Photo of Ashley Davenport, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Ashley Davenport
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Waitlist for new clients
With almost 20 years' experience in working with a variety of clients and issues, I have learned that it is most important to provide a space in which clients can feel safe and able to reflect upon and evaluate their circumstances. I will work with you to determine the best treatment approach and together we will walk toward understanding and healing. I have found deep joy in walking with clients through the struggles of life.
With almost 20 years' experience in working with a variety of clients and issues, I have learned that it is most important to provide a space in which clients can feel safe and able to reflect upon and evaluate their circumstances. I will work with you to determine the best treatment approach and together we will walk toward understanding and healing. I have found deep joy in walking with clients through the struggles of life.
(226) 400-6342 View (226) 400-6342
Photo of Fran Westerhof, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Fran Westerhof
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, RP
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
Do you have difficult feelings that come from anxiety or depression and make your days harder? Do you have to make choices that seem scary or overwhelming? Are things changing in your life that you don't have control over? Do bottled up feelings effect the way you get along with others? Are you looking to find ways to be your best self? There are lots of ways to get through this; I can help you find the best way that fits with your outlook in life.
Do you have difficult feelings that come from anxiety or depression and make your days harder? Do you have to make choices that seem scary or overwhelming? Are things changing in your life that you don't have control over? Do bottled up feelings effect the way you get along with others? Are you looking to find ways to be your best self? There are lots of ways to get through this; I can help you find the best way that fits with your outlook in life.
(226) 705-0480 View (226) 705-0480
Photo of Alexander Kunashko, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Alexander Kunashko
Registered Social Worker, RSW, MSW, BA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Coronavirus concerns? Video chat (Skype) and phone-based appointments available! Has life become too stressful? Can you no longer cope? Is life not as enjoyable as it used to be? Do you struggle with any of the following: Depression, Trauma, Anxiety, Relationship Issues, Grief, Insomnia, or Stress? Sometimes life can feel overwhelming and seem hopeless. Instead of suffering alone, let me help you. I am a great listener who is compassionate and non-judgmental. I will work hard to earn your trust, understand what the root issues are, and then problem solve effective solutions that will suit your unique needs.
Coronavirus concerns? Video chat (Skype) and phone-based appointments available! Has life become too stressful? Can you no longer cope? Is life not as enjoyable as it used to be? Do you struggle with any of the following: Depression, Trauma, Anxiety, Relationship Issues, Grief, Insomnia, or Stress? Sometimes life can feel overwhelming and seem hopeless. Instead of suffering alone, let me help you. I am a great listener who is compassionate and non-judgmental. I will work hard to earn your trust, understand what the root issues are, and then problem solve effective solutions that will suit your unique needs.
(226) 286-0577 View (226) 286-0577
Photo of Amy De Silva, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Amy De Silva
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Welcome! If you've found yourself here, chances are you're looking to start making changes, seek additional support, or maybe you're looking to embark on a journey of self-discovery or self-care. I offer compassionate, confidential and professional therapeutic services that promote healing, well-being and growth.
Welcome! If you've found yourself here, chances are you're looking to start making changes, seek additional support, or maybe you're looking to embark on a journey of self-discovery or self-care. I offer compassionate, confidential and professional therapeutic services that promote healing, well-being and growth.
View
Photo of Adam P Booth, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Adam P Booth
Registered Psychotherapist, MSc, RP, RMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
As we move through life, we inevitably run into issues that are difficult to navigate, such as trouble with a boss, spouse / partner, or a struggle with anxiety, depression, or stress. We try our best to solve these issues ourselves. Sometimes, no matter what we try, we can feel as if we are 'banging our head against a wall'. These times can be frustrating, tiring, and scary. At these moments, a helping hand and another perspective may be welcome. I have provided this support to individuals, couples and families since 2000. I would be honoured to partner with you.
As we move through life, we inevitably run into issues that are difficult to navigate, such as trouble with a boss, spouse / partner, or a struggle with anxiety, depression, or stress. We try our best to solve these issues ourselves. Sometimes, no matter what we try, we can feel as if we are 'banging our head against a wall'. These times can be frustrating, tiring, and scary. At these moments, a helping hand and another perspective may be welcome. I have provided this support to individuals, couples and families since 2000. I would be honoured to partner with you.
(226) 799-1353 View (226) 799-1353
Photo of Brittany Madigan, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Brittany Madigan
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
I am a Registered Social Worker working with youth (12+) and adults, particularly people who identify as women. I love helping people understand their emotions and deepen their connection to themselves. Whether it's working through trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, or self esteem issues, I support each client with their individual needs in mind.
