of one's self and use of natural talents. As we co-create a safe and trusting relationship, I will model the empathy, encouragement, and compassion that you deserve for yourself. At any age and stage, new learning can inspire a shift in wellness, coping strategies and healthy habits. My hope is that we can explore, visualize and create meaningful steps forward.
(249) 202-2236 View (249) 202-2236

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Agata Wesolowski (Psychotherapy And Professional Consultation), Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Agata Wesolowski (Psychotherapy And Professional Consultation)
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakefield, ON K0L
Waitlist for new clients
I work alongside adults looking for relief from new stressors or long-standing challenges. My specializations include psychological trauma/PTSD and addiction. I also help folks who are experiencing life transitions, abuse, or general mental health concerns. In addition to client work, I offer consultation to mental health professionals to help address their concerns and make reasoned ethical and clinical decisions in their practice.
I work alongside adults looking for relief from new stressors or long-standing challenges. My specializations include psychological trauma/PTSD and addiction. I also help folks who are experiencing life transitions, abuse, or general mental health concerns. In addition to client work, I offer consultation to mental health professionals to help address their concerns and make reasoned ethical and clinical decisions in their practice.
(249) 449-2200 View (249) 449-2200
Photo of Tyler Waterman, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in Hastings, ON
Tyler Waterman
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, NP-PHC, CD, MN
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Norwood, ON K0L
I am a nurse practitioner and psychotherapist with over 15 years experience in mental health. I work with all ages and treat a variety of mental health conditions. I offer individual therapy along with a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. I utilize a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities and employ an integrative approach with treatment. As a nurse practitioner, I can also provide a diagnosis, order diagnostic/laboratory testing and prescribe medication to manage symptoms.
I am a nurse practitioner and psychotherapist with over 15 years experience in mental health. I work with all ages and treat a variety of mental health conditions. I offer individual therapy along with a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. I utilize a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities and employ an integrative approach with treatment. As a nurse practitioner, I can also provide a diagnosis, order diagnostic/laboratory testing and prescribe medication to manage symptoms.
(249) 559-0116 View (249) 559-0116
Photo of Shannon Sheehy RN Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Shannon Sheehy RN Psychotherapist
RN, CNP(Q)
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Bewdley, ON K0L
As humans we want to know we have a purpose, strengths, love and relationships. When these ideas are shaken up it can be challenging to move forward. Working with me as your Therapist can renew your sense of meeting your own needs. Feeling safe, and supported is a fundamental need and if you aren’t feeling that I can help bring that in to your life. You don’t need to know what help you need to visit me; we can find and explore that together.
As humans we want to know we have a purpose, strengths, love and relationships. When these ideas are shaken up it can be challenging to move forward. Working with me as your Therapist can renew your sense of meeting your own needs. Feeling safe, and supported is a fundamental need and if you aren’t feeling that I can help bring that in to your life. You don’t need to know what help you need to visit me; we can find and explore that together.
(289) 271-3837 View (289) 271-3837
Photo of Otonabee Family Counselling Centre, Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Otonabee Family Counselling Centre
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
We support children and youth with mental health, developmental, relational and behavioural issues through a combination of strong, meaningful therapeutic relationships and evidence-based interventions. OFCC is a safe space, inclusive of the diverse and unique individuals we serve.
We support children and youth with mental health, developmental, relational and behavioural issues through a combination of strong, meaningful therapeutic relationships and evidence-based interventions. OFCC is a safe space, inclusive of the diverse and unique individuals we serve.
(249) 488-1501 View (249) 488-1501
Photo of Wendy Morgan, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Hastings, ON
Wendy Morgan
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA-CP, MA-Ed
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
Do you struggle to understand your own emotions? Are you regularly feeling anxious? Overwhelmed? Maybe you are finding it harder to connect with those you care about? These have been some very difficult years. Many of us need to take more time and space to heal. Therapy can help. I use person-centred and relational approaches grounded in neuropsychology. I work with individuals and couples to reduce anxiety and manage overwhelming emotions so that they are more grounded in themselves, stronger and more connected inside of their relationships, and ultimately able to make positive change in their lives.
Do you struggle to understand your own emotions? Are you regularly feeling anxious? Overwhelmed? Maybe you are finding it harder to connect with those you care about? These have been some very difficult years. Many of us need to take more time and space to heal. Therapy can help. I use person-centred and relational approaches grounded in neuropsychology. I work with individuals and couples to reduce anxiety and manage overwhelming emotions so that they are more grounded in themselves, stronger and more connected inside of their relationships, and ultimately able to make positive change in their lives.
