*First author is EJ Smith
Have you ever wondered why some people are so much happier working in groups than others? Or how some couples stay madly in love and remain attached to each other for decades? The answer may actually lie in their early-childhood and infancy experiences with their parents and caregivers. The research of Dr. Ruth Feldman* suggests precisely that.
In childhood, we learn to love from our interactions with our parents. It is through our parents and primary caregivers that we first develop selective attachments (in that we understand the uniqueness of certain relationships). We develop enduring attachments (in that some relationships last a very long time) attachments. Secure attachment (trusting, reciprocal relationship) in early life is a necessary process for a good social life. The ways our parents treat us in infancy lay the groundwork for our treatment of all relationships in the future, including romantic and platonic ones (Feldman, 2014). Feldman (2014) suggests that this is due to an underlying trait that influences all relationships, called synchrony.
Synchrony is the ability to coordinate actions and collaborate towards a common goal. Dr. Feldman gives the example of ants working together in an anthill. Studies have shown that these insects are able to detect certain biological cues from other members of the colony, and can use these cues to predict the behaviors and goals of the others. They then adapt their own behavior to help achieve the goals of the group (carrying food, building the anthill, etc.). Mammals exhibit the same quality, but rather than learn from chemical cues as ants do, they practice and develop synchrony in early life through interaction with and proximity to parents,.
The development of healthy synchronic bonds is the cornerstone of adaptive social life, according to Dr. Feldman. Also, unlike ants, each human synchronic bond is unique. For example, each parent-child dyad develops its own playful interactions. Similarly, spouses can become sensitive to their partner’s specific bio-social cues over time (the way she rubs her nose when upset, the way he breathes when he’s stressed, etc.). In humans, synchrony is heavily dependent on attachment, due to the personal nature of our synchronic bonds, first established with parents in early life.
Oxytocin, a neural hormone, plays an essential role in bonding and attachment. Here are some fast facts about the famous “cuddle hormone:”
It is clear how crucial a role Oxytocin plays in attachment and bonding, but what parental behaviors specifically affect this hormone’s presence in infants? Prof. Feldman offers the following examples as being especially important. These can be performed by both parents, but are more commonly done by the mother in the first few months after birth:
As humans, our relationships with others are crucial to our survival and advancement. Being able to work together and understand others is key to any group’s success, be that a family or a government. Prof. Feldman has shown how important parental behaviors toward their children can affect the child’s ability to enjoy healthy future relationships, including the adults and work colleagues we become.
Advice to parents: Show your kids affectionate attention. Cuddle with them as much as you can. You may be doing more good than you realize.
* Dr. Ruth Feldman is a Professor of Psychology at Bar-Ilan University and an adjunct professor at the Child Study Center at Yale University. She primarily researches childhood stress and trauma, development of parent-child relations, and neurological bases of communication.
Yael Apter-Levi, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman (in press). Oxytocin and Vasopressin Support Distinct Configurations of Social Synchrony. Brain research
Ruth Feldman, Esther Bamberger, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon (2013). Parent specific reciprocity from infancy to adolescence shapes children's social competence and dialogical skills, Attachment & Human Development, DOI:10.1080/14616734.2013.782650
SERIES ON CHILD FLOURISHING*
1. Kindness in Kids and the Nature-Nurture Debate (Dr. Sarina Saturn)
2. Why Synchronize and Bond With Your Children (Dr. Ruth Feldman)
3. “I want it—now!” How Children Learn Self-Control (Dr. Julie Braungart-Rieker)
4. Why Kids Should Be Protected from Toxic Stress (Dr. Bruce Perry)
5. “Mr. Mom” The Old Normal (Dr. Lee Gettler)
6. Why Dad’s “Talk” is Important (Dr. Holly Brophy-Herb)
7. Conflict in the Family: Why Mom and Dad Should Say “Sorry” (Dr. Mark Cummings)
8. Domination or Partnership? How Does Your Family Stack Up? (Dr. Riane Eisler)
9. Why Carefully Invest Daily in a Child (Dr. Robin Nelson)
SEE NEW BOOK for more on synchrony and development of self concept, Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality: Evolution, Culture and Wisdom.
INFANT SLEEP AND SLEEP TRAINING:
NOTE on BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:
When I write about human nature, I use the 99% of human genus history as a baseline. That is the context of small-band hunter-gatherers. These are “immediate-return” societies with few possessions who migrate and forage. They have no hierarchy or coercion and value generosity and sharing. They exhibit both high autonomy and high commitment to the group. They have high social wellbeing. See comparison between dominant Western culture and this evolved heritage in my article (you can download from my website):
Narvaez, D. (2013). The 99 Percent—Development and socialization within an evolutionary context: Growing up to become “A good and useful human being.” In D. Fry (Ed.), War, Peace and Human Nature: The convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views (pp. 643-672). New York: Oxford University Press.
When I write about parenting, I assume the importance of the evolved developmental niche (EDN) for raising human infants (which initially arose over 30 million years ago with the emergence of the social mammals and has been slightly altered among human groups based on anthropological research).
The EDN is the baseline I use for determining what fosters optimal human health, wellbeing and compassionate morality. The niche includes at least the following: infant-initiated breastfeeding for several years, nearly constant touch early, responsiveness to needs so the young child does not get distressed, playful companionship with multi-aged playmates, multiple adult caregivers, positive social support, and soothing perinatal experiences.
All EDN characteristics are linked to health in mammalian and human studies (for reviews, see Narvaez, Panksepp, Schore & Gleason, 2013; Narvaez, Valentino, Fuentes, McKenna & Gray, 2014; Narvaez, 2014) Thus, shifts away from the EDN baseline are risky and must be supported with longitudinal data looking at wellbeing in children and adults. My comments and posts stem from these basic assumptions.
My research laboratory has documented the importance of the EDN for child wellbeing and moral development with more papers in the works see (my Website to download papers):
Narvaez, D., Gleason, T., Wang, L., Brooks, J., Lefever, J., Cheng, A., & Centers for the Prevention of Child Neglect (2013). The Evolved Development Niche: Longitudinal Effects of Caregiving Practices on Early Childhood Psychosocial Development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28 (4), 759–773. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.003
Narvaez, D., Wang, L., Gleason, T., Cheng, A., Lefever, J., & Deng, L. (2013). The Evolved Developmental Niche and sociomoral outcomes in Chinese three-year-olds. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(2), 106-127.
Also see these books for selected reviews:
Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development (Oxford University Press)
Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution (Oxford University Press)