I am a Registered Social Worker working with youth (12+) and adults, particularly people who identify as women. I love helping people understand their emotions and deepen their connection to themselves. Whether it's working through trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, or self esteem issues, I support each client with their individual needs in mind.
(289) 274-5163 View (289) 274-5163
Photo of Stephanie Carter, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Stephanie Carter
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, MSW, RP
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
You are strong, you are wise, you are enough. I believe in the resilience and capacity within every human being; therefore, I provide support by helping people recognize, nurture, and listen to their own wisdom to move through life's various challenges. My mission is to provide empathy and authenticity in a down-to-earth approach when I am meeting with clients. I want to ensure my clients feel valued and heard in each interaction.
You are strong, you are wise, you are enough. I believe in the resilience and capacity within every human being; therefore, I provide support by helping people recognize, nurture, and listen to their own wisdom to move through life's various challenges. My mission is to provide empathy and authenticity in a down-to-earth approach when I am meeting with clients. I want to ensure my clients feel valued and heard in each interaction.
(226) 455-6927 View (226) 455-6927
Photo of Kaitlyn Hillier, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Kaitlyn Hillier
Registered Psychotherapist, MC, CCC, RP, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
I have experience working with anxiety, grief, depression, interpersonal-relational issues, intimacy, sexuality, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-awareness, and personality. I am committed to anti-oppressive practice, freedom from judgement or marginalization, and empowerment.
I have experience working with anxiety, grief, depression, interpersonal-relational issues, intimacy, sexuality, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-awareness, and personality. I am committed to anti-oppressive practice, freedom from judgement or marginalization, and empowerment.
(226) 458-5403 View (226) 458-5403
Photo of Growth Counselling Services, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Growth Counselling Services
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, RP-Q, CCC, RSW
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
As humans, we are presented with barriers in both our personal and interpersonal lives; similar to you and the circumstances that have brought you here, sometimes, we require the assistance of another. Seeking support demonstrates the courage and strength it takes to explore and confront your challenges. My first priority is providing a safe, comfortable, non-judgemental, and empathetic environment built on trust. True genuineness, respect, and a sense of compassion are grounded in my therapeutic style. I am an eclectic therapist who employs an integrative approach allowing for a variety of modalities to be utilized based on need, comfort, and what works for you.
As humans, we are presented with barriers in both our personal and interpersonal lives; similar to you and the circumstances that have brought you here, sometimes, we require the assistance of another. Seeking support demonstrates the courage and strength it takes to explore and confront your challenges. My first priority is providing a safe, comfortable, non-judgemental, and empathetic environment built on trust. True genuineness, respect, and a sense of compassion are grounded in my therapeutic style. I am an eclectic therapist who employs an integrative approach allowing for a variety of modalities to be utilized based on need, comfort, and what works for you.
(226) 641-6551 View (226) 641-6551
Photo of Charlene Mercer, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in N3P, ON
Charlene Mercer
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MACP, MALT, RP, CCC, RRT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Do you struggle with excessive worry, loneliness, low mood? Are you experiencing a particularly challenging period in your life and feeling uncertain of how to navigate through? Perhaps you are feeling unsatisfied with an important relationship, or simply want "more" from life? Life can be challenging, and sometimes difficult to navigate alone... you don't have to.
Do you struggle with excessive worry, loneliness, low mood? Are you experiencing a particularly challenging period in your life and feeling uncertain of how to navigate through? Perhaps you are feeling unsatisfied with an important relationship, or simply want "more" from life? Life can be challenging, and sometimes difficult to navigate alone... you don't have to.
(226) 455-8925 View (226) 455-8925
Photo of Erin Sunstrum -Daru Therapy Centre, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in N3P, ON
Erin Sunstrum -Daru Therapy Centre
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), RP-Q, MACP, MEd
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Specializing in Teens (14+) & Young Adult Therapy. I am committed to helping clients build resilience and create a value-driven life. I believe in nurturing self-compassion and developing skills to engage with and overcome struggles. This happens through validation, exploration, and challenge. This all starts with building a trusting, open relationship with my clients. With a client-centred approach, I am dedicated to staying up-to-date on current research through reading, consulting with colleagues, and learning from leaders in the field.
Specializing in Teens (14+) & Young Adult Therapy. I am committed to helping clients build resilience and create a value-driven life. I believe in nurturing self-compassion and developing skills to engage with and overcome struggles. This happens through validation, exploration, and challenge. This all starts with building a trusting, open relationship with my clients. With a client-centred approach, I am dedicated to staying up-to-date on current research through reading, consulting with colleagues, and learning from leaders in the field.
