See co-author notes below 1, 2, 3
Charles Darwin1had high hopes for humanity. He pointed to the unique way that human evolution was driven in part by a "moral sense." Its key evolutionary features are the social instincts, taking pleasure in the company of others, and feeling sympathy for fellow humans. It was promoted by intellectual abilities, such as memory for the past and the ability to contrast one's desires with the intentions of others, leading to conscience development, and, after language acquisition, concern for the opinion of others and the community at large.
Darwin's "moral sense" is often interpreted as if these characteristics are universal among human beings.2 But empirical research demonstrates how early experience and caregiver-child relationships influence the development of community-minded maturation. Our work shows that the roots of moral functioning form early in life, in infancy, and depend on the affective quality of family3,4,5 and community support.6 Today, child rearing practices and family supports (or lack of) in the U.S. are undermining the development of the moral sense.
As indexed by a recent UNICEF study of child well-being in 21 rich countries that ranked the USA 20th in family and peer relationships and 21st in health and safety,7 by the growth of childhood problems,8,9 and by the burgeoning prison population,10 American culture may be deviating increasingly from traditional social practices that emerged in our ancestral "environment of evolutionary adaptedness" (EEA). 11 Empathy, the backbone of compassionate moral behavior, is decreasing among college students (see here).
Anthropologists, who have documented early life for young children in foraging communities (representing the EEA where the human genus is presumed to have spent 99% of its existence) note that "young children in foraging cultures are:
• "nursed frequently;
• held, touched, or kept near others almost constantly;
• frequently cared for by individuals [adults] other than their mothers (fathers and grandmothers, in particular) though seldom by older siblings;
• experience prompt responses to their fusses and cries;
• and enjoy multiage [free] play groups in early childhood." 12
• along with natural childbirth
• and 2-5 years of breastfeeding.
My laboratory and others are documenting the effects of these practices on child outcomes and finding relations to intelligence, cooperation, conscience, empathy, self-control, aggression and depression.
In fact, the way we raise our children it seems that the USA is increasingly depriving them of the practices that lead to well being and a moral sense.
• We have among the worst mother and infant mortality in the world, in part because the obstetric system is geared toward efficiency as opposed to concerns for child well-being.13
• Breastfeeding is too frequently discouraged by a medical system that routinely interferes with the establishment of breastfeeding in the first days of life.14
• Based largely on unfounded fears and extreme cases, parents are encouraged to sleep apart from their infants who often have limited physical contact with caregivers during the day.15
• Many parents believe that letting a baby cry is compatible with adequate parenting (it's not). 16
• Instead of shared care giving by extended family members, as was typical for our species,17 many children spend their early years in emotionally suboptimal daycare facilities, with little individualized, responsive care.18
• Centers and schools typically separate children into same-age groups where they are seldom allowed to play freely with each other in the natural world, interfering with healthy development of both body and brain.19
We can now map the sub-optimal consequences that arise from sub-optimal care.
• Formula fed infants have worse outcomes on every front that has been examined. 20,21
• Lack of touch and social support have detrimental effects on children's growth and development.22
• Regular caregiver neglect through non-responsiveness to infant fusses and cries, perhaps due to overstressed parents or daycare workers, promotes the development of a stressed brain that is detrimental to physical, social and moral outcomes.23, 24
• Free play, once a hallmark of childhood is now becoming scarce, despite recent findings that it is critical for maintaining mental health, developing intelligence and a fully social brain.25, 26, 27
These are just the tip of the iceberg. It is becoming increasingly clear that the ways we are rearing our children today are not the ways humans are designed to thrive. As Thomas Lewis and colleagues point out: "A good deal of modern American culture is an extended experiment in the effects of depriving people of what they crave most." (A General Theory of Love).
The ill effects of these missing ancestral practices are becoming evident as children's well being is worse than 50 years ago.28 Characteristics that used to be limited to a subset of the population from neglect and abuse are becoming mainstream. Too many children are arriving at school with poor social skills, poor emotion regulation, and habits that do not promote prosocial behaviors or life success.
• The USA has epidemics of anxiety and depression among the young, indeed all age groups, and these are real numbers not artifacts of increased diagnosis.29
• Rates of young children whose behavior displays aggression, delinquency, or hyperactivity are estimated to be as high as 25%.30
• The expulsion rate of prekindergarten children31 and the number of children under age 5 with psychosocial problems32 or on psychotropic medications have increased dramatically.33
• Ten years ago, it was determined that one of four teenagers was at risk for a poor life outcome34 and trends have not improved.35
Although we can continue to minimize these problems and the risks in childrearing we are taking, the negative trajectories in well-being among children in the USA suggest that a reexamination of our cultural practices is needed. To the extent that our kids are not fully functioning threads in the social fabric, the quality of our cultural moral fiber is diminishing.
