Photo of Dana Cole, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Dana Cole
Registered Social Worker, RSW, BSW
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
As a compassionate grief and loss counsellor and coach, I provide support to individuals navigating through the challenging journey of loss. Whether you're experiencing the death of a loved one, coping with a significant life change, or dealing with the aftermath of a traumatic event, I am here to offer guidance and understanding. My approach to grief counseling is rooted in empathy, respect, and collaboration. I understand that grief is a unique and deeply personal experience, and I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet the individual needs of each client. Individual or group support is offered through the Grief Recovery Method.
As a compassionate grief and loss counsellor and coach, I provide support to individuals navigating through the challenging journey of loss. Whether you're experiencing the death of a loved one, coping with a significant life change, or dealing with the aftermath of a traumatic event, I am here to offer guidance and understanding. My approach to grief counseling is rooted in empathy, respect, and collaboration. I understand that grief is a unique and deeply personal experience, and I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet the individual needs of each client. Individual or group support is offered through the Grief Recovery Method.
(226) 799-1095 View (226) 799-1095
Photo of Steve Ferrell in L8V, ON
Steve Ferrell
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
I am an active and empathetic counsellor, these qualities tend to make it easier for new clients to engage in this process with me. I believe that struggling is a normal part of being human, my commitment is to show up with respect and to listen. In our work together, I will introduce you to new ways of thinking about the difficulties you're struggling with by encouraging you to use mindfulness meditation and movement in a way that can offer new solutions to old problems.
I am an active and empathetic counsellor, these qualities tend to make it easier for new clients to engage in this process with me. I believe that struggling is a normal part of being human, my commitment is to show up with respect and to listen. In our work together, I will introduce you to new ways of thinking about the difficulties you're struggling with by encouraging you to use mindfulness meditation and movement in a way that can offer new solutions to old problems.
(289) 796-0504 View (289) 796-0504
Photo of Kim DeJong, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Kim DeJong
Registered Social Worker, BSW, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
I'm passionate about guiding individuals through tough times and helping them grow. My goal is to create a safe, supportive space where people dealing with stress, anxiety, sadness, relationship issues, or doubts can find comfort. I use different ways to help each person, drawing from various methods that fit their needs.
I'm passionate about guiding individuals through tough times and helping them grow. My goal is to create a safe, supportive space where people dealing with stress, anxiety, sadness, relationship issues, or doubts can find comfort. I use different ways to help each person, drawing from various methods that fit their needs.
(365) 601-1817 View (365) 601-1817
Photo of Maryam Rostami, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Maryam Rostami
Registered Social Worker, MSW RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
If you are struggling to cope with challenges that people don’t understand or can’t be fixed or changed and you tried lots of therapy and modality and are still struggling, this may be helpful for you. I am a clinical social worker and believe that therapy is a gradual journey that brings growth, held within the safety container of the therapist and client. I treat depression, general and social anxiety, panic disorder and OCD and I am specialized in treating Trauma, loss, abuse, sexual assault, and C-PTSD symptoms.
If you are struggling to cope with challenges that people don’t understand or can’t be fixed or changed and you tried lots of therapy and modality and are still struggling, this may be helpful for you. I am a clinical social worker and believe that therapy is a gradual journey that brings growth, held within the safety container of the therapist and client. I treat depression, general and social anxiety, panic disorder and OCD and I am specialized in treating Trauma, loss, abuse, sexual assault, and C-PTSD symptoms.
(289) 422-0731 View (289) 422-0731
Photo of Aaron Van Beilen - Uniquely Affordable, Registered Psychotherapist in L8V, ON
Aaron Van Beilen - Uniquely Affordable
Registered Psychotherapist, MA
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
Our lives are full of challenges, but they can be overcome by working together. We can all find strength through connection and support. If you are seeking more from life, talking to a psychotherapist can help you along your journey. I am here to help you find peace and a greater sense of inner freedom. I listen deeply to your needs with respect and compassion. I offer individual therapy for a wide range of issues, such as anxiety, stress, habit change, finding motivation, and relationships.
Our lives are full of challenges, but they can be overcome by working together. We can all find strength through connection and support. If you are seeking more from life, talking to a psychotherapist can help you along your journey. I am here to help you find peace and a greater sense of inner freedom. I listen deeply to your needs with respect and compassion. I offer individual therapy for a wide range of issues, such as anxiety, stress, habit change, finding motivation, and relationships.
(647) 559-4392 View (647) 559-4392
Photo of Emily Alton, Registered Psychotherapist in L8V, ON
Emily Alton
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
