Therapists in East York, ON

Photo of LGBTQ Counselling & Clinical Supervision, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
LGBTQ Counselling & Clinical Supervision
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
East York, ON M4C  (Online Only)
LGBTQ Counselling is a therapeutic practice dedicated to the care of, and treatment for, members (18+ only) of queer (LGBTQ2SIA+) communities by a queer identified counsellor. I also offer Clinical Supervision for therapists/counsellors and qualifying therapists.
LGBTQ Counselling is a therapeutic practice dedicated to the care of, and treatment for, members (18+ only) of queer (LGBTQ2SIA+) communities by a queer identified counsellor. I also offer Clinical Supervision for therapists/counsellors and qualifying therapists.
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Photo of Laura Pearson, Counsellor in East York, ON
Laura Pearson
Counsellor
Verified
East York, ON M4K
Stress and anxiety are a daily part of many people's lives. After all, we live in a fast-paced culture where expectations, from ourselves and others, is ever-increasing. It is understandable to feel strained by your responsibilities, but are they weighing you down more than they are bringing you joy? Perhaps you want to make a life change but don't know how? Through counselling, also known as "talk therapy", I can help put you on the path to reaching your goals and taking control of your life.
Stress and anxiety are a daily part of many people's lives. After all, we live in a fast-paced culture where expectations, from ourselves and others, is ever-increasing. It is understandable to feel strained by your responsibilities, but are they weighing you down more than they are bringing you joy? Perhaps you want to make a life change but don't know how? Through counselling, also known as "talk therapy", I can help put you on the path to reaching your goals and taking control of your life.
(647) 797-8791 View (647) 797-8791
Photo of Hazel S Zemel, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
Hazel S Zemel
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
East York, ON M4G
I'm a therapist with 35+ years experience in working with people like you and problems like yours.My passion is work with families, couples and individuals looking for more satisfying and rewarding relationships. I see you as a unique individual, and excite in developing new solutions that suit your needs. I believe that your children teach you how to be their 'best' parent and your parents hand over a legacy that you can continue or you can create a new one to pass on. I have worked in 3 countries and specialize in Couples &Family-loss, trauma,parenting, transitions, anxiety and finding joy. Sessions are every 2wks for 90 min.
I'm a therapist with 35+ years experience in working with people like you and problems like yours.My passion is work with families, couples and individuals looking for more satisfying and rewarding relationships. I see you as a unique individual, and excite in developing new solutions that suit your needs. I believe that your children teach you how to be their 'best' parent and your parents hand over a legacy that you can continue or you can create a new one to pass on. I have worked in 3 countries and specialize in Couples &Family-loss, trauma,parenting, transitions, anxiety and finding joy. Sessions are every 2wks for 90 min.
(437) 747-7732 View (437) 747-7732
Photo of Mihaela Anghel, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
Mihaela Anghel
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
East York, ON M4C  (Online Only)
You are capable and bright. You are ambitious and perseverant. But there are so many demands on your life, so many responsibilities. In juggling all the balls- children, spouse, your career, the house chores, friends- you find yourself exhausted and drained, and not just physically, but emotionally and mentally. All the sleep in the world does not seem to cut it. All the self care advice in your IG feed does not make a difference. You know you need to find a better way to live life, but where to get started? Is therapy the answer? Life coaching? Better self care? How about all of the above? Awareness + tools and techniques +action!
You are capable and bright. You are ambitious and perseverant. But there are so many demands on your life, so many responsibilities. In juggling all the balls- children, spouse, your career, the house chores, friends- you find yourself exhausted and drained, and not just physically, but emotionally and mentally. All the sleep in the world does not seem to cut it. All the self care advice in your IG feed does not make a difference. You know you need to find a better way to live life, but where to get started? Is therapy the answer? Life coaching? Better self care? How about all of the above? Awareness + tools and techniques +action!
