President Calvin Coolidge, Vietnam veteran activist Ron Kovic, and entertainer George M. Cohan were all born on the Fourth of July, but through no effort of their own. (Actually, Cohan was probably really born on July 3rd, so maybe there was some effort there.) But what is more interesting is who dies on the Fourth of July.

Many of the Founding Fathers lived long lives. In fact, the first four U.S. presidents--Washington, Adams, Jefferson, & Madison--plus Benjamin Franklin--lived an average of over 82 years, and they did so without the benefit of modern medical care. To the contrary, George Washington, who became seriously ill after a day's horseback ride through sleet and snow, was treated with bleedings, emetics, and enemas, and then succumbed. Of course, doctors did not know much then; they were futilely trying to balance Washington's "bodily humors." What is amazing is how much we still need to learn about staying healthy.

Two hundred years later, American presidents again tend to live very long lives, with Reagan and Ford reaching 93, and Carter and Bush senior still alive at 86 and 87. The founding fathers, like the presidents of today, lived highly stressful lives that were full of hard work. They led lives of rebellion, war, and the harshest political strife, as well as lives full of many personal tragedies. They faced the constant heavy pressures of knowing that the well-being and survival of many others were in their hands and depended upon their successes. Yet they thrived and lived long. How could this be?

In a small sample of individuals, it is impossible to know for sure, but the core of the founders' secret emerged in a 80-year study of the paths to robust health and long life. For the past 20 years, I and my colleagues have been following and analyzing the lives of over 1500 bright Americans who were first studied as children back in the 1920s. When they were about ten years old, these children were described and judged by their parents and teachers in astounding detail. They were then followed every five to ten years, regularly describing their personalities, their activities, and their accomplishments and failures. With extensive statistical analyses and numerous validation studies, The Longevity Project isolated the important individual influences on long life; and the findings turned out to fit the founding fathers in amazing correspondence.

The characteristic most basic to long life was persistence. We health researchers call it "conscientiousness" but it often comes down to planning, prudence, and persistence, persistence, persistence. Whether you like it or not, a key element to becoming a national leader, both then and now, is a powerful willingness to stick to it. Such individuals do not shun responsibility, avoid adversity, or duck hard work. They do not chill out and they do not take it easy.

One study does not prove the assertion, even when it is an 8-decade study, but more and more research is now confirming the evidence that emerged in The Longevity Project. For example, some presidents in our history were slackers, but yes, there is even a published scientific study showing a positive correlation between conscientiousness and longevity for the 32 American presidents who could be so studied.

As you might guess, some of it is will power. President Adams and President Jefferson kept themselves alive until July 4th, as did the fifth president, James Monroe (another founder, who also served in the Continental Congress). If Madison (who died June 28th) had managed to hold on for six more days, the first four post-Washington presidents would have all died on the Fourth of July. To some extent, and for limited periods, we can will ourselves to better health. But it is also much more than will power.

In The Longevity Project, we have consistently found that individuals who persevere and live a meaningful, productive life are the ones most likely to live a long and healthy life. It is not that they will themselves to good health. It is very, very difficult to heal your body through thoughts and feelings alone. Rather, persistence and productive involvement with others naturally bring a whole host of healthy behaviors, healthy psychological reactions, and healthy social relationships. The conscientious among us are more likely to succeed at work, be happy in marriage, and avoid a whole host of unhealthy behaviors. Fortunately, the good news is that one can learn to be more persistent, prudent, and planful. Those of us who live a challenging meaningful life like the Founding Fathers did will be likely to see many more happy and healthy Fourths of July.

Howard S. Friedman is Distinguished Professor at the University of California in Riverside. His latest book includes self-assessments (self-quizzes) to see how you stack up on qualities relevant to health and long life: The Longevity Project: Surprising Discoveries for Health and Long Life from the Landmark Eight-Decade Study. NY: Hudson Street Press.
© 2011 Howard S. Friedman.

About the Author

Howard S. Friedman, Ph.D.

Howard S. Friedman, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, Riverside.

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