(249) 294-1502 View (249) 294-1502
Photo of Tracy Johnston, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Tracy Johnston
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Bancroft, ON K0L
Have life’s challenges left you feeling disheartened? Or maybe you feel like you need to make a change, to get more out of life. You know you have more to offer to the world but don’t know where to start. Times of transition, from graduation to loss and everything in between can lead to feelings of overwhelm, exhaustion, anxiety, uncertainty, and stress. With support, and newly developed skills you can navigate life’s challenges with a renewed sense of hope.
Have life’s challenges left you feeling disheartened? Or maybe you feel like you need to make a change, to get more out of life. You know you have more to offer to the world but don’t know where to start. Times of transition, from graduation to loss and everything in between can lead to feelings of overwhelm, exhaustion, anxiety, uncertainty, and stress. With support, and newly developed skills you can navigate life’s challenges with a renewed sense of hope.
(249) 490-5751 View (249) 490-5751
Photo of Alicia Hamstra, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Alicia Hamstra
Registered Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
Alicia supports various individuals and couples experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship issues, emotional difficulties, trauma, grief and a variety of other difficulties. Some people seek counselling for one of the above or they seek counselling to talk in a safe and judgment free environment to work through day to day difficulties. I want to support people to flourish in the life they are determined to lead.
Alicia supports various individuals and couples experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship issues, emotional difficulties, trauma, grief and a variety of other difficulties. Some people seek counselling for one of the above or they seek counselling to talk in a safe and judgment free environment to work through day to day difficulties. I want to support people to flourish in the life they are determined to lead.
(705) 300-5429 View (705) 300-5429
Photo of Anne Geraldine Barnes, Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Anne Geraldine Barnes
Registered Social Worker, RSW
Verified Verified
Campbellford, ON K0L  (Online Only)
Does your teenager worry excessively about upcoming tests, scores, assignments, extracurriculars and friendships? Wanting things to be done "perfectly"? Are they often feeling sad, anxious or irritable? Or could it be that your teen feels awkward and anxious in social situations where they don’t know the people well? 
 Do you feel hopeless and/or helpless in changing anything? How about a space for your teen and/or you to just press pause and be able to talk with someone neutral about these concerns?
Does your teenager worry excessively about upcoming tests, scores, assignments, extracurriculars and friendships? Wanting things to be done "perfectly"? Are they often feeling sad, anxious or irritable? Or could it be that your teen feels awkward and anxious in social situations where they don’t know the people well? 
 Do you feel hopeless and/or helpless in changing anything? How about a space for your teen and/or you to just press pause and be able to talk with someone neutral about these concerns?
(647) 694-0393 View (647) 694-0393
Photo of Ilda Conceicao Furtado, Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Ilda Conceicao Furtado
Registered Social Worker, RSW, CVRP(f), BSW, MHSc, BA
Verified Verified
Apsley, ON K0L
Relationships are central to our well-being. When our relationships are not going well, we can become lonely and isolated, and our mental health suffers. Seeking professional help to look at how we function in our relationships and the impact that they have on us and we on them, can open possibilities for growth. By recognizing the present-day impact of past events, by focusing on our goals for the future, and by changing unhelpful thinking patterns, we can find a path to improved relationships and better mental health.
Relationships are central to our well-being. When our relationships are not going well, we can become lonely and isolated, and our mental health suffers. Seeking professional help to look at how we function in our relationships and the impact that they have on us and we on them, can open possibilities for growth. By recognizing the present-day impact of past events, by focusing on our goals for the future, and by changing unhelpful thinking patterns, we can find a path to improved relationships and better mental health.
(343) 801-0072 View (343) 801-0072
Photo of Blue Sky Therapy, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Blue Sky Therapy
Registered Psychotherapist, BScOT, MA, RP
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
I specialize in the integrated treatment approach of Psychotherapy, Art Therapy and Occupational therapy that draws on Adlerian, Mindfulness and DBT theories. I see children through to adults and I am LGBTQ friendly and informed. I am registered under provincial legislation. This means that I am required to uphold a code of ethics that is subject to scrutiny by a regulatory body, I am a member of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario and the College of Occupational Therapists of Ontario and I am fully insured.
I specialize in the integrated treatment approach of Psychotherapy, Art Therapy and Occupational therapy that draws on Adlerian, Mindfulness and DBT theories. I see children through to adults and I am LGBTQ friendly and informed. I am registered under provincial legislation. This means that I am required to uphold a code of ethics that is subject to scrutiny by a regulatory body, I am a member of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario and the College of Occupational Therapists of Ontario and I am fully insured.
