What is it for people to be modest?  Presumably, they in some way underestimate their achievements; but if they do that on purpose, they are manifesting false modesty; and if they sincerely believe what they think or express about themselves, they are mistakenly thinking or expressing that they have achieved less than they have.

Such is one perplexing philosophy puzzle which is twinned with a related paradox about shame - to be found in Do Llamas Fall in Love?  -  a discussion between Clateo Cat and modest Mena Mouse

But, failing a meta modesty test, let me guide readers at least a little interested to

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About the Author

Peter Cave

Peter Cave authors books on perplexities in philosophy—from reasoning to ethics and emotions—lectures for The Open University and New York University (London), and chairs the British Humanist Philosophers' Group.

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Philosophical Perplexities

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Modesty, meta-modesty and paradox

Can someone really be modest?