(905) 741-8875 View (905) 741-8875
Photo of Savinna Frederiksen, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Savinna Frederiksen
Registered Social Worker, CYW, BA/BSW, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
I am a Registered Social Worker with the OCSWSSW. I have 20 years plus experience working in the area of mental health and addiction working with individuals, couples and families with an extensive range of difficulties from depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, trauma to couples/family conflict. I currently hold a faculty appointment as an Assistant Clinical Professor (PT) at McMaster University. I am trained in Attachment-based Theory, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, Narrative Therapy, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy.
I am a Registered Social Worker with the OCSWSSW. I have 20 years plus experience working in the area of mental health and addiction working with individuals, couples and families with an extensive range of difficulties from depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, trauma to couples/family conflict. I currently hold a faculty appointment as an Assistant Clinical Professor (PT) at McMaster University. I am trained in Attachment-based Theory, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, Narrative Therapy, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy.
(365) 305-0071 View (365) 305-0071
Photo of Carrie Macartney, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Carrie Macartney
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, CYCP, RP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
Do you have concerns that your child is overly anxious, suffering from low mood, exhibiting aggressive behaviour or experiencing anger? Are they struggling with low self-esteem, emotional regulation or having school related difficulties or refusal? Do you want a more positive parent child relationship, improved parenting effectiveness, communication or behaviour management? It can be incredibly difficult witnessing your child struggling and not sure how to best support their overall mental health. Know that you are not alone. I have been delivering successful outcomes for children, youth, and families for more than 25 years.
Do you have concerns that your child is overly anxious, suffering from low mood, exhibiting aggressive behaviour or experiencing anger? Are they struggling with low self-esteem, emotional regulation or having school related difficulties or refusal? Do you want a more positive parent child relationship, improved parenting effectiveness, communication or behaviour management? It can be incredibly difficult witnessing your child struggling and not sure how to best support their overall mental health. Know that you are not alone. I have been delivering successful outcomes for children, youth, and families for more than 25 years.
(365) 607-0775 View (365) 607-0775
Photo of Amanda Graff, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in N3P, ON
Amanda Graff
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MACP, MA, BAH
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
Dr. Seth Gilligan said, “stress is inevitable but overwhelm is optional.” While life can be challenging and the future uncertain, it's often the stories we tell ourselves that lie at the root of our suffering. Do you struggle with feelings of low self-worth and inadequacy? Do you find yourself ruminating about the past or lacking the motivation to move forward? Is fear of uncertainty holding you back from the life you’d like to live? Are you stuck in a cycle of self-defeating behaviors that you'd like to change? The good news is we have more influence over our own thoughts, emotions, and behaviors than we give ourselves credit for.
Dr. Seth Gilligan said, “stress is inevitable but overwhelm is optional.” While life can be challenging and the future uncertain, it's often the stories we tell ourselves that lie at the root of our suffering. Do you struggle with feelings of low self-worth and inadequacy? Do you find yourself ruminating about the past or lacking the motivation to move forward? Is fear of uncertainty holding you back from the life you’d like to live? Are you stuck in a cycle of self-defeating behaviors that you'd like to change? The good news is we have more influence over our own thoughts, emotions, and behaviors than we give ourselves credit for.
(548) 290-7616 View (548) 290-7616
Photo of Jessica Gilchrist, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Jessica Gilchrist
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
I see therapy as a space to speak openly about what it means to be a human. I am a therapist who values safety and understands that trust must be earned. I would like to offer you a warm, welcoming environment, where any topic can be explored without judgement. I have 7 years experience working in the mental health field with children, teens, adults and seniors. Most recently, my work has been in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, where I supported Trans and Non-Binary youth, living with complex mental health concerns.
I see therapy as a space to speak openly about what it means to be a human. I am a therapist who values safety and understands that trust must be earned. I would like to offer you a warm, welcoming environment, where any topic can be explored without judgement. I have 7 years experience working in the mental health field with children, teens, adults and seniors. Most recently, my work has been in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, where I supported Trans and Non-Binary youth, living with complex mental health concerns.
(365) 650-7597 View (365) 650-7597
Photo of Cobblestone Counselling Group, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Cobblestone Counselling Group
Registered Social Worker
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P
We offer private In-person, phone and video Counselling and Psychotherapy services in Paris, Ontario. Are you struggling to understand and cope with challenges in your personal or professional life? Cobblestone Counselling and Psychotherapy group offers children, individuals, families and couples counselling. Like all services at Cobblestone, Counselling services are focused on treating people holistically. We see the person as a whole and employ a person centred, collaborative and integrative approach to counselling and therapy. Finding a therapist uniquely fitting to your needs is significant to us at Cobblestone.