(705) 910-0965 View (705) 910-0965
Photo of Caitlin Lindsay Therapy, Psychiatric Nurse in Hastings, ON
Caitlin Lindsay Therapy
Psychiatric Nurse, RN, MN, SEP
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
I hold compassion for all you have been through and where you are now. I approach therapy as a collaboration between you and I, where you are respected and honoured and your strengths are highlighted. We work at a safe pace in line with your needs. I recognize how hard it is to be a human in this world and the support required to get through challenging and transitional times, as well as the possibility for resilient growth and recovery. I am an avid lover of music, art and dance, believing that creativity is a part of being alive. I work to integrate this into my practice, along with a spiritual and intuitive sense.
I hold compassion for all you have been through and where you are now. I approach therapy as a collaboration between you and I, where you are respected and honoured and your strengths are highlighted. We work at a safe pace in line with your needs. I recognize how hard it is to be a human in this world and the support required to get through challenging and transitional times, as well as the possibility for resilient growth and recovery. I am an avid lover of music, art and dance, believing that creativity is a part of being alive. I work to integrate this into my practice, along with a spiritual and intuitive sense.
(249) 503-3587 View (249) 503-3587
Photo of Meghan Nash in Hastings, ON
Meghan Nash
CYCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakefield, ON K0L
I offer strengths-based, individual child and youth counselling, coming from a trauma-informed, anti-oppressive lens. I also offer parent/guardian coordination, support in the improvement of coping strategies, problem solving, social skills development and emotional regulation. With 6+ years of experience within the school system, I am very knowledgeable of how challenging it can be to navigate appropriate supports and also offer my assistance in coordinating with your child’s school.
I offer strengths-based, individual child and youth counselling, coming from a trauma-informed, anti-oppressive lens. I also offer parent/guardian coordination, support in the improvement of coping strategies, problem solving, social skills development and emotional regulation. With 6+ years of experience within the school system, I am very knowledgeable of how challenging it can be to navigate appropriate supports and also offer my assistance in coordinating with your child’s school.
(249) 488-2654 View (249) 488-2654
Photo of Maggie Munoz Counselling, Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Maggie Munoz Counselling
Registered Social Worker, RSW, MSW, BST
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Campbellford, ON K0L  (Online Only)
Struggling with seasonal depression or tough transitions? Having, support, acceptance, empathy, education and guidance can help. None of us are immune to having bad days, rough patches, anxiety, burnout, imposter syndrome, relationship issues, and depression. As a counsellor, I use a trauma-informed, anti-oppressive lens and offer behavioral, narrative, and short-term solution focused practice to help with difficult times encountered throughout life. I enjoy empowering individuals to recognize their own strengths and find a way through the tumultuous life paths.
Struggling with seasonal depression or tough transitions? Having, support, acceptance, empathy, education and guidance can help. None of us are immune to having bad days, rough patches, anxiety, burnout, imposter syndrome, relationship issues, and depression. As a counsellor, I use a trauma-informed, anti-oppressive lens and offer behavioral, narrative, and short-term solution focused practice to help with difficult times encountered throughout life. I enjoy empowering individuals to recognize their own strengths and find a way through the tumultuous life paths.
(343) 338-5292 View (343) 338-5292
Photo of Leanne Lamothe, Registered Social Worker in Hastings, ON
Leanne Lamothe
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L  (Online Only)
Experience a safe, non-judgmental and supportive environment where you can explore the concerns, fears and past traumas that affect your life today. I bring a respectful, client centered perspective to therapy that embraces empathy, compassion and a mindful presence. Working with a therapist is a unique experience that can help you change the belief and reaction patterns that no longer support living the life you envision. My training includes cognitive, narrative, energy and experiential therapies.
Experience a safe, non-judgmental and supportive environment where you can explore the concerns, fears and past traumas that affect your life today. I bring a respectful, client centered perspective to therapy that embraces empathy, compassion and a mindful presence. Working with a therapist is a unique experience that can help you change the belief and reaction patterns that no longer support living the life you envision. My training includes cognitive, narrative, energy and experiential therapies.
(844) 402-1193 View (844) 402-1193
Photo of Anna Field Smit, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Anna Field Smit
Registered Psychotherapist, MDiv, RP
Verified Verified
Bancroft, ON K0L
Have you suffered trauma and wonder if it’s possible to heal? Are you anxious and worried, struggling to cope? Do you push people away before they hurt you? Or chase after someone, terrified to lose them? Do you question your worth, sure that you will never be enough? Have you ever wondered “is there hope for me”? YES! There is hope! It is possible to heal, to learn how to have healthier relationships, to feel good about yourself instead of feeling bad. You can learn how to manage emotions so that anxiety doesn’t stop you from doing things you want to do. You CAN gain more control of your life and emotions and feel more confident!
