Therapists in Bowmanville, ON

Photo of Emilie Levesque, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Bowmanville, ON
Emilie Levesque
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying)
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
I acknowledge and admire your strength in taking the first step to getting this support. Through a person-centred, empathetic approach, I hope to create a safe, non-judgemental space to work through the challenges you are facing. I am a Registered Practitioner (Qualifying). Before this journey, I earned my Bachelor of Arts degree in Child and Youth Studies. I work with children and adolescents to work through various personal challenges such as stress, anxiety, depression, and/or relational issues.
I acknowledge and admire your strength in taking the first step to getting this support. Through a person-centred, empathetic approach, I hope to create a safe, non-judgemental space to work through the challenges you are facing. I am a Registered Practitioner (Qualifying). Before this journey, I earned my Bachelor of Arts degree in Child and Youth Studies. I work with children and adolescents to work through various personal challenges such as stress, anxiety, depression, and/or relational issues.
(289) 216-4463 View (289) 216-4463
Photo of Shannon Carr, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Shannon Carr
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
My counselling style is collaborative, and I strive to walk alongside my clients on their growth and healing journeys. Using a strengths-based approach, I support and empower clients as they move through their mental and emotional health struggles and work towards their counselling goals.
My counselling style is collaborative, and I strive to walk alongside my clients on their growth and healing journeys. Using a strengths-based approach, I support and empower clients as they move through their mental and emotional health struggles and work towards their counselling goals.
(289) 278-9808 View (289) 278-9808
Photo of Connie Cancellara, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Connie Cancellara
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, CRPO, CCPA
Verified Verified
9 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Taking this first step isn't easy, so I’d like to thank you for your bravery on wanting to show up for yourself today. Together, we will work together in supporting and processing your struggles that may surround anxiety, depression, grief/loss, trauma, postpartum, and any other areas that you'd like support with. My goal is to provide an empathetic, compassionate, and non-judgemental Safe Place while using approaches tailored to your needs for self-discovery and aim to navigate through some of your current challenges and to better understand your life story. No matter what, you will always feel heard and validated.
Taking this first step isn't easy, so I’d like to thank you for your bravery on wanting to show up for yourself today. Together, we will work together in supporting and processing your struggles that may surround anxiety, depression, grief/loss, trauma, postpartum, and any other areas that you'd like support with. My goal is to provide an empathetic, compassionate, and non-judgemental Safe Place while using approaches tailored to your needs for self-discovery and aim to navigate through some of your current challenges and to better understand your life story. No matter what, you will always feel heard and validated.
(289) 274-5317 View (289) 274-5317
Photo of Kate Coroghly, Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Kate Coroghly
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
If you are trying to make changes, but not quite reaching your goals. If relationships aren’t as fulfilling as you hope them to be. If emotions (anger, anxiety, fear, sadness, hurt, disappointment, etc.) are taking a bigger space in your day to day then you’d like them to. Exploring the areas you get stuck, the patterns you repeat, and learning new ways to manage challenges and participate in relationships might be the right step for you. Therapy can be a safe place to process life changes or struggles and to set goals on the path of personal growth. You don't need to be in crisis to benefit from therapy.
If you are trying to make changes, but not quite reaching your goals. If relationships aren’t as fulfilling as you hope them to be. If emotions (anger, anxiety, fear, sadness, hurt, disappointment, etc.) are taking a bigger space in your day to day then you’d like them to. Exploring the areas you get stuck, the patterns you repeat, and learning new ways to manage challenges and participate in relationships might be the right step for you. Therapy can be a safe place to process life changes or struggles and to set goals on the path of personal growth. You don't need to be in crisis to benefit from therapy.
(289) 270-5243 View (289) 270-5243
Photo of Tanyka Ferjuste, Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Tanyka Ferjuste
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
Do you experience high stress levels and find it difficult to find a sense of calm? Do you find it difficult to move forward after an experience of trauma? Is it challenging to embody all parts of you? Experiences of trauma, including identity-based trauma, can wreak havoc on our lives and make us feel out of control. They are overwhelming and it can feel hard to know where to start. Having a safe space where you experience unconditional positive regard, empowerment and a sense of acceptance can start the healing process.
Do you experience high stress levels and find it difficult to find a sense of calm? Do you find it difficult to move forward after an experience of trauma? Is it challenging to embody all parts of you? Experiences of trauma, including identity-based trauma, can wreak havoc on our lives and make us feel out of control. They are overwhelming and it can feel hard to know where to start. Having a safe space where you experience unconditional positive regard, empowerment and a sense of acceptance can start the healing process.
(289) 460-3002 View (289) 460-3002
Photo of Tonya Kelly, Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Tonya Kelly
