Child Therapists in Barrie, ON

See all counsellors in Barrie
Photo of Charlotte Fergusson, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Charlotte Fergusson
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, RP
Verified
Barrie, ON L4M  (Online Only)
Charlotte Fergusson MACP, R.P. has over 25 years of experience providing high quality, compassionate services. She is also a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional (CCTP) and offers psychotherapy for a wide range of concerns, such as, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, acute trauma, grief, anger management, stress management, emotional regulation, life transitions, separation and divorce to children, teens, families and adults. Charlotte also meet the CPRO criteria for Clinical Supervision offers Clinical supervision to students and those qualifying for CPRO hours.
Charlotte Fergusson MACP, R.P. has over 25 years of experience providing high quality, compassionate services. She is also a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional (CCTP) and offers psychotherapy for a wide range of concerns, such as, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, acute trauma, grief, anger management, stress management, emotional regulation, life transitions, separation and divorce to children, teens, families and adults. Charlotte also meet the CPRO criteria for Clinical Supervision offers Clinical supervision to students and those qualifying for CPRO hours.
(249) 202-2070 View (249) 202-2070
Photo of Gretchen Savery, Pre-Licensed Professional in Barrie, ON
Gretchen Savery
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, be issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioral Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family.
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, be issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioral Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family.
(249) 496-2567 View (249) 496-2567
Photo of Gretchen Savery, Pre-Licensed Professional in Barrie, ON
Gretchen Savery
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
2 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, be issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioral Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family.
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, be issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioral Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family.
(249) 496-3237 View (249) 496-3237
Photo of Carmela Diano, Registered Social Worker in Barrie, ON
Carmela Diano
Registered Social Worker, MEd, MSW, RSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
No matter what struggle presents itself, your child and you are not alone.
All of our children are so very unique and constantly changing. Sometimes they need a helping hand to keep them moving along to thrive in their relationships and connections with others; or to develop strategies to support emotional regulation, social skills, life skills, anxiety reduction, concentration and focus, or processing of traumatic events. Throughout the process, parent/caregiver participation is a key component when it comes to working with children. My long-standing experience with neurodivergent children, youth, and their families will provide you with the reassurance you need to move forward.
No matter what struggle presents itself, your child and you are not alone.
All of our children are so very unique and constantly changing. Sometimes they need a helping hand to keep them moving along to thrive in their relationships and connections with others; or to develop strategies to support emotional regulation, social skills, life skills, anxiety reduction, concentration and focus, or processing of traumatic events. Throughout the process, parent/caregiver participation is a key component when it comes to working with children. My long-standing experience with neurodivergent children, youth, and their families will provide you with the reassurance you need to move forward.
(249) 493-7438 View (249) 493-7438
Photo of Grace North Psychotherapy , Registered Social Worker in Barrie, ON
Grace North Psychotherapy
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
Barrie, ON L4M
We work with children/youth, parents and adults who are struggling with a variety of mental health difficulties.
At Grace North Psychotherapy our clinicians create a safe space for you to process your thoughts and feelings and gain a deeper understanding of self in relation to your relationships with others and the world around you. We will help you gain insight into your past and present, shine a light on your strengths and help you work through challenges to achieve a better state of mind and start living with more grace and ease.
We work with children/youth, parents and adults who are struggling with a variety of mental health difficulties.
At Grace North Psychotherapy our clinicians create a safe space for you to process your thoughts and feelings and gain a deeper understanding of self in relation to your relationships with others and the world around you. We will help you gain insight into your past and present, shine a light on your strengths and help you work through challenges to achieve a better state of mind and start living with more grace and ease.
(249) 201-8640 View (249) 201-8640
Photo of Family First Play Therapy Centre Inc in Barrie, ON
Family First Play Therapy Centre Inc
MEd, CPTS, RP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Parenting a child who experiences emotional or developmental issues can be challenging.
