Photo of Karah Kirkland, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Karah Kirkland
Registered Social Worker, BSW, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Therapy should not add stress. You can be supported outside work hours: evening and weekend appointments are available. Do you never feel like you are doing enough, and are triggered by the parenting demands or feel over run by appointments for them while unsure how to help yourself. Perhaps you find yourself identifying with the sandwich generation, balancing the needs of aging parents while grappling with your own grief and trauma, and simultaneously supporting you. You are worthy of feeling better. Your children may also gain from sessions with a therapist trained to engage them, prevent outbursts, and lessen peer conflicts.
Therapy should not add stress. You can be supported outside work hours: evening and weekend appointments are available. Do you never feel like you are doing enough, and are triggered by the parenting demands or feel over run by appointments for them while unsure how to help yourself. Perhaps you find yourself identifying with the sandwich generation, balancing the needs of aging parents while grappling with your own grief and trauma, and simultaneously supporting you. You are worthy of feeling better. Your children may also gain from sessions with a therapist trained to engage them, prevent outbursts, and lessen peer conflicts.
(249) 703-5224 View (249) 703-5224
Photo of Brittney Smith - Rsw Parenting Anxiety And Stress, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Brittney Smith - Rsw Parenting Anxiety And Stress
Registered Social Worker
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Do you find yourself struggling to keep up when life suddenly changes? Are you having trouble communicating with your kids or with other important people in your life? Do you wish you could make your life different but are not sure how? Asking these questions is an important first step to finding the answers and improving your life. Through therapy in a non-judgmental and open space, we can explore these questions and start to discover the root of where these questions are coming from. Together we will draw from evidence-based methods such as CBT, DBT, and Narrative Therapy to learn the coping mechanisms needed for everyday life.
Do you find yourself struggling to keep up when life suddenly changes? Are you having trouble communicating with your kids or with other important people in your life? Do you wish you could make your life different but are not sure how? Asking these questions is an important first step to finding the answers and improving your life. Through therapy in a non-judgmental and open space, we can explore these questions and start to discover the root of where these questions are coming from. Together we will draw from evidence-based methods such as CBT, DBT, and Narrative Therapy to learn the coping mechanisms needed for everyday life.
(249) 444-3378 View (249) 444-3378
Photo of Brooklyn Arroyo, Registered Psychotherapist in L4N, ON
Brooklyn Arroyo
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, ADMH, MACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Hi I’m Brooklyn! I have an eclectic style of therapy that is tailored to who my clients are for a truly personalized experience. Some therapeutic strategies include: solution focused therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT), harm reduction, and self-compassion work. We will collaborate on goals that align with your healing journey and I will support you the best I can to achieve those goals!
Hi I’m Brooklyn! I have an eclectic style of therapy that is tailored to who my clients are for a truly personalized experience. Some therapeutic strategies include: solution focused therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT), harm reduction, and self-compassion work. We will collaborate on goals that align with your healing journey and I will support you the best I can to achieve those goals!
(289) 763-9898 View (289) 763-9898
Photo of Jessica Capra, Registered Psychotherapist in L4N, ON
Jessica Capra
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
Have you ever felt alone, disconnected or abandoned? I’ve had those moments too. Growing up amidst parental mental illness came with a lot of challenges but it also gave me compassion and understanding. We needed the support of a caring community of family and friends to help us walk through many difficult times. My lived experiences inspired me to study psychology and human behavior for much of my adult life. This pursuit has provided me with the opportunity to help others so they can feel supported on their journey.
Have you ever felt alone, disconnected or abandoned? I’ve had those moments too. Growing up amidst parental mental illness came with a lot of challenges but it also gave me compassion and understanding. We needed the support of a caring community of family and friends to help us walk through many difficult times. My lived experiences inspired me to study psychology and human behavior for much of my adult life. This pursuit has provided me with the opportunity to help others so they can feel supported on their journey.
(249) 487-0780 View (249) 487-0780
Photo of Laura Kyrkos, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Laura Kyrkos
Registered Social Worker, RSW
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
Feeling low? Feeling unlike your usual self? Wondering what your purpose is? Are you stressed and fearful of your next chapter in life? Perhaps your children are having school issues and you're turning for help. Maybe you find yourself to be a people pleaser and need support identifying boundaries. Help is here and you are welcomed to join. You have chosen not to give up. You have chosen to conduct research and find the best therapist suited for you. I believe you're already on the track to choosing to making choices that are in the betterment of yourself.
Feeling low? Feeling unlike your usual self? Wondering what your purpose is? Are you stressed and fearful of your next chapter in life? Perhaps your children are having school issues and you're turning for help. Maybe you find yourself to be a people pleaser and need support identifying boundaries. Help is here and you are welcomed to join. You have chosen not to give up. You have chosen to conduct research and find the best therapist suited for you. I believe you're already on the track to choosing to making choices that are in the betterment of yourself.