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Life can be hard. You might be overwhelmed by stress, anxiety, or depression. You might be feeling "stuck" in a particular situation, or relationship, and you aren't sure how to get back on track. Maybe you've experienced a traumatic event at work or in your personal life. If any of these situations sound familiar, you are not alone. I strive to provide a safe and non-judgmental space where you can feel heard and validated. My goal is to assist adults, teens, couples, and families, transform pain into empowerment so that you can live the life you deserve.
Life can be hard. You might be overwhelmed by stress, anxiety, or depression. You might be feeling "stuck" in a particular situation, or relationship, and you aren't sure how to get back on track. Maybe you've experienced a traumatic event at work or in your personal life. If any of these situations sound familiar, you are not alone. I strive to provide a safe and non-judgmental space where you can feel heard and validated. My goal is to assist adults, teens, couples, and families, transform pain into empowerment so that you can live the life you deserve.
(289) 512-2432 View (289) 512-2432
Photo of Maya Oakes, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Bowmanville, ON
Maya Oakes
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Hello and welcome! I'm Maya and I'm so happy you've taken the time to look at my profile. I recognize the process of finding the right therapist for you can be overwhelming. I'm here to support you in any way that I can while you navigate this process. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to therapy which is why I'm passionate about working together to determine what is needed in our space to support you best. This looks like tailoring therapy to your unique needs, goals, and strengths. I strive always to provide a safe, collaborative and empowering space where you feel comfortable to explore your inner experiences and struggles.
Hello and welcome! I'm Maya and I'm so happy you've taken the time to look at my profile. I recognize the process of finding the right therapist for you can be overwhelming. I'm here to support you in any way that I can while you navigate this process. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to therapy which is why I'm passionate about working together to determine what is needed in our space to support you best. This looks like tailoring therapy to your unique needs, goals, and strengths. I strive always to provide a safe, collaborative and empowering space where you feel comfortable to explore your inner experiences and struggles.
(289) 212-7943 View (289) 212-7943
Photo of Hailey Rutherford, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Bowmanville, ON
Hailey Rutherford
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), RP(Q), MSc, CRPO
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
Accepting new clients! Inspired by my own transformative therapy journey, I am passionate about guiding others through their own self-development. Through my previous work with children and families, I saw the impact of the family dynamic and how much it affects us as children but also how much it influences our adult life. I specialize in addressing emotional distress and anxieties caused by past experiences, relationship dynamics, and attachment patterns. My goal is to work with you to help you heal, grow, and thrive in your life and meaningful relationships. Together, we will navigate the path to self-awareness and discovery.
Accepting new clients! Inspired by my own transformative therapy journey, I am passionate about guiding others through their own self-development. Through my previous work with children and families, I saw the impact of the family dynamic and how much it affects us as children but also how much it influences our adult life. I specialize in addressing emotional distress and anxieties caused by past experiences, relationship dynamics, and attachment patterns. My goal is to work with you to help you heal, grow, and thrive in your life and meaningful relationships. Together, we will navigate the path to self-awareness and discovery.
(289) 301-9571 View (289) 301-9571
Photo of Holis Collective, Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Holis Collective
Registered Social Worker, RSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
We're a team of clinical therapists offering therapy for individuals of all ages, from children to adults, as well as couples and families. As a mental health collective, our aim is to assist our clients through a holistic, nonjudgmental, and nurturing method. Our goal is to foster a comfortable and relaxed environment where you can feel at ease.
We're a team of clinical therapists offering therapy for individuals of all ages, from children to adults, as well as couples and families. As a mental health collective, our aim is to assist our clients through a holistic, nonjudgmental, and nurturing method. Our goal is to foster a comfortable and relaxed environment where you can feel at ease.
(289) 806-5305 View (289) 806-5305
Photo of Amanda Bernard, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Amanda Bernard
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MACP
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Life is full of challenges that don’t have to be navigated alone and I would be honoured to be a part of your journey towards growth, healing, and self-discovery. I’d like to thank you for your vulnerability and willingness to show up for yourself and ask for help - as I recognize it isn’t easy. Therapy is a powerful tool that can help heal old wounds, improve personal well-being, & create meaningful change in our lives. Your past may influence your present, however, it does not need to determine your future.
Life is full of challenges that don’t have to be navigated alone and I would be honoured to be a part of your journey towards growth, healing, and self-discovery. I’d like to thank you for your vulnerability and willingness to show up for yourself and ask for help - as I recognize it isn’t easy. Therapy is a powerful tool that can help heal old wounds, improve personal well-being, & create meaningful change in our lives. Your past may influence your present, however, it does not need to determine your future.