We offer private In-person, phone and video Counselling and Psychotherapy services in Paris, Ontario. Are you struggling to understand and cope with challenges in your personal or professional life? Cobblestone Counselling and Psychotherapy group offers children, individuals, families and couples counselling. Like all services at Cobblestone, Counselling services are focused on treating people holistically. We see the person as a whole and employ a person centred, collaborative and integrative approach to counselling and therapy. Finding a therapist uniquely fitting to your needs is significant to us at Cobblestone.
(519) 442-2237 View (519) 442-2237
Photo of Ryanna Barban, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Ryanna Barban
Registered Social Worker, MSW, BSW, RSW, BA
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
Our lives are not entirely defined by what has happened to us but rather by how we choose to make sense of it and who we choose to be as a result. My vocation and commitment to supporting individuals to overcome adversity, trauma, and problems in living are rooted in the Ubuntu philosophy. Providing support across all age groups, I promote inner self-discovery and self-mastery. I offer unique individual-specific approaches to empower self-actualization by challenging unhelpful beliefs, improving self-concept, working through painful experiences, accessing resources, and changing unhealthy habits to live more authentically.
Our lives are not entirely defined by what has happened to us but rather by how we choose to make sense of it and who we choose to be as a result. My vocation and commitment to supporting individuals to overcome adversity, trauma, and problems in living are rooted in the Ubuntu philosophy. Providing support across all age groups, I promote inner self-discovery and self-mastery. I offer unique individual-specific approaches to empower self-actualization by challenging unhelpful beliefs, improving self-concept, working through painful experiences, accessing resources, and changing unhealthy habits to live more authentically.
(226) 917-9248 View (226) 917-9248
Photo of Chelsea Gay, Registered Psychotherapist in N3P, ON
Chelsea Gay
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, BA, TITC-CT
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Brantford, ON N3P  (Online Only)
I love supporting individuals experiencing symptoms from trauma, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, codependency, and low self-worth/self-esteem. We will explore how the previous experiences you've encountered and the relationships you have had in your life impact the way we view ourselves and interact with the world around us. I like to use a variety of tools to aid in symptom management while also working with the root cause. My practice is trauma-informed and attachment-focused.
I love supporting individuals experiencing symptoms from trauma, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, codependency, and low self-worth/self-esteem. We will explore how the previous experiences you've encountered and the relationships you have had in your life impact the way we view ourselves and interact with the world around us. I like to use a variety of tools to aid in symptom management while also working with the root cause. My practice is trauma-informed and attachment-focused.
(548) 457-2074 View (548) 457-2074
Photo of Laura Elise McCreery, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Laura Elise McCreery
Registered Social Worker, HBSW, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
Seeking a trusting and safe therapeutic relationship to engage in healing in a vulnerable and brave way? Needs may include: mental health, life transitions, stress, trauma, general well-being, grief, self-improvement, and others. Clients of any age, gender, or sexual orientation.
Seeking a trusting and safe therapeutic relationship to engage in healing in a vulnerable and brave way? Needs may include: mental health, life transitions, stress, trauma, general well-being, grief, self-improvement, and others. Clients of any age, gender, or sexual orientation.
(548) 489-0567 View (548) 489-0567
Photo of Breaking Barriers Counselling Centre, Registered Social Worker in N3P, ON
Breaking Barriers Counselling Centre
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Brantford, ON N3P
At Breaking Barriers Counselling Centre, we are a group of mental health professionals aiming to break down stigma of mental health, traditional views of therapy, and redefine mental health care. We recognize the value and privilege of a therapeutic relationship. With that in mind, we operate from an anti-racism, anti-oppressive framework that honours all identities and lived experiences.
At Breaking Barriers Counselling Centre, we are a group of mental health professionals aiming to break down stigma of mental health, traditional views of therapy, and redefine mental health care. We recognize the value and privilege of a therapeutic relationship. With that in mind, we operate from an anti-racism, anti-oppressive framework that honours all identities and lived experiences.
(289) 204-3370 View (289) 204-3370

See more therapy options for N3P

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in N3P

30+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in N3P who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
89% Self Esteem
89% Stress
81% Relationship Issues
81% Coping Skills
73% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Green Shield Canada
81% SunLife
75% Manulife

How Counsellors in N3P see their clients

92% In Person and Online
8% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
19% Male
5% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in N3P?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.