(249) 490-5519 View (249) 490-5519
Photo of Bay View Therapy Centre, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Bay View Therapy Centre
Registered Social Worker
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
Welcome and thanks for stopping by! We are a team of Registered Social Workers and Psychotherapists with decades of experience working with individuals impacted by trauma, abuse, PTSD, anxiety, depression, addictions, relationship and self-esteem issues. We use a strengths-based, trauma-informed approach to guide our therapeutic interventions and empower people to reach their goals. We believe every individual has the power and strength to work through their adversities, and our role your therapist is to work collaboratively with you to help you acknowledge your strengths, build upon them & heal to live a happy and success.
Welcome and thanks for stopping by! We are a team of Registered Social Workers and Psychotherapists with decades of experience working with individuals impacted by trauma, abuse, PTSD, anxiety, depression, addictions, relationship and self-esteem issues. We use a strengths-based, trauma-informed approach to guide our therapeutic interventions and empower people to reach their goals. We believe every individual has the power and strength to work through their adversities, and our role your therapist is to work collaboratively with you to help you acknowledge your strengths, build upon them & heal to live a happy and success.
(249) 495-5383 View (249) 495-5383
Photo of Jessica Pino, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Jessica Pino
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
I know it can be hard reaching out, and I am here to meet you where you are in your journey and supporting you along the way! I understand the importance of building a therapeutic relationship and aim to create a safe, validating and non-judgmental space. I believe everyone has the potential to heal and the resiliency to bounce back from trauma. I have experience with an array of psychosocial and mental health challenges including mood disorders, anxiety, psychosis, depression, life transitions, stress, trauma and addictions.
I know it can be hard reaching out, and I am here to meet you where you are in your journey and supporting you along the way! I understand the importance of building a therapeutic relationship and aim to create a safe, validating and non-judgmental space. I believe everyone has the potential to heal and the resiliency to bounce back from trauma. I have experience with an array of psychosocial and mental health challenges including mood disorders, anxiety, psychosis, depression, life transitions, stress, trauma and addictions.
(705) 999-7638 View (705) 999-7638
Photo of Ira Stevanovic, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Ira Stevanovic
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N  (Online Only)
"The truth is that falling hurts. The dare is to keep being brave and feel your way back up." from Rising Strong by Brene Brown. Congratulations on taking a first step on your journey towards a more peaceful, happier, and grounded self. I would be honoured to join you on that journey so that you can face and overcome obstacles while creating an environment of growth and change. I strongly believe that a safe, respectful, and collaborative therapeutic relationship is the foundation of our work together.
"The truth is that falling hurts. The dare is to keep being brave and feel your way back up." from Rising Strong by Brene Brown. Congratulations on taking a first step on your journey towards a more peaceful, happier, and grounded self. I would be honoured to join you on that journey so that you can face and overcome obstacles while creating an environment of growth and change. I strongly believe that a safe, respectful, and collaborative therapeutic relationship is the foundation of our work together.
(249) 202-2372 View (249) 202-2372
Photo of Jayson Wong, Registered Psychotherapist in L4N, ON
Jayson Wong
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MA, DAPsy
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
I operate with the premise that much of life’s suffering contains within it an inner meaning, waiting to be discovered, seen, and realized. And where one suffers is often the place that contains the seed of new development and personal growth. What is being asked of us is to take the steps to enter deep within ourselves, in order to see what needs be seen, feel what needs be felt, and do what needs be done. Often times it is in the process of entering into ourselves that we find the “attitude” that meets our true needs.
I operate with the premise that much of life’s suffering contains within it an inner meaning, waiting to be discovered, seen, and realized. And where one suffers is often the place that contains the seed of new development and personal growth. What is being asked of us is to take the steps to enter deep within ourselves, in order to see what needs be seen, feel what needs be felt, and do what needs be done. Often times it is in the process of entering into ourselves that we find the “attitude” that meets our true needs.
(249) 493-6465 View (249) 493-6465
Photo of Tammy Frazer in L4N, ON
Tammy Frazer
MA, BCBA
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
As the Clinical Director at On Solid Ground Inc in Barrie, we specialize in working with families with children with Autism or behavioural challenges; parents who want to learn alternate ways of engaging with their child to produce improved interactions, communication, social and life skills.
As the Clinical Director at On Solid Ground Inc in Barrie, we specialize in working with families with children with Autism or behavioural challenges; parents who want to learn alternate ways of engaging with their child to produce improved interactions, communication, social and life skills.
(249) 201-9230 View (249) 201-9230
Photo of Adriaan Scheeres, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in L4N, ON
Adriaan Scheeres
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying)