Feeling worried or distressed about something? Do intrusive thoughts interfere with daily activities? Talking to someone about mental health can be scary but also empowering. Our work together will be guided by you each step of the way, as you are the expert on your own experiences. By understanding how our emotions connect to our behaviours, we are better able to navigate our day-to-day lives. Whether it's stress, nerves, fears, sadness, or anything else, I am here to listen with a non-judgmental lens. I hope to be here for your next big step in this journey.
Feeling worried or distressed about something? Do intrusive thoughts interfere with daily activities? Talking to someone about mental health can be scary but also empowering. Our work together will be guided by you each step of the way, as you are the expert on your own experiences. By understanding how our emotions connect to our behaviours, we are better able to navigate our day-to-day lives. Whether it's stress, nerves, fears, sadness, or anything else, I am here to listen with a non-judgmental lens. I hope to be here for your next big step in this journey.
(365) 398-5126 View (365) 398-5126
Photo of Lindsay Miedema, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Lindsay Miedema
Registered Social Worker, BA, BSW, MSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
Waitlist for new clients
It's a big step to start looking into therapy. As a therapist, it is very important that all my clients feel safe... safe to truly be themselves in session, safe to say what is on their mind without judgement, and to feel seen and heard. My practice is formed from a non-diet, body inclusive, fat positive, neurodivergent-affirming lens. I offer support for: Disordered eating and healing relationships with food. Feeding differences and sensory needs (ARFID). Trauma, using trauma eye movement therapy: Accelerated Resolution Therapy, as well as Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
It's a big step to start looking into therapy. As a therapist, it is very important that all my clients feel safe... safe to truly be themselves in session, safe to say what is on their mind without judgement, and to feel seen and heard. My practice is formed from a non-diet, body inclusive, fat positive, neurodivergent-affirming lens. I offer support for: Disordered eating and healing relationships with food. Feeding differences and sensory needs (ARFID). Trauma, using trauma eye movement therapy: Accelerated Resolution Therapy, as well as Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
(365) 600-5643 View (365) 600-5643
Photo of Kendall Telefonow, Pre-Licensed Professional in L8V, ON
Kendall Telefonow
Pre-Licensed Professional, CYW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
Are you a child or youth who is struggling emotionally or mentally? Is your mental health or behaviour choices getting in the way of your journey in life? Maybe you're a parent that has a child with these challenges and you're looking for some guidance or skills around how to cope with or support them? Do you feel as though everyone else around you knows what to do and here you are, feeling alone or lost? Or are you noticing that your responses or behaviours are getting in the way of your personal or peer relationships? You are not alone, how can I help you?
Are you a child or youth who is struggling emotionally or mentally? Is your mental health or behaviour choices getting in the way of your journey in life? Maybe you're a parent that has a child with these challenges and you're looking for some guidance or skills around how to cope with or support them? Do you feel as though everyone else around you knows what to do and here you are, feeling alone or lost? Or are you noticing that your responses or behaviours are getting in the way of your personal or peer relationships? You are not alone, how can I help you?
(365) 661-4370 View (365) 661-4370
Photo of CU Therapy - Cassandra Umbriaco, Registered Psychotherapist in L8V, ON
CU Therapy - Cassandra Umbriaco
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V  (Online Only)
Are you or is someone you know navigating the complex world of cancer? If you’re feeling overwhelmed and unsure where to start, you’re in the right place. My passion is helping clients live a life where they aren’t living, they’re thriving. While my niche is cancer-related care, I work with other issues, including anxiety, body image, burnout, chronic illness, depression, grief/loss, life transitions and relationships. Grounded in compassion, I aim to help clients shift from reacting to responding by providing the safe space they need to explore and nurture themselves, and leave feeling empowered and reconnected to what’s important.
Are you or is someone you know navigating the complex world of cancer? If you’re feeling overwhelmed and unsure where to start, you’re in the right place. My passion is helping clients live a life where they aren’t living, they’re thriving. While my niche is cancer-related care, I work with other issues, including anxiety, body image, burnout, chronic illness, depression, grief/loss, life transitions and relationships. Grounded in compassion, I aim to help clients shift from reacting to responding by providing the safe space they need to explore and nurture themselves, and leave feeling empowered and reconnected to what’s important.
(289) 278-9929 View (289) 278-9929
Photo of Sabrina Jaspers, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Sabrina Jaspers
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW, PMH-C
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
Not accepting new clients
I specialize in maternal mental health and perinatal mood issues, such as perinatal anxiety, postpartum depression and anxiety, birth trauma and PTSD. I support women with intrusive thoughts and those more extreme worries. I also support women through miscarriage and loss. I am taking on new clients.
I specialize in maternal mental health and perinatal mood issues, such as perinatal anxiety, postpartum depression and anxiety, birth trauma and PTSD. I support women with intrusive thoughts and those more extreme worries. I also support women through miscarriage and loss. I am taking on new clients.
(289) 512-0956 View (289) 512-0956
Photo of Jessica Gordon in L8V, ON
Jessica Gordon
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