Family First is a well established (23 years) privately owned centre in 2 locations: Bradford and Burlington. FF conducts Psychological, Psych-Ed Assessments, Child Trauma Assessments and psychotherapy services. FF specializes in helping children and their caregivers with issues involving attachment, regulation, trauma, grief, developmental, parenting and family issues. Lorie Walton, M.Ed, RP, owner, is internationally known for her work in the field of Attachment and emotional regulation. Specialized child psychotherapists at FF use evidence based, age appropriate interventions such as CBT, Play Therapy, Theraplay, EMFT et al.
Parenting a child who experiences emotional or developmental issues can be challenging.
Family First is a well established (23 years) privately owned centre in 2 locations: Bradford and Burlington. FF conducts Psychological, Psych-Ed Assessments, Child Trauma Assessments and psychotherapy services. FF specializes in helping children and their caregivers with issues involving attachment, regulation, trauma, grief, developmental, parenting and family issues. Lorie Walton, M.Ed, RP, owner, is internationally known for her work in the field of Attachment and emotional regulation. Specialized child psychotherapists at FF use evidence based, age appropriate interventions such as CBT, Play Therapy, Theraplay, EMFT et al.
(289) 302-7194 View (289) 302-7194
Photo of Merrisa Little, Registered Social Worker in Barrie, ON
Merrisa Little
Registered Social Worker, BSW, MSW, RSW, CEO
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Imagine understanding why your child is behaving the way they are and having a plan to help them get better.
You're noticing changes in your child's behaviour; it doesn't make sense. They're acting strange, out of their character. Why does my child seem afraid; anxious? It seems like you've tried everything to help them feel better, but nothing seems to work and you're confused, fighting the feeling of helplessness. You find yourself walking on eggshells for fear of making the behaviour worse, because you don't understand what's happening.
Imagine understanding why your child is behaving the way they are and having a plan to help them get better.
You're noticing changes in your child's behaviour; it doesn't make sense. They're acting strange, out of their character. Why does my child seem afraid; anxious? It seems like you've tried everything to help them feel better, but nothing seems to work and you're confused, fighting the feeling of helplessness. You find yourself walking on eggshells for fear of making the behaviour worse, because you don't understand what's happening.
(705) 243-9078 View (705) 243-9078
Photo of Joanne Cantor, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Joanne Cantor
Registered Psychotherapist, HonBSc, SpecPsy, BEd, CRPO, OACCPP
Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
I am a registered psychotherapist (CRPO) with experience in Therapy, Career Counselling and Analysis, and Education. I have an extensive knowledge of Psychology, Brief and Narrative Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and children. I have been been published in several respected scientific journals. After many years of supervision from both a Senior Scientist, a highly qualified Psychiatrist and other clinical professionals, I am available to work with both adults, couples and others who need these specialized services; such as children and teens.
I am a registered psychotherapist (CRPO) with experience in Therapy, Career Counselling and Analysis, and Education. I have an extensive knowledge of Psychology, Brief and Narrative Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and children. I have been been published in several respected scientific journals. After many years of supervision from both a Senior Scientist, a highly qualified Psychiatrist and other clinical professionals, I am available to work with both adults, couples and others who need these specialized services; such as children and teens.
(249) 294-2049 View (249) 294-2049
Photo of Dr. Petra Gyles, Psychologist in Barrie, ON
Dr. Petra Gyles
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified
Barrie, ON L4M
Dr. Gyles is a Clinical & School Psychologist focusing in child & adolescent populations providing comprehensive assessments, therapy, & consultation. Dr. Gyles provides therapy for children and teens targeting depression, anxiety, academic anxiety, OCD, perfectionism, trauma, school struggles, and social issues. She uses evidence-based practices and takes a cognitive-behavioural therapy approach, with aspects of positive psychology, mindfulness, emotion focused, and narrative therapy approaches incorporated into treatment.
Dr. Gyles is a Clinical & School Psychologist focusing in child & adolescent populations providing comprehensive assessments, therapy, & consultation. Dr. Gyles provides therapy for children and teens targeting depression, anxiety, academic anxiety, OCD, perfectionism, trauma, school struggles, and social issues. She uses evidence-based practices and takes a cognitive-behavioural therapy approach, with aspects of positive psychology, mindfulness, emotion focused, and narrative therapy approaches incorporated into treatment.