(647) 699-4073 View (647) 699-4073
Photo of Andrea Sadler, Occupational Therapist in East York, ON
Andrea Sadler
Occupational Therapist, OT Reg, (ONT)
Verified
East York, ON M4J
Not accepting new clients
I am a Psychotherapist/ Occupational Therapist, graduating from Queen's University in 1994. I have spent my career building an expertise in the field of Mental Health working in hospital, community and private practice settings. I have received additional training and certificates in treatment modalities such as Emotion Focused Therapy, Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Narrative therapy, PGAP and have offered treatment both in individual and group settings.
I am a Psychotherapist/ Occupational Therapist, graduating from Queen's University in 1994. I have spent my career building an expertise in the field of Mental Health working in hospital, community and private practice settings. I have received additional training and certificates in treatment modalities such as Emotion Focused Therapy, Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Narrative therapy, PGAP and have offered treatment both in individual and group settings.
(416) 554-7630 View (416) 554-7630
Photo of Wiseman Counseling Services, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Wiseman Counseling Services
Registered Psychotherapist, BEd, MA
Verified
3 Endorsed
East York, ON M4B
*Currently accepting clients for waitlist* It takes a strong person to reach out for help and I applaud your first step in searching for a therapist. My focus is to help you, or your child/adolescent, to best understand your issue(s)/fears and to make them more tangible. If you are dealing with a trauma or loss I will help you move forward and see yourself as a survivor and regain control of your life. Our sessions can help you become more self-aware & understand the reasons behind behaviours, emotions and reactions.
*Currently accepting clients for waitlist* It takes a strong person to reach out for help and I applaud your first step in searching for a therapist. My focus is to help you, or your child/adolescent, to best understand your issue(s)/fears and to make them more tangible. If you are dealing with a trauma or loss I will help you move forward and see yourself as a survivor and regain control of your life. Our sessions can help you become more self-aware & understand the reasons behind behaviours, emotions and reactions.
(855) 935-0808 View (855) 935-0808
Photo of Sarah Miller, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Sarah Miller
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified
3 Endorsed
East York, ON M4C  (Online Only)
If you're reading this, things might be hard right now. As a therapist I don't have all the answers or a magic wand, but working together, we can find the insight and understanding to open the doorway to a new way of being. As a queer woman I provide a safe space to sit with questions, confusion and ultimately finding your true self. You have within you the resources to live with more joy and less regret! We will work together using creativity, laughter and healing to support in the challenges of making changes in your life.
If you're reading this, things might be hard right now. As a therapist I don't have all the answers or a magic wand, but working together, we can find the insight and understanding to open the doorway to a new way of being. As a queer woman I provide a safe space to sit with questions, confusion and ultimately finding your true self. You have within you the resources to live with more joy and less regret! We will work together using creativity, laughter and healing to support in the challenges of making changes in your life.
(289) 210-4832 View (289) 210-4832
Photo of Todd Solomon, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Todd Solomon
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified
4 Endorsed
East York, ON M4C  (Online Only)
Please note I offer secure video counselling and therapy, and do not offer in-person appointments at this time. Most concerns can be effectively addressed via video. Effective, understanding therapy utilizing an integrative approach is what I can offer. Many people who reach out to me are feeling highly stressed, are anxious, or may feel lost, down and helpless about how to address their issues. Our sessions together are designed to help you address your emotional or behaviour concerns, and help you find the tools to live your life better. I believe that good therapy has to fit you and what you need, not the other way around.
Please note I offer secure video counselling and therapy, and do not offer in-person appointments at this time. Most concerns can be effectively addressed via video. Effective, understanding therapy utilizing an integrative approach is what I can offer. Many people who reach out to me are feeling highly stressed, are anxious, or may feel lost, down and helpless about how to address their issues. Our sessions together are designed to help you address your emotional or behaviour concerns, and help you find the tools to live your life better. I believe that good therapy has to fit you and what you need, not the other way around.
