Loneliness is a complex problem of epidemic proportions, affecting millions from all walks of life.
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Looking at Addiction as a Decision-Making Disorder
Shahram Heshmat Ph.D.
We are motivated to avoid losses than to pursue comparable gains.
It is not what we are feeling that is important but how we relate to it that matters.
One of the major goals of drug addiction treatment is to teach addicts how to deal with cravings.
A behavioral economic perspective views addiction as a consequence of falling victim to decision failures, which lead to a preference for the addictive behavior.
An important way to enhance self-control is to use our emotions to achieve challenging goals.
When we learn how and why we are vulnerable, we can develop practices that can help us improve our financial well-being.
Our ability to manage the flow of thought and emotion contributes to our happiness.
Consumers are powerfully influenced by their emotions and environmental cues, as well as by how options are presented to them.
Vulnerability to addiction can be explained by considering multilevel factors from the molecular to the societal.
Causal and counterfactual reasoning inform our judgments of causality.
Decision failures could explain why addicts pursue and consume drugs even in the face of negative consequences.
The mental contrasting strategy has four steps: wish, outcome, obstacle, and plan.
The more we disregard our longer-term interests in favor of immediate gratification, the more likely that we will have a range of behavioral problems, including addiction.
Youth with loss of control go on to experience persistent and intensified problematic eating patterns during adulthood.
Faulty thinking sheds light on the development and maintenance of BDD.
The dual-process framework of decision-making can provide some insights into the theory of delusional belief.
Everyone is in denial about something.
Motivated delusions can have psychological benefits that might lead both to the formation or maintenance of delusions.
Most of our core beliefs about the world are not based on rational and conscious choices.
Individuals with eating disorders are suffering because of an inadequate attachment with their caregivers.
Unpredictable rewards produce much larger pleasure than expected ones.
The perception of time as lasting too long is associated with too high of a cost, which leads to the selection of alternatives with more immediate outcomes.
Boredom is an unpleasant emotional state in which the individual feels a lack of interest in and difficulty concentrating on the current activity.
There is solid evidence for the link between chronic stress and the motivation to abuse addictive substances.
Emotional awareness provides insight into the working of the mind and the nature of decisions.
The basic message of behavioral economic is that humans are hard wired to make judgment errors and they need a nudge to make decisions that are in their own best interest.
From a distant perspective one sees the forest, but from a proximal perspective one sees trees.
Scarcity contributes to an interesting and a meaningful life.
A successful self-control requires that one’s goal be kept firmly in focus, and reserve the most careful decision resources for the goals that matter most.
Self-control strategies are considered key drivers of behavior change to promote healthier behavior.
Shahram Heshmat, Ph.D., is an associate professor emeritus of health economics of addiction at the University of Illinois at Springfield.