Interests Conflicted: A 'Wicked Problem' in Medical Research

A 'continuum of moral jeopardy' surrounds industry-sponsored funding of scientific research, especially in the field of obesity and nutrition. Why is that so?

Is Extreme Childhood Obesity 'Nutritional Neglect'?

By the latest statistics, about 17% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese and of these almost 6% are extremely obese. To what extent should parents be held accountable?

The "Electrochemical Persuasion" of Neuromodulation

Deliberate stimulation of the brain to manipulate behavior reads like something out of George Orwell’s "1984," but treatment of eating disorders & obesity is no longer "brainless"

Advise and Consent

Protection of human subjects involved in clinical research has become an important guiding principle only in recent years.

Body Weight in the Time of Climate Control

Why have we become fatter in the past 40 years? One plausible contribution is the amount of time we spend in climate-controlled surroundings--the so-called "thermoneutral zone"-TNZ

Marijuana and Weight: A Plant With Virtues to Be Discovered?

Many people have experienced the “munchies,” those extraordinarily powerful feelings of hunger after using marijuana. Surprisingly, marijuana has paradoxical effects on weight.

Adolphe Quetelet and the Evolution of Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body mass index (BMI) has become a standard for measuring our body's level of overweight and obesity. Its origins date back to the 19th century "Renaissance man' Adolphe Quetelet.

The Care and Feeding of Myths: Breastfeeding and Weight

Despite attempts to “humanize” infant formula, breast milk is clearly superior, and breastfeeding is a natural process. But what is the connection between breastfeeding and weight?

In Nutrition, Where Does Science Stop and Fantasy Begin?

Is there any truth to claims there was a Paleolithic diet? And what is the “paleofantasy?”

The Double-Edged Sword of Alcohol Use

During the Holidays, many people find themselves celebrating not only with excessive food intake but with increased alcohol as well. What are complex effects of alcohol on weight?

Illusions and "Troubled Senses" of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Those with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have a disturbing preoccupation with what they perceive as defects in their appearance—defects hardly noticeable to others. The disorder has been called the “distress of imagined ugliness.” Were Oscar Wilde's Dorian Gray and Freud's Wolf-Man suffering from BDD?

The "False Creation" of Body Image Distortions

Our sense of our body—how we perceive its size and shape and how we feel about it—i.e., our body image—begins in utero but continues to evolve over our entire lifecycle. Both excessive weight and decreased weight can lead to actual perceptual distortions and/or overt dissatisfaction with it.

Toward a 'Knowledge of Causes...and All Things Possible'

Determining the cause of an acute bacterial infection is often fairly straightforward. But when we are dealing with chronic pathology such as overweight or obesity establishing causation becomes much more challenging. What are some guidelines to consider when going from observing associations to establishing a verdict of causation?

Some Philosophical Musings on Food

Over many centuries, there has never been a coherent philosophy of food and eating. Several books explore the complexities of food and the relationship of some of our greatest philosophers to their culinary choices. Have you ever thought about your own philosophy about food? There is a simple one that we might all agree upon for the 21st century.

The Quicksand of Self-deception: The Nocebo Effect

The placebo effect is a well-known phenomenon. Less well-known is the nocebo effect, placebo’s “evil twin.” Can physicians cause more harm than good when they give their patients too much information about a potential medication or therapeutic treatment, including those for weight-related disorders? What are the ethical considerations involved in withholding information?

A Point of Reference: Weight and the Concept of Set Point

Considering all the food our bodies process throughout our lifetime, our weight remains, for the most part, within a fairly constant range. In other words, our bodies tend to “defend” that weight, especially after weight loss, and that is why it is so difficult for us to maintain our weight at a lower level. Is there a set point for weight?

The Melancholy of Anatomy: Excessive Weight and Depression

Does a depressive disorder lead to weight gain or does weight gain lead to a depressive disorder? Studies in the past few years seem to indicate a “bidirectional relationship” between excessive weight and depression, with major public health implications.

The Self "Loathsome Gluttony" of Binge-eating Disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new diagnostic category in psychiatry's DSM-5 although it was first described in 1959. Already pharmaceutical companies are heavily marketing their medications to this new population.

Cancer Risk and Weight: Our Body and "Pathologies of Space"

Being overweight or obese has been associated with metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and abnormal triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as well as cardiac disease, osteoarthritis, and even sleep apnea. Researchers also have found strong associations between excessive body weight and many forms of cancer. Women are even more at risk than men.

Smoking and Weight: Those "Burnt-out Ends of Smoky Days"

The dangers of cigarette smoking are well-known, but many people continue to smoke because of the fear that they will gain weight after they stop. What do we know about the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on weight?

Food Cravings: Those "Torments of Expectation"

Food cravings are generally considered benign and extremely common among people in many, though not all, regions of the world. Cravings, however, may be associated with so-called “food addiction,” as well as disordered patterns of eating, and even less dietary restraint and ability to control one’s weight.

"Sufficient Unto the Day:" The Complexities of Satiety

The process of eating is necessary to maintain the body’s homeostasis but it is also ironically a threat to homeostasis. Over the course of a lifetime, we may consume about 70 million calories or 14 tons of food. How does the body “know” when to stop eating?

Of Epidemic Proportions: The Primary Colors of Obesity

In recent weeks, our newspapers fill their pages with dire warnings about the possibility of an epidemic of Ebola literally infiltrating vast areas of the U.S. and the world. For many years now, researchers have used the same word “epidemic” to describe the expanding waistlines of our nation. Can we separate the hype from the reality?

Why Out of Sight Really Is Out of Mind

Why does our willpower fail so frequently when we are in a supermarket or restaurant or even our own kitchen? Maybe it’s not our fault but rather how our environment conspires against us and sabotages our best efforts. Brian Wansink’s new book "Slim By Design" offers some delicious strategies to work with our human nature rather than against it.

When Healthy Eating Turns Unhealthy: Orthorexia Nervosa

In this era in which overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions globally, is it possible to be too preoccupied with healthy eating? Are you a judgmental "righteous eater"?

Holding a Mirror Up to "White Hat Bias" in Research

A recently identified bias, so-called “White Hat Bias” originally found in research studies on obesity, may be seen in the extraordinary hype given to mirror neurons, those cells, originally discovered in macaque monkeys, that fire when a monkey performs an action as well as when the monkey sees an action performed by the examiner.

A Bone of Contention: Osteoporosis and Weight

Traditionally, excess weight was once considered to be protective of bone health. Make no bones about it, researchers are finding the situation far more complicated. Ironically, both lowered weight subsequent to weight loss and increased weight seen in obesity may be risk factors that lead to osteoporosis.

From the Frying Pan into the Fire? Saturated Fat and Health

For the past fifty years, we have been told to avoid saturated fat in foods like whole milk, eggs, red meat, butter, and even lard. A new book by Nina Teicholz recommends we eat these foods and she revisits the science behind some of our deeply held beliefs about what constitutes a healthy diet.

Down the Rabbit Hole: When Medication Leads to Weight Gain

There are many theories that attempt to explain why the prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen so substantially in the United States and worldwide over the past thirty years. Among many environmental contributions, one theory holds that more and more people are taking medications that predispose to weight gain. Are your prescription medications making you fat?

"What Potions Have I Drunk?" Concerns about Diet Supplements

Each week Dr. Mehmet Oz, whose television show is seen by millions worldwide, convincingly expounds on the miracles of different dietary supplements that purport to lead to fat burning, appetite suppression, and even substantial weight loss. How much do we really know about the efficacy and safety of these compounds?