What Darwin considered the moral-engine of positive human thriving may be under threat. Ill-advised practices and beliefs have become normalized without much fanfare, such as the common use of infant formula, the isolation of infants in their own rooms, the belief that responding too quickly to a fussing baby is spoiling it, the placing of infants in impersonal daycare, and so on. We recommend that scientists and citizens step back from and reexamine these common culturally accepted practices and pay attention to potential life-time effects on people. It is an ethical issue.
Don't blame mothers. Before the last decades, mothers were never alone in raising children, they always had the extended family and friends on a daily basis. The responsibility for child rearing belongs to the whole community in how it sets up neighborhoods (e.g., is it easy for children to play outside in nature), workplace life (is there daycare where moms can nurse), policies that support families (like paid parental leave after a child is born), and school practices (is there frequent recess). We can change our culture again to support children and families. Perhaps the greatest challenge is that many of us were raised in less-than-ideal conditions and we think we turned out just fine. We are the frogs in the pot that started out in cold water. Now that the water is hot, we can't jump out.
For more information on the latest research, check out the symposium, Human Nature and Early Experience (Oct 10-12, 2010, at the University of Notre Dame), which brings together top scholars from around the world. Even UNESCO is having a World Conference on Early Childhood Care and Education in September, 2010.
For more information on how to care for babies and young children, check out these resources:
For more on Darwin's moral sense, see David Loye's groundbreaking work, Darwin's Lost Theory of Love
POSTS ON PARENTING ISSUES AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT:
INFANT SLEEP AND SLEEP TRAINING:
SERIES ON CHILD FLOURISHING*
1. Kindness in Kids and the Nature-Nurture Debate (Dr. Sarina Saturn)
2. Why Synchronize and Bond With Your Children (Dr. Ruth Feldman)
3. “I want it—now!” How Children Learn Self-Control (Dr. Julie Braungart-Rieker)
4. Why Kids Should Be Protected from Toxic Stress (Dr. Bruce Perry)
5. “Mr. Mom” The New (or Old?) Normal (Dr. Lee Gettler)
6. Why Dad’s “Talk” is Important (Dr. Holly Brophy-Herb)
7. Conflict in the Family: Why Mom and Dad Should Say “Sorry” (Dr. Mark Cummings)
8. Domination or Partnership? How Does Your Family Stack Up? (Dr. Riane Eisler)
9. Why Carefully Invest Daily in a Child (Dr. Robin Nelson)
ALSO SEE: What is Child Flourishing?
NOTE on BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:
When I write about human nature, I use the 99% of human genus history as a baseline. That is the context of small-band hunter-gatherers. These are “immediate-return” societies with few possessions who migrate and forage. They have no hierarchy or coercion and value generosity and sharing. They exhibit both high autonomy and high commitment to the group. They have high social wellbeing. See comparison between dominant Western culture and this evolved heritage in my article (you can download from my website):
Narvaez, D. (2013). The 99 Percent—Development and socialization within an evolutionary context: Growing up to become “A good and useful human being.” In D. Fry (Ed.), War, Peace and Human Nature: The convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views (pp. 643-672). New York: Oxford University Press.
When I write about parenting, I assume the importance of the evolved developmental niche (EDN) for raising human infants (which initially arose over 30 million years ago with the emergence of the social mammals and has been slightly altered among human groups based on anthropological research).
The EDN is the baseline I use for determining what fosters optimal human health, wellbeing and compassionate morality. The niche includes at least the following: infant-initiated breastfeeding for several years, nearly constant touch early, responsiveness to needs so the young child does not get distressed, playful companionship with multi-aged playmates, multiple adult caregivers, positive social support, and soothing perinatal experiences.
All EDN characteristics are linked to health in mammalian and human studies (for reviews, see Narvaez, Panksepp, Schore & Gleason, 2013; Narvaez, Valentino, Fuentes, McKenna & Gray, 2014; Narvaez, 2014) Thus, shifts away from the EDN baseline are risky and must be supported with longitudinal data looking at wellbeing in children and adults. My comments and posts stem from these basic assumptions.
My research laboratory has documented the importance of the EDN for child wellbeing and moral development with more papers in the works see (my Website to download papers):
Narvaez, D., Gleason, T., Wang, L., Brooks, J., Lefever, J., Cheng, A., & Centers for the Prevention of Child Neglect (2013). The Evolved Development Niche: Longitudinal Effects of Caregiving Practices on Early Childhood Psychosocial Development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28 (4), 759–773. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.003
Narvaez, D., Wang, L., Gleason, T., Cheng, A., Lefever, J., & Deng, L. (2013). The Evolved Developmental Niche and sociomoral outcomes in Chinese three-year-olds. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(2), 106-127.