(438) 300-9215 View (438) 300-9215
Photo of Gretchen Savery, Pre-Licensed Professional in Barrie, ON
Gretchen Savery
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, Behavioural issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioural Strategies, Behavioural Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family
Her work covers various areas, including Depression, Family dynamics, ADHD symptoms (in adults and children), Stress, Skills Training (like time management, organization skills, prioritizing, and social skills), Procrastination, Motivation, Behavioural issues, School difficulties, Parenting, Coping Strategies (for dealing with feelings, change, adversity).
Mastering family dynamics, igniting personal growth, and restoring communication bridges, Gretchen empowers individuals and families to navigate life's intricate challenges. Backed by a Master of Arts in Family Therapy and Systemic Intervention and a Bachelor of Arts in General Psychology, she is a trusted counsellor and member in good standing with the Ontario Association of Mental Health Professionals (OAMHP). Family Counselling, Parent training, Cognitive Behavioural Strategies, Behavioural Strategies, Individual Counselling, Psychoeducation, untangling conflict, fostering healthy communication, and rebuilding trust within family
(249) 444-2451 View (249) 444-2451
Photo of Sweet Spot Family Counselling Services, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Sweet Spot Family Counselling Services
Registered Psychotherapist
Verified
12 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M
Is home is feeling chaotic and less joyful these days? Are your relationships strained or have parenting challenges left you feeling like there's no end to the arguing? There is hope, Child and family work is our passion here. We can help you navigate struggles with practical steps and ease. Children like adults experience a wide range of emotions that can affect their self esteem, self confidence which can lead to symptoms of depression and anxiety. They require a special approach and we have the training and tools to engage your child in counselling and help them build the healthy habits and coping skills they need for success.
Is home is feeling chaotic and less joyful these days? Are your relationships strained or have parenting challenges left you feeling like there's no end to the arguing? There is hope, Child and family work is our passion here. We can help you navigate struggles with practical steps and ease. Children like adults experience a wide range of emotions that can affect their self esteem, self confidence which can lead to symptoms of depression and anxiety. They require a special approach and we have the training and tools to engage your child in counselling and help them build the healthy habits and coping skills they need for success.
(705) 791-9165 View (705) 791-9165
Photo of Victoria Spataro, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Victoria Spataro
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, BED, MACP, RP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M  (Online Only)
Victoria is a Registered Psychotherapist who has completed her Masters of Counselling Psychology. With years of experience as an educator, Victoria has an authentic way of connecting with families, couples and children. She is highly empathetic and dedicates her time to understand each clients’ perspectives, needs and experiences. Her purpose is to guide clients to evolve, to heal and become empowered to be the best version of themselves that they can be.
Victoria is a Registered Psychotherapist who has completed her Masters of Counselling Psychology. With years of experience as an educator, Victoria has an authentic way of connecting with families, couples and children. She is highly empathetic and dedicates her time to understand each clients’ perspectives, needs and experiences. Her purpose is to guide clients to evolve, to heal and become empowered to be the best version of themselves that they can be.
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Photo of Alissa Witlox, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Alissa Witlox
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MDiv, HBSc
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M
I specialize in working with children and youth.
There are many reasons which may have led you here. Maybe you've been feeling worried, sad, lonely, or scared, and just can't seem to get unstuck from feeling this way. Maybe you're in the middle of a difficult situation or can't stop thinking about something traumatic you've experienced in the past. Whatever it is, it can be overwhelming at times and feel like it has taken control. Therapy is a place where you can come be heard, validated, encouraged, and together we can work towards your goals for change.
I specialize in working with children and youth.
There are many reasons which may have led you here. Maybe you've been feeling worried, sad, lonely, or scared, and just can't seem to get unstuck from feeling this way. Maybe you're in the middle of a difficult situation or can't stop thinking about something traumatic you've experienced in the past. Whatever it is, it can be overwhelming at times and feel like it has taken control. Therapy is a place where you can come be heard, validated, encouraged, and together we can work towards your goals for change.