(647) 696-8087 View (647) 696-8087
Photo of Positive Kids Inc, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Positive Kids Inc
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP, PsyD(c)
Verified
East York, ON M4G
Does your child struggle with ADHD, Behavioral problems, Hyperactivity, Motivation, Decision Making, Focusing, Aggression, Shyness, or any other type of Social-Emotional issue? Positive Kids is a revolutionary concept created by experts in the field of Emotional Intelligence. It is a private and affordable supplement to your child's academic curriculum that focuses on building and developing social and emotional skills. Our program results in children who are competent in the following areas: Self Control, Self-Awareness, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills and Responsible Decision making. These children ultimately become independent, confident, inquisitive, enthusiastic, responsible and compassionate adults in later years.
Does your child struggle with ADHD, Behavioral problems, Hyperactivity, Motivation, Decision Making, Focusing, Aggression, Shyness, or any other type of Social-Emotional issue? Positive Kids is a revolutionary concept created by experts in the field of Emotional Intelligence. It is a private and affordable supplement to your child's academic curriculum that focuses on building and developing social and emotional skills. Our program results in children who are competent in the following areas: Self Control, Self-Awareness, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills and Responsible Decision making. These children ultimately become independent, confident, inquisitive, enthusiastic, responsible and compassionate adults in later years.
(647) 578-7867 View (647) 578-7867
Photo of Bonnie Miller, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
Bonnie Miller
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
East York, ON M4K  (Online Only)
All of us struggle at times with worry, or temper, or feeling insecure. But for some of us these problems take over- limiting our relationships, narrowing our sense of options in life. If you would like to claim back your life and your relationships from the influence of problems and problem stories, I would like to help.
All of us struggle at times with worry, or temper, or feeling insecure. But for some of us these problems take over- limiting our relationships, narrowing our sense of options in life. If you would like to claim back your life and your relationships from the influence of problems and problem stories, I would like to help.
(647) 360-7024 View (647) 360-7024
Photo of Tamar Ishaky, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Tamar Ishaky
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP
Verified
2 Endorsed
East York, ON M4J  (Online Only)
It's important that you acknowledge yourself for taking the step of finding someone to provide guidance. In my thirty years of experience I've learned that a big part of the healing occurs as a by-product of the relationship between client and psychotherapist. When this relationship is grounded in safety and compassion, the relationship blossoms and healing occurs. My working style is client centered and collaborative. It invites self-inquiry--leading to a deeper understanding of issues and their root causes.
It's important that you acknowledge yourself for taking the step of finding someone to provide guidance. In my thirty years of experience I've learned that a big part of the healing occurs as a by-product of the relationship between client and psychotherapist. When this relationship is grounded in safety and compassion, the relationship blossoms and healing occurs. My working style is client centered and collaborative. It invites self-inquiry--leading to a deeper understanding of issues and their root causes.
(647) 360-7918 View (647) 360-7918
Photo of Stephanie Shields, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
Stephanie Shields
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
East York, ON M4G
My practice offers psychotherapy services for individuals, couples and parents. People who contact me usually do so because they are experiencing difficulty managing as they face life's challenges or are experiencing uncomfortable symptoms of stress, depression or anxiety. By the time people contact me they have usually been in distress for some time. They want some relief, they want clarity and they don't want to feel judged.
My practice offers psychotherapy services for individuals, couples and parents. People who contact me usually do so because they are experiencing difficulty managing as they face life's challenges or are experiencing uncomfortable symptoms of stress, depression or anxiety. By the time people contact me they have usually been in distress for some time. They want some relief, they want clarity and they don't want to feel judged.
(647) 492-8321 View (647) 492-8321
Photo of Morgan Llewellyn, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Morgan Llewellyn
Registered Psychotherapist, BScN, RP
Verified
East York, ON M4K
You may be at a point in your life when you want to look at the barriers that are getting in your way or envision a different situation than you have now. Whether you are sorting through an overwhelming life event, or are wondering why you feel a certain way, I want to understand your experience and what is important to you. It is key that you feel supported to bring forward what you want to talk about so that together we can begin to make sense of what is going on for you.