Also see these books for selected reviews:
Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development (Oxford University Press)
Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution (Oxford University Press)
1 Darcia Narvaez, Department of Psychology, 118 Haggar Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; firstname.lastname@example.org; forthcoming book with W.W. Norton, The Neurobiology and Development of Human Morality.
2 Jaak Panksepp, Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, Washington State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99162; email@example.com; author of Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions (Oxford).
3 Allan Schore, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, 9817 Sylvia Ave, Northridge, CA 91324; firstname.lastname@example.org; author of Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self (Erlbaum).
1. Darwin, C. (1871/1981). The Descent of Man. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
2. Krebs, D. (2008). Morality: An evolutionary account. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(3). 149-172.
3. Kochanska, G. (2002). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: A context for the early development of conscience. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 191-195.
4. Schore, A.N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.
5. Narvaez, D. (2008). Triune ethics: the neurobiological roots of our multiple moralities. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 95-119.
6. Hostetler, J.A. (1993). Amish Society, 4th Ed.. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
7. UNICEF (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries, a comprehensive assessment of the lives and well-being of children and adolescents in the economically advanced nations. Report Card 7. Florence, Italy: United Nations Children's Fund Innocenti Research Centre.
8. Felitti, V. J. & R. F. Anda. (2005). The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Kaiser Permanente.
9. Sanchez, M.M., Ladd, C.O., & Plotsky, P.M. (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13 (3), 419-449.
10. Pew Center on the States (April, 2008). One in 100: Behind Bars in America. Washington, D.C.: Pew Charitable Trusts.
11. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss Vol 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
12. Hewlett, B.S., & Lamb, M.E. (2005). Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine, p. 15.
13. Wagner, M. (2006). Born in the USA: How a broken maternity system must be fixed to put women and children first. Berkeley: University of California Press.
14. CDC Centers for Disease Control (2008). Breastfeeding-Related Maternity Practices at Hospitals and Birth Centers --- United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57(23), 621-625.
15. Gessner, B.D., Ives, G.C., Perham-Hester, K.A. (2001). Association between sudden infant death syndrome and prone sleeping position, bed sharing, and sleeping outside an infant crib in Alaska. Pediatrics, 108, 923-927.
16. Gethin, A., & Macgregor, B. (2009). Helping baby sleep: The Science and Practice of Gentle bedtime parenting. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
17. Hrdy, S. B. (2009). Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
18. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Early Child Care Research Network (2003). Does Amount of Time Spent in Child Care Predict Socioemotional Adjustment During the Transition to Kindergarten? Ann Arbor, MI: Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
19. Miller, E., & Almon, J. (2009). Crisis in the Kindergarten-Why Children Need to Play in School. College Park, MD: Alliance for Childhood.
20. American Academy of Pediatrics Work Group on Breastfeeding (1997). Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk Policy statement. Pediatrics, 100(6), 1035-1039.
21. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding (2005). Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics, 115(2), 496-506.
22. Cushing, B.S., & Kramer, K.M. (2005). Mechanisms underlying epigenetic effects of early social experience: The role of neuropeptides and steroids. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(7), 1089-1105.
23. Anisman, H., Zaharia, M.D., Meaney, M.J., & Merali, Z. (1998). Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors? International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 16(3-4), 149-164.
24. Cirulli, F., Berry, A., & Alleva, E. (2002). Early disruption of the mother-infant relationship: Effects on brain plasticity and implications for psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 272, 73-82.
25. Schore, A.N. (Ed.) (2001). Contributions from the decade of the brain in infant mental health. Special issue of Infant mental Health Journal, 22, 1-269
26. Sunderland, M. (2006). The science of parenting. London: DK Publishing Inc.
27. Panksepp, J., (2007). Can PLAY diminish ADHD and facilitate the construction of the social brain. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10: 57-66.
28. Heckman, J. (2008). Schools, skills and synapses. IZA DP No. 3515. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.
29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
30. Raver, C. C., & Knitze, J. (2002). "Ready to enter: What research tells policymakers about strategies to promote social and emotional school readiness among three- and four-year-old children." New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.
31. Gilliam, W.S. (2005). Prekindergarteners left behind: Expulsion rates in state prekindergarten systems. New Haven, CT: Yale University Child study Center.
32. Powell, D., Fixen, D., & Dunlop, G. (2003). "Pathways to service utilization: A synthesis of evidence relevant to young children with challenging behavior." University of South Florida: Center for Evidence-based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior.
33. Zito, J., Safer, D., dosRies, S., Gardener, J., Boles, M., & Lynch, F. (2000). Trends in prescribing psychotropic medications to preschoolers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1025-1030.
34. Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine.
35. Heckman, J. (2008). Schools, skills and synapses. IZA DP No. 3515. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.