(249) 503-3858 View (249) 503-3858
Photo of Dr. Andrea Guthrie, Psychologist in Barrie, ON
Dr. Andrea Guthrie
Psychologist, PsyD, CPsych
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M
Lakeview Psychology is a private psychology clinic in Barrie, Ontario. The practice offers a wide range of psychological services to children, adolescents and adults. Services are provided in a confidential and welcoming setting. Your comfort, safety and privacy are an utmost priority.
Lakeview Psychology is a private psychology clinic in Barrie, Ontario. The practice offers a wide range of psychological services to children, adolescents and adults. Services are provided in a confidential and welcoming setting. Your comfort, safety and privacy are an utmost priority.
(705) 408-2031 View (705) 408-2031
Photo of Lisa Thompson (Miller), Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Barrie, ON
Lisa Thompson (Miller)
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MA, RP (Q)
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M  (Online Only)
With 15 years of experience in children, teen, and family mental health, supporting children 0-17, individuals 18+, parents, and couples.
Hi, My name is Lisa and I am a Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Ontario. I completed my Master of Arts in Counselling Psychology through Yorkville University. I believe everyone can benefit from talking to another about life’s triumphs and challenges. Therapy can be a wonderful option for all, no matter the level of need. Whether it is to maintain a semblance of normality, control, and comfort in one’s life or to work through some of our most difficult experiences. I believe in the importance of early childhood development, and helping families develop positive, supportive relationships.
With 15 years of experience in children, teen, and family mental health, supporting children 0-17, individuals 18+, parents, and couples.
Hi, My name is Lisa and I am a Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in Ontario. I completed my Master of Arts in Counselling Psychology through Yorkville University. I believe everyone can benefit from talking to another about life’s triumphs and challenges. Therapy can be a wonderful option for all, no matter the level of need. Whether it is to maintain a semblance of normality, control, and comfort in one’s life or to work through some of our most difficult experiences. I believe in the importance of early childhood development, and helping families develop positive, supportive relationships.
(705) 330-9855 View (705) 330-9855
Photo of Tammy Frazer in Barrie, ON
Tammy Frazer
MA, BCBA
Barrie, ON L4N
Parenting a child with special needs can be challenging.
As the Clinical Director at On Solid Ground Inc in Barrie, we specialize in working with families with children with Autism or behavioural challenges; parents who want to learn alternate ways of engaging with their child to produce improved interactions, communication, social and life skills.
Parenting a child with special needs can be challenging.
As the Clinical Director at On Solid Ground Inc in Barrie, we specialize in working with families with children with Autism or behavioural challenges; parents who want to learn alternate ways of engaging with their child to produce improved interactions, communication, social and life skills.
(249) 201-9230 View (249) 201-9230
Photo of Kendra Wagner, Registered Psychotherapist in Barrie, ON
Kendra Wagner
Registered Psychotherapist, HonsBSc, GradDip, MACP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Reaching out for help isn't easy and so I'm grateful that you have landed here; I would be honoured to support you and/or your child.
My priority is to provide a safe, warm and non-judgmental healing space that allows exploration beyond symptoms. My work is trauma-informed and attachment-based. I have a passion for supporting my child and adult clients in having "aha moments" as they learn about themselves, discover connections between their experiences and the brains instinctive response to protect, and then use this understanding to uncover how it impacts their present day.
Reaching out for help isn't easy and so I'm grateful that you have landed here; I would be honoured to support you and/or your child.
My priority is to provide a safe, warm and non-judgmental healing space that allows exploration beyond symptoms. My work is trauma-informed and attachment-based. I have a passion for supporting my child and adult clients in having "aha moments" as they learn about themselves, discover connections between their experiences and the brains instinctive response to protect, and then use this understanding to uncover how it impacts their present day.