I have an interest in helping people of all different backgrounds but am especially interested in supporting individuals who are healing from trauma. I have a special interest in deconstructing from religious cults, spiritual abuse, and purity culture. My goal is to provide a safe and supportive environment for healing and growth.
I have an interest in helping people of all different backgrounds but am especially interested in supporting individuals who are healing from trauma. I have a special interest in deconstructing from religious cults, spiritual abuse, and purity culture. My goal is to provide a safe and supportive environment for healing and growth.
(289) 778-3349 View (289) 778-3349
Photo of Natasha Masciantonio, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Natasha Masciantonio
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V  (Online Only)
Does your child or youth feel anxious, frustrated, and overwhelmed often? Are they creative worriers that tend to avoid situations, have difficulties in school, and struggle with irritability and low mood? Does your struggle with aggression and behavior? Over the past 10 years I have been counselling children, youth, adolescents, and their families. I provide a warm, humorous, and skillful approach to working with all individuals and tailor my treatment to meet my clients needs.
Does your child or youth feel anxious, frustrated, and overwhelmed often? Are they creative worriers that tend to avoid situations, have difficulties in school, and struggle with irritability and low mood? Does your struggle with aggression and behavior? Over the past 10 years I have been counselling children, youth, adolescents, and their families. I provide a warm, humorous, and skillful approach to working with all individuals and tailor my treatment to meet my clients needs.
(365) 675-0902 View (365) 675-0902
Photo of The Zen Social Worker, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
The Zen Social Worker
Registered Social Worker, BA, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
Your needs are at the forefront of our therapeutic journey. Whether you are grappling with stress, anxiety, relationship issues, or personal transitions, you seek a space where you can express yourself openly and without judgment. Together, we will work towards building a trusting and supportive therapeutic relationship. We are here to help you explore new perspectives, develop coping mechanisms, and achieve the goals that matter most to you.
Your needs are at the forefront of our therapeutic journey. Whether you are grappling with stress, anxiety, relationship issues, or personal transitions, you seek a space where you can express yourself openly and without judgment. Together, we will work towards building a trusting and supportive therapeutic relationship. We are here to help you explore new perspectives, develop coping mechanisms, and achieve the goals that matter most to you.
(289) 274-9530 View (289) 274-9530
Photo of Timothy Gordon, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Timothy Gordon
Registered Social Worker, BA, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
I am collaborative, empathetic, understanding, and hopeful in my work with clients. I am interested in learning about new people and clients often comment that this shows. I am also an award winning author having authored five books on modern CBT, specifically ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy).
I am collaborative, empathetic, understanding, and hopeful in my work with clients. I am interested in learning about new people and clients often comment that this shows. I am also an award winning author having authored five books on modern CBT, specifically ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy).
(289) 210-6008 View (289) 210-6008
Photo of Emily Claire Blackmoon, Registered Social Worker in L8V, ON
Emily Claire Blackmoon
Registered Social Worker, RSW, BSW, MSW, OASW
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V
Are you new to therapy, and need a supportive, you-focused introduction to life-changing self-awareness? Maybe you've been doing therapy for years, but feel like something from the process is "missing"? Do you still feeling stuck, despite how many breathing exercises and positive self-talk you do? Struggling with childhood trauma, eating challenges, anxiety, grief (or all of the above?). Then let's talk! Using a combination of talk therapy, body-based somatics, critical reframing and psychoeducation, I work with individuals and clients to go DEEPER and get the support and results they're looking for.
Are you new to therapy, and need a supportive, you-focused introduction to life-changing self-awareness? Maybe you've been doing therapy for years, but feel like something from the process is "missing"? Do you still feeling stuck, despite how many breathing exercises and positive self-talk you do? Struggling with childhood trauma, eating challenges, anxiety, grief (or all of the above?). Then let's talk! Using a combination of talk therapy, body-based somatics, critical reframing and psychoeducation, I work with individuals and clients to go DEEPER and get the support and results they're looking for.
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Photo of Deseree Jensen, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in L8V, ON
Deseree Jensen
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), RP(Q)
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V  (Online Only)
Even good people make mistakes sometimes. If you're struggling with the choices you’ve made in life, let’s talk. Whether you have regrets about past relationships, how you’ve reacted out of anger, or if you’re grieving the loss of someone whom you never got to say a final goodbye to, there are ways to process this. I work with people who are feeling shame, holding secrets, or who may have felt forced into a corner, and are feeling the repercussions of those moments. I’m here to support you in moving forward, in making the changes that you recognize need to be made, and in learning to forgive yourself for being human.
Even good people make mistakes sometimes. If you're struggling with the choices you’ve made in life, let’s talk. Whether you have regrets about past relationships, how you’ve reacted out of anger, or if you’re grieving the loss of someone whom you never got to say a final goodbye to, there are ways to process this. I work with people who are feeling shame, holding secrets, or who may have felt forced into a corner, and are feeling the repercussions of those moments. I’m here to support you in moving forward, in making the changes that you recognize need to be made, and in learning to forgive yourself for being human.