(289) 216-6624 View (289) 216-6624
Photo of Laura Caird, Psychologist in Bowmanville, ON
Laura Caird
Psychologist, BEd, MA, CPsych
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Waitlist for new clients
Licensed psychologist with expertise in mental health, learning difficulties, and behaviour. Laura Caird provides psychological assessments to children, youth and adults to evaluate for learning disabilities, ADHD, giftedness, developmental disabilities, autism, mental health challenges, and more. Her focus is helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviourally, and emotionally. For more information about psychological assessments, or for counselling services, please contact us at contact@awellmind.com.
Licensed psychologist with expertise in mental health, learning difficulties, and behaviour. Laura Caird provides psychological assessments to children, youth and adults to evaluate for learning disabilities, ADHD, giftedness, developmental disabilities, autism, mental health challenges, and more. Her focus is helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviourally, and emotionally. For more information about psychological assessments, or for counselling services, please contact us at contact@awellmind.com.
(289) 302-5634 View (289) 302-5634
Photo of Fern Creek Psychotherapy, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Fern Creek Psychotherapy
Registered Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
In person or virtual sessions available, with no waitlist! You want to live better. Your life is good. Outwardly everything is fine, but inwardly there’s a sense of unrest. You've been feeling overwhelmed with an endless to-do list, confusion about what you’re supposed to be doing and an uncomfortable feeling that you’re living your life alone and disconnected from the people and things that matter more to you. You’re not alone. The pain, stress, anxiety or sadness you’re feeling is real. Acknowledging the experiences, situations and relationships that led you here is the first step to healing.
In person or virtual sessions available, with no waitlist! You want to live better. Your life is good. Outwardly everything is fine, but inwardly there’s a sense of unrest. You've been feeling overwhelmed with an endless to-do list, confusion about what you’re supposed to be doing and an uncomfortable feeling that you’re living your life alone and disconnected from the people and things that matter more to you. You’re not alone. The pain, stress, anxiety or sadness you’re feeling is real. Acknowledging the experiences, situations and relationships that led you here is the first step to healing.
(289) 312-4640 View (289) 312-4640
Photo of Lesia Lee, Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Lesia Lee
Registered Social Worker, BSC, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
People Start To Heal The Moment They Feel Heard - Cheryl Richardso. Congratulations on your first step in seeking support, YOU deserve it! As we know, life can get busy and at times it may be challenging to prioritize our mental health. However, it is of utmost importance to maintain a healthy mind. My hope is to offer you a safe and trusting space on this journey. I would like to extend my warm and empathetic support in working together to help you begin to feel better and stronger.
People Start To Heal The Moment They Feel Heard - Cheryl Richardso. Congratulations on your first step in seeking support, YOU deserve it! As we know, life can get busy and at times it may be challenging to prioritize our mental health. However, it is of utmost importance to maintain a healthy mind. My hope is to offer you a safe and trusting space on this journey. I would like to extend my warm and empathetic support in working together to help you begin to feel better and stronger.
(289) 207-7911 View (289) 207-7911
Photo of Julie Watson, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Julie Watson
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, EMDR, B Ed, BA Hons
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
I work to help and provide therapeutic support to clients of any age who are struggling with anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma, childhood trauma, and more. I work compassionately to help clients overcome the issues that are plaguing them. I use a client-centred approach and researched forms of therapy. I care about clients and recognize that each comes in times of great struggle and due to a need. Reach out and let me support you as you begin your Journey Towards Wellness.
I work to help and provide therapeutic support to clients of any age who are struggling with anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma, childhood trauma, and more. I work compassionately to help clients overcome the issues that are plaguing them. I use a client-centred approach and researched forms of therapy. I care about clients and recognize that each comes in times of great struggle and due to a need. Reach out and let me support you as you begin your Journey Towards Wellness.
(365) 305-0380 View (365) 305-0380
Photo of Erica Martin, Psychologist in Bowmanville, ON
Erica Martin
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
As a clinical psychologist, I help people understand the roots of their pain and suffering so that they can heal from the inside out. My goal is to provide a safe, inclusive safe for people to relax, open up and heal. Together we embark on a journey of understanding from an individual's outer physical experience to their core self. Everyone is unique and I strive to tailor each person's therapeutic journey to reflect their individual needs. I can also conduct psychological assessments to help clarify potential diagnoses or personality factors that may be contributing to current struggles.
As a clinical psychologist, I help people understand the roots of their pain and suffering so that they can heal from the inside out. My goal is to provide a safe, inclusive safe for people to relax, open up and heal. Together we embark on a journey of understanding from an individual's outer physical experience to their core self. Everyone is unique and I strive to tailor each person's therapeutic journey to reflect their individual needs. I can also conduct psychological assessments to help clarify potential diagnoses or personality factors that may be contributing to current struggles.