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Do you feel like life is weighing you down and you just can't pick yourself up, like no one understands what you are going through? Do you feel uncertain about your career choices? Are these feelings impacting your day-to-day activities, preventing you from living the life you want? Do you feel lost and need help figuring out where to turn? Do you have trouble communicating with family, your partner, or work colleagues? In therapy, you can gain coping skills to manage your feelings, communicated better, and sustain recovery. Life does not need to be as hard as it is now. Reach out now to get started.
Do you feel like life is weighing you down and you just can't pick yourself up, like no one understands what you are going through? Do you feel uncertain about your career choices? Are these feelings impacting your day-to-day activities, preventing you from living the life you want? Do you feel lost and need help figuring out where to turn? Do you have trouble communicating with family, your partner, or work colleagues? In therapy, you can gain coping skills to manage your feelings, communicated better, and sustain recovery. Life does not need to be as hard as it is now. Reach out now to get started.
(249) 506-0607 View (249) 506-0607
Photo of Restorative Trauma Practice , Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Restorative Trauma Practice
Registered Social Worker, MSW/RSW, EMDR, SP
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
As a social worker/psychotherapist, I am known for my integrity, compassion, and warmth. I have 14 years of extensive clinical practice supporting individuals who have endured past and present traumatic and hurtful life experiences. I guide individuals out of painful emotions, thoughts, and somatic reactions by creatively combining therapies like EMDR, sensorimotor psychotherapy, and interventions that heal distressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioural patterns. My goal as a clinician is to provide relief and the experience of wellness to all the individuals I work with, as each person deserves to experience inner peace.
As a social worker/psychotherapist, I am known for my integrity, compassion, and warmth. I have 14 years of extensive clinical practice supporting individuals who have endured past and present traumatic and hurtful life experiences. I guide individuals out of painful emotions, thoughts, and somatic reactions by creatively combining therapies like EMDR, sensorimotor psychotherapy, and interventions that heal distressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioural patterns. My goal as a clinician is to provide relief and the experience of wellness to all the individuals I work with, as each person deserves to experience inner peace.
(437) 983-3154 View (437) 983-3154
Photo of Henry Obanor, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Henry Obanor
Registered Social Worker, BSW, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
I provide a judgement free space and therapeutic counselling. I have worked extensively with youths, adults, couples and families in various capacities. With over 11 years of social work and counselling experience, I am knowledgeable and equipped to provide you with safe, confidential and effective counselling. I will work collaboratively with you as you gain the knowledge and skills you need to address your concerns and achieve your goals.
I provide a judgement free space and therapeutic counselling. I have worked extensively with youths, adults, couples and families in various capacities. With over 11 years of social work and counselling experience, I am knowledgeable and equipped to provide you with safe, confidential and effective counselling. I will work collaboratively with you as you gain the knowledge and skills you need to address your concerns and achieve your goals.
(705) 702-4579 View (705) 702-4579
Photo of Jill Claire Richmond, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Jill Claire Richmond
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N  (Online Only)
If you feel like you, or your relationship could benefit from talking about it with a supportive person, I am here to help anyone in need.
If you feel like you, or your relationship could benefit from talking about it with a supportive person, I am here to help anyone in need.
(289) 512-0038 View (289) 512-0038
Photo of Lisa Davis, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Lisa Davis
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N  (Online Only)
Accepting NEW patients for phone & video sessions. Asking for support is a courageous first step in managing your mental health & wellness. It is easy to get stuck in unhelpful thought patterns that do not serve us, but we have more control over our thoughts & feelings than it may seem. I can help you take charge of this & your behaviours to live a more fulfilled & happy life. I will work collaboratively with you to set achievable goals that support empowerment, capacity building & resiliency. I believe in the importance of a strong therapeutic alliance where you feel safe to share so we can have authentic & real conversations.
Accepting NEW patients for phone & video sessions. Asking for support is a courageous first step in managing your mental health & wellness. It is easy to get stuck in unhelpful thought patterns that do not serve us, but we have more control over our thoughts & feelings than it may seem. I can help you take charge of this & your behaviours to live a more fulfilled & happy life. I will work collaboratively with you to set achievable goals that support empowerment, capacity building & resiliency. I believe in the importance of a strong therapeutic alliance where you feel safe to share so we can have authentic & real conversations.
(249) 492-9447 View (249) 492-9447
Photo of Cheri Szotyori, Registered Psychotherapist in L4N, ON
Cheri Szotyori
Registered Psychotherapist, CYC, RP
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Wonderful! You have taken the first step in improving your mental wellness! I am a Registered Psychotherapist with over 25 years working with people to improve their Mental Health and increase their Mental Wellness. I've developed a reputation for my ability to create a trusting and compassionate environment which will help ensure your therapeutic success. My approach has a strong foundation in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. As well, I integrate a number of different therapeutic approaches into my practice and seek to fit the approach to the individual needs, preferences, and strengths of each person.