You may be at a point in your life when you want to look at the barriers that are getting in your way or envision a different situation than you have now. Whether you are sorting through an overwhelming life event, or are wondering why you feel a certain way, I want to understand your experience and what is important to you. It is key that you feel supported to bring forward what you want to talk about so that together we can begin to make sense of what is going on for you.
(647) 559-4699 View (647) 559-4699
Photo of Susan Monteith, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Susan Monteith
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, BEd, MEd, RP
Verified
East York, ON M4G
Are you struggling with an emotional problem? Or are you looking for help in your relationship? I have been working for 24 years with people who are struggling with depression, anxiety, anger, loss, abuse, self-esteem, divorce, and other issues that are negatively affecting their lives and their relationships. Often we don't know why we stay in unhealthy relationships, behave inappropriately, say something we don't intend to say, or act in a shameful way. In the safe, non-judgmental therapy setting that I offer, you will be able to explore, come to understand and change these ways that are causing you distress
Are you struggling with an emotional problem? Or are you looking for help in your relationship? I have been working for 24 years with people who are struggling with depression, anxiety, anger, loss, abuse, self-esteem, divorce, and other issues that are negatively affecting their lives and their relationships. Often we don't know why we stay in unhealthy relationships, behave inappropriately, say something we don't intend to say, or act in a shameful way. In the safe, non-judgmental therapy setting that I offer, you will be able to explore, come to understand and change these ways that are causing you distress
(647) 372-5044 View (647) 372-5044
Photo of Zlata Kovaltchouk, Counsellor in East York, ON
Zlata Kovaltchouk
Counsellor, MA, RPC, RP
1 Endorsed
East York, ON M4H  (Online Only)
My approach is supportive, compassionate, strength-based, and client-centred. The course of therapy will unfold differently for every client. It will depend on you and your needs. Together we will work in a safe, genuine, and supportive environment, to begin to find solutions, navigate through challenges, and build the skills that will help you work through difficult obstacles and move towards positive change. My goal is to help clients get unstuck and moving in the direction of a rich and meaningful life, by cultivating a different type of relationship with their thoughts and feelings.
My approach is supportive, compassionate, strength-based, and client-centred. The course of therapy will unfold differently for every client. It will depend on you and your needs. Together we will work in a safe, genuine, and supportive environment, to begin to find solutions, navigate through challenges, and build the skills that will help you work through difficult obstacles and move towards positive change. My goal is to help clients get unstuck and moving in the direction of a rich and meaningful life, by cultivating a different type of relationship with their thoughts and feelings.
(365) 298-0221 View (365) 298-0221
Photo of Alejandra Lindan, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Alejandra Lindan
Registered Psychotherapist, MMT, RP
Verified
13 Endorsed
East York, ON M3C  (Online Only)
Hi! Thanks for visiting. Maybe it’s like you’re about to drown in overwhelm, and you wish you could catch your breath. Maybe that out-of-control urge exploded again, and you wish you could find that kind of relief without all the mess afterward. Maybe it exploded in one or more of your relationships, and you don’t know what to do, but you feel unspeakably lost or lonely about it. Maybe at times you’ve given up on life being worth living. Maybe other times you do everything you can think of to survive. Or maybe it’s your teen or someone else you love who’s going through things like this, and you need support. I’d love to help.
Hi! Thanks for visiting. Maybe it’s like you’re about to drown in overwhelm, and you wish you could catch your breath. Maybe that out-of-control urge exploded again, and you wish you could find that kind of relief without all the mess afterward. Maybe it exploded in one or more of your relationships, and you don’t know what to do, but you feel unspeakably lost or lonely about it. Maybe at times you’ve given up on life being worth living. Maybe other times you do everything you can think of to survive. Or maybe it’s your teen or someone else you love who’s going through things like this, and you need support. I’d love to help.