(289) 512-0091 View (289) 512-0091
Photo of Thrive Therapy and Counselling , Registered Social Worker in Bowmanville, ON
Thrive Therapy and Counselling
Registered Social Worker, RSW, SSW, BASoc
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
Taking the first step toward fostering good mental health is positive thing. The ability to navigate successfully through this life is within you, through collaboration and working together your goals in life will be achievable and sustainable.
Taking the first step toward fostering good mental health is positive thing. The ability to navigate successfully through this life is within you, through collaboration and working together your goals in life will be achievable and sustainable.
(289) 301-9665 View (289) 301-9665
Photo of Magishaa Thhiyagarajah in Bowmanville, ON
Magishaa Thhiyagarajah
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C  (Online Only)
Are you ready to become emotionally strong, to be able to feel safe through uncertainty? I believe that each client is on a unique journey, and my goal is to meet you where you are. I strive to provide a warm, collaborative approach, tapping into your innate resilience. Using trauma-informed, holistic, and culturally sensitive techniques, I aim to support, educate, build relationships, identify goals, and cultivate potential.
Are you ready to become emotionally strong, to be able to feel safe through uncertainty? I believe that each client is on a unique journey, and my goal is to meet you where you are. I strive to provide a warm, collaborative approach, tapping into your innate resilience. Using trauma-informed, holistic, and culturally sensitive techniques, I aim to support, educate, build relationships, identify goals, and cultivate potential.
(647) 646-8724 View (647) 646-8724
Photo of Carly Hurash, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Bowmanville, ON
Carly Hurash
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MACP-C, Intern, BAH
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
My clients are looking for compassionate assistance, in which they feel supported and truly heard in their life experiences. The individuals I see hope to enhance their capacity to cope with their past or present circumstances and to have someone walk alongside them as they navigate their next steps. I work with adolescents and adults seeking support to manage anxiety and its impact on their daily lives, understand their relationships with themselves and others, navigate life transitions, cope with grief and loss, and process other challenging life stressors.
My clients are looking for compassionate assistance, in which they feel supported and truly heard in their life experiences. The individuals I see hope to enhance their capacity to cope with their past or present circumstances and to have someone walk alongside them as they navigate their next steps. I work with adolescents and adults seeking support to manage anxiety and its impact on their daily lives, understand their relationships with themselves and others, navigate life transitions, cope with grief and loss, and process other challenging life stressors.
(289) 302-7405 View (289) 302-7405
Photo of Heather Lawlor, Registered Psychotherapist in Bowmanville, ON
Heather Lawlor
Registered Psychotherapist, HBA, MACP, RP
Verified Verified
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Hello! I am so glad you are here! Over the last 8 years, I have been helping children, youth, adults, and families with problems with trauma, stress, anxiety, depression, postpartum depression, parental divorce/separation, communication (relationship struggles), grief, school problems, personality disorders, low self-esteem, grief, substances, addictions, disordered eating, life changes, and supporting indigenous populations and LGBTIQA+ people.
Hello! I am so glad you are here! Over the last 8 years, I have been helping children, youth, adults, and families with problems with trauma, stress, anxiety, depression, postpartum depression, parental divorce/separation, communication (relationship struggles), grief, school problems, personality disorders, low self-esteem, grief, substances, addictions, disordered eating, life changes, and supporting indigenous populations and LGBTIQA+ people.
(289) 302-8499 View (289) 302-8499
Photo of Matthew Fidler, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Bowmanville, ON
Matthew Fidler
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), RP(q), MACP, BA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowmanville, ON L1C
Whether you're navigating anxiety, doubt, grief, or one of the many other struggles that life brings to you, it's important to to have healthy, adaptive supports in place. I particularly enjoy working with clients who would like to understand more about how they feel, how they think, and how they can learn, grow, and hopefully thrive in their circumstances.
Whether you're navigating anxiety, doubt, grief, or one of the many other struggles that life brings to you, it's important to to have healthy, adaptive supports in place. I particularly enjoy working with clients who would like to understand more about how they feel, how they think, and how they can learn, grow, and hopefully thrive in their circumstances.
(289) 278-6694 View (289) 278-6694

See more therapy options for Bowmanville

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Bowmanville, ON

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in Bowmanville, ON who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
93% Depression
88% Self Esteem
86% Relationship Issues
85% Stress
78% Coping Skills
69% Peer Relationships

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

61% Canada Life | Great-West Life
58% Manulife
56% Green Shield Canada

How Counsellors in Bowmanville, ON see their clients

73% In Person and Online
27% Online Only

Gender breakdown

92% Female
8% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Bowmanville?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.