Have you suffered trauma and wonder if it’s possible to heal? Are you anxious and worried, struggling to cope? Do you push people away before they hurt you? Or chase after someone, terrified to lose them? Do you question your worth, sure that you will never be enough? Have you ever wondered “is there hope for me”? YES! There is hope! It is possible to heal, to learn how to have healthier relationships, to feel good about yourself instead of feeling bad. You can learn how to manage emotions so that anxiety doesn’t stop you from doing things you want to do. You CAN gain more control of your life and emotions and feel more confident!
(249) 501-5203 View (249) 501-5203
Photo of Kristi Kerford, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
Kristi Kerford
Registered Psychotherapist, MEd, RP, CCC
Verified Verified
Lakefield, ON K0L
Empathy and curiosity are two qualities I will use as I listen to your story. Together we will learn, explore and figure out a way forward. I have a genuine desire to help you find fulfillment, define purpose, enhance well-being and live your best life. Common reasons people may see me are for depression, anxiety, grief, trauma, interpersonal/relationship concerns and career and life transitions. More recently I have begun learning about climate and global issues anxiety as well as issues related to high performers. I practice from an emotion focused approach and work primarily with young adults and adults.
Empathy and curiosity are two qualities I will use as I listen to your story. Together we will learn, explore and figure out a way forward. I have a genuine desire to help you find fulfillment, define purpose, enhance well-being and live your best life. Common reasons people may see me are for depression, anxiety, grief, trauma, interpersonal/relationship concerns and career and life transitions. More recently I have begun learning about climate and global issues anxiety as well as issues related to high performers. I practice from an emotion focused approach and work primarily with young adults and adults.
(249) 202-2199 View (249) 202-2199
Photo of The Dot Canada, Registered Psychotherapist in Hastings, ON
The Dot Canada
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP, MSW
Verified Verified
Bancroft, ON K0L  (Online Only)
If you're feeling disconnected, distracted, and detached from your life, it may be time to look at why. Why can't I connect, why am I not able to just "get over" my past, or why does it all feel so meaningless? Maybe there are other questions, like “what am I doing with my life” or “who do I want to be?”. It’s okay to take time that's just for you, to look at your life and see both the big picture and explore the often overlooked details. With the right support, you can feel more present, connected, and in control of your life.
If you're feeling disconnected, distracted, and detached from your life, it may be time to look at why. Why can't I connect, why am I not able to just "get over" my past, or why does it all feel so meaningless? Maybe there are other questions, like “what am I doing with my life” or “who do I want to be?”. It’s okay to take time that's just for you, to look at your life and see both the big picture and explore the often overlooked details. With the right support, you can feel more present, connected, and in control of your life.
(249) 488-1297 View (249) 488-1297
Photo of Hannah Lewis, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Hastings, ON
Hannah Lewis
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MACP, RECE
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Norwood, ON K0L
Everybody struggles sometimes. Does your family, or somebody in your family, need some support? I can help. I work with individuals and families of all ages. This includes children, youth and adults.
Everybody struggles sometimes. Does your family, or somebody in your family, need some support? I can help. I work with individuals and families of all ages. This includes children, youth and adults.
(249) 444-2456 View (249) 444-2456
Photo of Brittany Ibbotson, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Hastings, ON
Brittany Ibbotson
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA, BAH
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Apsley, ON K0L  (Online Only)
Welcome to a transformative journey towards emotional well-being. I'm a highly skilled psychotherapist dedicated to helping both teenagers and adult women connect with their inner child to heal past wounds and address the root causes of their anxiety, depression, and trauma. My goal is to empower you to discover your inner strength, resilience, and happiness. With a focus on evidence-based practices and a deep commitment to your well-being, I have helped countless individuals regain control of their lives. It is ok to not be ok and starting this journey with me may be that first step to feeling better.
Welcome to a transformative journey towards emotional well-being. I'm a highly skilled psychotherapist dedicated to helping both teenagers and adult women connect with their inner child to heal past wounds and address the root causes of their anxiety, depression, and trauma. My goal is to empower you to discover your inner strength, resilience, and happiness. With a focus on evidence-based practices and a deep commitment to your well-being, I have helped countless individuals regain control of their lives. It is ok to not be ok and starting this journey with me may be that first step to feeling better.
(249) 507-0529 View (249) 507-0529

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Hastings, ON

< 10

Counsellors in Hastings, ON who prioritize treating:

100% Relationship Issues
100% Anxiety
100% Child
100% ADHD
100% Obsessive-Compulsive (OCD)
100% Other
100% Divorce

Average years in practice

3 Years

Gender breakdown

100% Female

How Counsellors in Hastings, ON see their clients

100% In Person and Online

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Hastings?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.