(365) 363-1379 View (365) 363-1379
Photo of Rachelle Valenti, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in L8V, ON
Rachelle Valenti
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), BA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V  (Online Only)
We all face many challenges daily, and sometimes we need a bit of extra help to manage them. Whatever your current challenge is, you have the power to overcome it and live as your most authentic self! Are you feeling overwhelmed, stuck, or burnt out? Do you struggle with anxiety, self-esteem, or stress? I’ve been there, and it can feel difficult finding the motivation to move forward. Using a strength-based approach we can take on your healing journey together. Seeking out therapy is a brave step, and I’m really happy you’re here!
We all face many challenges daily, and sometimes we need a bit of extra help to manage them. Whatever your current challenge is, you have the power to overcome it and live as your most authentic self! Are you feeling overwhelmed, stuck, or burnt out? Do you struggle with anxiety, self-esteem, or stress? I’ve been there, and it can feel difficult finding the motivation to move forward. Using a strength-based approach we can take on your healing journey together. Seeking out therapy is a brave step, and I’m really happy you’re here!
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Photo of Paul Lucas, Counsellor in L8V, ON
Paul Lucas
Counsellor
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
Are you sleeping on the couch still? Have you guys been fighting all weekend again? Living like roommates? Lack of connection gets old and scary, doesn't it? Or maybe you just experienced the unimaginable - your partner has cheated on you! You don't know what to do, where to go or even what you want. Perhaps there's kids that you have to think of or maybe finances that are so connected together that even the thoughts of breaking up is too much.
Are you sleeping on the couch still? Have you guys been fighting all weekend again? Living like roommates? Lack of connection gets old and scary, doesn't it? Or maybe you just experienced the unimaginable - your partner has cheated on you! You don't know what to do, where to go or even what you want. Perhaps there's kids that you have to think of or maybe finances that are so connected together that even the thoughts of breaking up is too much.
(289) 302-3553 View (289) 302-3553
Photo of Holly Raymond, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in L8V, ON
Holly Raymond
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Hamilton, ON L8V
Hello! Onward and upward is my mantra both professionally and personally. I have been privileged to support clients in working through obstacles and transforming their lives for over 22 years. My focus is on helping clients identify what is important to them, and move towards a more rich and meaningful life. An essential part of this process is understanding what is getting in the way of change, and developing the skills to move forward. I provide a safe space where one can observe their thoughts and emotions, without judgment. Don't let doubt or fear stand in your way, you are worth the effort.
Hello! Onward and upward is my mantra both professionally and personally. I have been privileged to support clients in working through obstacles and transforming their lives for over 22 years. My focus is on helping clients identify what is important to them, and move towards a more rich and meaningful life. An essential part of this process is understanding what is getting in the way of change, and developing the skills to move forward. I provide a safe space where one can observe their thoughts and emotions, without judgment. Don't let doubt or fear stand in your way, you are worth the effort.
(289) 302-5723 View (289) 302-5723
Photo of Brian Janes, Registered Psychotherapist in L8V, ON
Brian Janes
Registered Psychotherapist, CSAT, ICADC, MBA
Verified Verified
Hamilton, ON L8V  (Online Only)
As a registered psychotherapist (RP), I work with those struggling with addictions, relationships, anxiety, depression, trauma and other challenges. I am a certified sex addiction therapist (CSAT) and am trained to help those struggling with compulsive sexual behaviour. I am also a Certified Alcohol and Drug Counsellor (ICADC), and offer services to help clients break free from the downward spiral of addiction to drugs, alcohol and other addictive behaviours. Additionally, with an MBA and several years working in the corporate world, I have a unique understanding of the pressures faced by those struggling in today's demanding work environment.
As a registered psychotherapist (RP), I work with those struggling with addictions, relationships, anxiety, depression, trauma and other challenges. I am a certified sex addiction therapist (CSAT) and am trained to help those struggling with compulsive sexual behaviour. I am also a Certified Alcohol and Drug Counsellor (ICADC), and offer services to help clients break free from the downward spiral of addiction to drugs, alcohol and other addictive behaviours. Additionally, with an MBA and several years working in the corporate world, I have a unique understanding of the pressures faced by those struggling in today's demanding work environment.
(905) 746-7428 View (905) 746-7428

See more therapy options for L8V

Nearby Searches for L8V

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in L8V

20+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in L8V who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
88% Depression
81% Stress
77% Relationship Issues
77% Coping Skills
77% Self Esteem
73% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% Manulife
73% Canada Life | Great-West Life
64% Great-West Life

How Counsellors in L8V see their clients

77% In Person and Online
23% Online Only

Gender breakdown

72% Female
28% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in L8V?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.