(249) 487-0895 View (249) 487-0895
Photo of Vanessa Angi, Registered Social Worker in Barrie, ON
Vanessa Angi
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW, TITC-CT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4M
Together, I hope, we can improve the overall quality of life for you, you child and your family.
Now accepting new clients for evenings and Saturdays (In-Person and Virtual). As a Registered Social worker and Clinical Traumatologist on the Michelle Harris & Associates team, I specialize in working individually with children (7+), teens, young adults and families. I also offer parent coaching and consultation for children aged 7+ to provide support around managing a mental health or medical issue/diagnosis where parents can play an active role in treatment. You will be welcomed into a non-judgemental, empathic environment that can help build on the skills and strengths you already have and improve your overall quality of life.
Together, I hope, we can improve the overall quality of life for you, you child and your family.
Now accepting new clients for evenings and Saturdays (In-Person and Virtual). As a Registered Social worker and Clinical Traumatologist on the Michelle Harris & Associates team, I specialize in working individually with children (7+), teens, young adults and families. I also offer parent coaching and consultation for children aged 7+ to provide support around managing a mental health or medical issue/diagnosis where parents can play an active role in treatment. You will be welcomed into a non-judgemental, empathic environment that can help build on the skills and strengths you already have and improve your overall quality of life.
(249) 201-6249 View (249) 201-6249
Photo of Jill Claire Richmond, Registered Social Worker in Barrie, ON
Jill Claire Richmond
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified
Barrie, ON L4N  (Online Only)
I work with individual children, adults, couples, and families.
If you feel like you, or your relationship could benefit from talking about it with a supportive person, I am here to help anyone in need.
I work with individual children, adults, couples, and families.
If you feel like you, or your relationship could benefit from talking about it with a supportive person, I am here to help anyone in need.
(289) 512-0038 View (289) 512-0038
Dannette Graham
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, DCICAP, Hon BA, Psych
Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
As a child psychotherapist, I use my training in close observation to help make sense of a child's difficulties as I communicate with them through play, drawing, words and behaviour, allowing the child to begin to put into words the thoughts and feelings that lie behind their troubling behaviour.
Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy: Anxiety, Depression, Cutting Self Harm, Trauma, Divorce/Custody Issues, Eating Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorders. Adults: Relational Difficulties, Divorce, Work/Life Transitions, Self Destructive Behaviours are some of the reasons people choose to work with me. I am a Registered Psychotherapist, my background is Psychodynamic Psychotherapy- a therapeutic approach that embraces the work of all psychoanalytic therapies: object relations, ego psychology, self-psychology, mentalization and attachment theory. I tailor my approach to the individual child, adolescent or adult.
As a child psychotherapist, I use my training in close observation to help make sense of a child's difficulties as I communicate with them through play, drawing, words and behaviour, allowing the child to begin to put into words the thoughts and feelings that lie behind their troubling behaviour.
Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy: Anxiety, Depression, Cutting Self Harm, Trauma, Divorce/Custody Issues, Eating Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorders. Adults: Relational Difficulties, Divorce, Work/Life Transitions, Self Destructive Behaviours are some of the reasons people choose to work with me. I am a Registered Psychotherapist, my background is Psychodynamic Psychotherapy- a therapeutic approach that embraces the work of all psychoanalytic therapies: object relations, ego psychology, self-psychology, mentalization and attachment theory. I tailor my approach to the individual child, adolescent or adult.
(844) 332-1523 View (844) 332-1523

See more therapy options for Barrie


Child Counsellors
Child psychologists in Barrie, ON provide mental health therapy to children and are experts in child development.

Every comprehensive review of therapy with children shows that all credible approaches, when performed by a competent mental health clinician, produce almost the same results. About half of all kids will get better. Of those that improve, 80% will show progress in a relatively short time, while the remaining 20% will need longer-term support.

The best child therapists in Barrie build great relationships with the child and the parent. They also see the child's strengths and are open to hearing the child's possible solutions to the challenges the child faces. Finally, a good therapist appreciates the child's culture and is sensitive to the values of the child's community.