Wonderful! You have taken the first step in improving your mental wellness! I am a Registered Psychotherapist with over 25 years working with people to improve their Mental Health and increase their Mental Wellness. I've developed a reputation for my ability to create a trusting and compassionate environment which will help ensure your therapeutic success. My approach has a strong foundation in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. As well, I integrate a number of different therapeutic approaches into my practice and seek to fit the approach to the individual needs, preferences, and strengths of each person.
(705) 300-0783 View (705) 300-0783
Photo of Courtney Perry, Registered Social Service Worker in L4N, ON
Courtney Perry
Registered Social Service Worker
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
At the core of my practice is the belief in the inherent strength and worthiness of all people. I work to create an environment absolutely free of judgement, where each person is respected and valued as an individual. I am a strong advocate for normalizing therapy and mental health care. I believe in a strengths focused approach and utilize evidence-based therapies. I integrate my experiences with substance abuse, family violence and loss into helping my clients find success through troubled times. As such, I am passionate about working with couples and families in particular. Individual teens, adults and elders are also welcome.
At the core of my practice is the belief in the inherent strength and worthiness of all people. I work to create an environment absolutely free of judgement, where each person is respected and valued as an individual. I am a strong advocate for normalizing therapy and mental health care. I believe in a strengths focused approach and utilize evidence-based therapies. I integrate my experiences with substance abuse, family violence and loss into helping my clients find success through troubled times. As such, I am passionate about working with couples and families in particular. Individual teens, adults and elders are also welcome.
(249) 495-0741 View (249) 495-0741
Photo of April Vass, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
April Vass
Registered Social Worker, MSW, BSW, RSW, BA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
Does it feel like intrusive thoughts are overtaking your world? Are these thoughts sometimes strange and unusual to your character, or do they go against your values? Are you engaging in mental or physical activities to relieve the feelings of distress or discomfort you may be experiencing? Maybe these activities are completed to avoid what feels like an irresistible urge. Are you looking to regain your day-to-day life and learn how to live well with OCD? Or maybe you are looking to address life impacting behaviours such as; skin picking, hair pulling, or tics.
Does it feel like intrusive thoughts are overtaking your world? Are these thoughts sometimes strange and unusual to your character, or do they go against your values? Are you engaging in mental or physical activities to relieve the feelings of distress or discomfort you may be experiencing? Maybe these activities are completed to avoid what feels like an irresistible urge. Are you looking to regain your day-to-day life and learn how to live well with OCD? Or maybe you are looking to address life impacting behaviours such as; skin picking, hair pulling, or tics.
(249) 494-5895 View (249) 494-5895
Photo of Merrisa Little, Registered Social Worker in L4N, ON
Merrisa Little
Registered Social Worker, BSW, MSW, RSW, CEO
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barrie, ON L4N
You're noticing changes in your child's behaviour; it doesn't make sense. They're acting strange, out of their character. Why does my child seem afraid; anxious? It seems like you've tried everything to help them feel better, but nothing seems to work and you're confused, fighting the feeling of helplessness. You find yourself walking on eggshells for fear of making the behaviour worse, because you don't understand what's happening.
You're noticing changes in your child's behaviour; it doesn't make sense. They're acting strange, out of their character. Why does my child seem afraid; anxious? It seems like you've tried everything to help them feel better, but nothing seems to work and you're confused, fighting the feeling of helplessness. You find yourself walking on eggshells for fear of making the behaviour worse, because you don't understand what's happening.
(705) 243-9078 View (705) 243-9078
Photo of Serena Manoochehri, Registered Psychotherapist in L4N, ON
Serena Manoochehri
Registered Psychotherapist, HBA, MACP, RP
Verified Verified
Barrie, ON L4N
In providing a holistic, integrative and client-centred approach, I collaborate with my clients in creating a treatment plan that is specific to their concerns. I encourage all of my clients to enter sessions with an open mind, have a willingness to learn and be open to self-reflection. Patience is also key when we are on the path of healing, and when we stop trying to rush the process, that is when we can best notice the changes we have already made.
In providing a holistic, integrative and client-centred approach, I collaborate with my clients in creating a treatment plan that is specific to their concerns. I encourage all of my clients to enter sessions with an open mind, have a willingness to learn and be open to self-reflection. Patience is also key when we are on the path of healing, and when we stop trying to rush the process, that is when we can best notice the changes we have already made.
(705) 345-6522 View (705) 345-6522

See more therapy options for L4N

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in L4N

200+

Average cost per session

$160

Counsellors in L4N who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
86% Depression
82% Self Esteem
79% Coping Skills
79% Stress
76% Relationship Issues
72% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% Green Shield Canada
61% SunLife
60% Blue Cross

How Counsellors in L4N see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
11% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in L4N?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.