(647) 559-3080 View (647) 559-3080
Photo of Dara Klug, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Dara Klug
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified
5 Endorsed
East York, ON M4A  (Online Only)
Life is beautiful but it is also hard, exhausting, sad, messy and temperamental. Coping with the intense pressures and stress we face can be very challenging and isolating. I believe therapy is about having a relationship where we can safely and authentically explore and discover where we tend to hide parts of ourselves, run away, and hold back our truth from the world. Together we will explore this in a manner that welcomes and supports your whole being to foster an ongoing process of self-awareness, healing and self development - and towards you moving in the world with greater resiliency, authenticity and a deeper sense of self.
Life is beautiful but it is also hard, exhausting, sad, messy and temperamental. Coping with the intense pressures and stress we face can be very challenging and isolating. I believe therapy is about having a relationship where we can safely and authentically explore and discover where we tend to hide parts of ourselves, run away, and hold back our truth from the world. Together we will explore this in a manner that welcomes and supports your whole being to foster an ongoing process of self-awareness, healing and self development - and towards you moving in the world with greater resiliency, authenticity and a deeper sense of self.
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Photo of Suzie Kisimba, Pre-Licensed Professional in East York, ON
Suzie Kisimba
Pre-Licensed Professional, DCC, MSW, RSW
Verified
East York, ON M4K
My approach and style of therapy is non judgemental and involves the provision of a safe, nurturing, warm and professional environment. I work to help people explore and gain insight into their life challenges, behaviours and problems.I bring my personal and professional knowledge and experiences to all I do in an open and caring manner. I have been practing for 8 years and worked in a variety of mental health settings. Call me, together we are going to gently approach the most difficult or painful subjects that you are going through and work out strategies and techniques to overcome them.
My approach and style of therapy is non judgemental and involves the provision of a safe, nurturing, warm and professional environment. I work to help people explore and gain insight into their life challenges, behaviours and problems.I bring my personal and professional knowledge and experiences to all I do in an open and caring manner. I have been practing for 8 years and worked in a variety of mental health settings. Call me, together we are going to gently approach the most difficult or painful subjects that you are going through and work out strategies and techniques to overcome them.
(289) 807-2794 View (289) 807-2794
Photo of Toula Kourgiantakis, Registered Social Worker in East York, ON
Toula Kourgiantakis
Registered Social Worker, PhD, MSW, CCFT
Verified
5 Endorsed
East York, ON M4G
Not accepting new clients
I am a Social Worker and Certified Couple and Family Therapist with over 25 years of experience working with families/couples. Some of the areas I address in couple therapy include how to repair and strengthen relationships, reduce conflict, improve communication, and enhance emotional and physical intimacy. For families supporting someone with a mental health and/or addiction-related concern, I provide psychoeducation about mental health and addictions, help families strengthen coping skills and self-care, and also focus on improving communication and setting limits. Family is a broad concept that includes families of choice.
I am a Social Worker and Certified Couple and Family Therapist with over 25 years of experience working with families/couples. Some of the areas I address in couple therapy include how to repair and strengthen relationships, reduce conflict, improve communication, and enhance emotional and physical intimacy. For families supporting someone with a mental health and/or addiction-related concern, I provide psychoeducation about mental health and addictions, help families strengthen coping skills and self-care, and also focus on improving communication and setting limits. Family is a broad concept that includes families of choice.
(855) 848-2034 View (855) 848-2034
Photo of Susan Patten, Registered Psychotherapist in East York, ON
Susan Patten
Registered Psychotherapist, MSc, RP
Verified
East York, ON M4C
My therapeutic approach is practical, holistic, and collaborative. We will work together to identify your needs and goals, address the changes you want to make, and find a path forward.
My therapeutic approach is practical, holistic, and collaborative. We will work together to identify your needs and goals, address the changes you want to make, and find a path forward.
(647) 977-5895 View (647) 977-5895

See more therapy options for East York

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in East York, ON

70+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in East York, ON who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
92% Relationship Issues
88% Depression
84% Self Esteem
77% Coping Skills
75% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

57% Canada Life | Great-West Life
52% Other
52% Manulife

How Counsellors in East York, ON see their clients

64% In Person and Online
36% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
11% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in East York?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.